manioc (sweet)

Semantic Field
flora-fauna
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
yuca, caribe
Meaning Portuguese
macaxeira

Languages

Language Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
Akawaio Manihot esculenta kaknarii kaʔnari doubtful loan Akawaio, Pemon Arawak; shared Pemon Likely relationship to Arawak kani- forms; e.g. Achagua ké:niru. Also kaʔnari (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Baniwa Manihot esculenta kapíwali kapíwaɺi, múɺhui (FS), kiníkhii (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch (?) Shared Piapoco. Also káini (FS), múɺhui (FS), kiníkhii (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Carijona Manihot esculenta wɨi missing Also hara ('manioc' H&R) Broader (manioc in general) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo Manihot esculenta ãicʉica ãikʉika unknown other complex Unidentified morpheme ãi + kʉi 'manioc' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
Dâw Manihot esculenta yaák yaá’ jǎk jǎʔ unique 'manioc grill' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano Manihot esculenta kĩ kĩ missing Proto-Tukanoan Possible semantic shift? Broader (manioc in general) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
Eñepa Manihot esculenta amaka (sweet) (MM) amaka (sweet) (MM) sweet manioc inheritance Possibly related to source of Pt macaxeira? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
Guayabero Manihot esculenta báva, báwa, báw (Keels 1985) baw inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram, Aimee Lawrence, Amanda Meeks
Hodï Manihot esculenta ale missing generic? Achagua "á:liri", but other Arawak terms are distinct uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
Waorani Manihot esculenta kẽnẽ loan North Arawak kai-ni uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
Hup Manihot esculenta kayak wæ̌d ('manioc eat') kajak-wæ̌d unique Hup-Yuhup manioc-eat' compound manioc-eat See Language page 0 1 0 cultivated women boiled; mostly used as additive in beer 0 0 attained through exchange with Tukanoans Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Pattie Epps
Kakua Manihot esculenta ~tûj-daʔ ~tûj-daʔ [manioc-cl.round] unique generic term manioc-cl.round Broader (manioc generic) underived daʔ = round See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Katherine Bolaños
Macaguan Manihot esculenta báuja báuha inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Makushi Manihot esculenta kɨséra (generic manioc) kɨséra (generic manioc) missing May be source of Pt macaxeira (sweet manioc); may also be related (old loan?) to Arawak kani- forms Broader (manioc) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu Manihot esculenta makaxera makaxera loan Found Urubu-Kaapor, Asurini (with note saying a Port loan); other TG lgs have 'manioc-sweet'. Also found in Arawak. Could be a loan in TG, certainly a loan into other lgs. No info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam Manihot esculenta watim kok (EM72) watim kok inheritance underived kok = "root, tuber" Goodwin-Gomez 90 See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
Maihiki Manihot esculenta jaso ja xãso xã inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Pemon Manihot esculenta kanari (A1981); kaknarii (E1980) kanaɾi (A1981); kaʔnari (E1980) doubtful loan Akawaio, Pemon Arawak; shared Akawaio Likely relationship to Arawak kani- forms; e.g. Achagua ké:niru. Also kaʔnari (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro Manihot esculenta káǰíigí kádʒíigí semantic shift? prob. from 'potato' Compare forms for 'potato' in Arawak lgs. Likely loan into Carib, see Makiritari kɨde:de, Pemon kanari uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
Sanumá Manihot esculenta walemo koko (EM72) walemo koko (EM72) unknown uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
Sikuani Manihot esculenta bawa (2), kokobawa (24), báːwa inheritance also kokobawa (24) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
Tariana Manihot esculenta kiníki kiníki unknown maybe from 'bitter manioc' Compare forms for 'potato' in Arawak lgs. Likely loan into Carib, see Makiritari kɨde:de, Pemon kanari uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
Tukano Manihot esculenta kií kií missing Proto-Tukanoan Possible semantic shift? Broader (generic manioc) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana Manihot esculenta makaʃiɽi makaʃiɽi loan Carib 'amaka sera' = 'sweet manioc' Found in some TG languages and in Warekena; probably a loan from TG, but inherited status in that group is unclear. See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
Yanomam Manihot esculenta watim kok (EM72); nashi (WS76); raparima ("long"), uxirima ("black"), yãhihirima ("sticky") (all WM99, nom. Class. Koko); witatirima (WM99 - sweet manioc generic term, nom class: si) watim kok; naʃi; ɾapaɾima, uʃiɾima, jãhihiɾima, witatiɾima inheritance nashi (WS76); raparima ("long"), uxirima ("black"), yãhihirima ("sticky") (all WM99, nom. Class. Koko); witatirima (WM99 - sweet manioc generic term, nom class: si); koko = CLF "round tuber" (Ferreira) uncoded si, koko koko="round tuber" (Ferreira) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
Yanomami Manihot esculenta nashi mɨhɨtarimɨ sikɨ, naʃi mɨhɨtaɾimɨ sikɨ (M. dulcis) unique phrase yuca+not.bitter-nominalizer+CLF sikɨ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
Yukuna Manihot esculenta parí paɾí unknown cf. other Arawak terms relating to manioc, flatbread uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Aimee L., PLE
Yuhup Manihot esculenta jak wǽd ('manioc eat') jak wǽd unique Hup-Yuhup 'manioc eat' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Achagua Manihot esculenta ké:niru ké:niru semantic shift? from bitter/generic manioc See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Piapoco Manihot esculenta capìeli kapìeli See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena Manihot esculenta makasera makasera See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi Manihot esculenta mãrioka mãdjiuka loan Portuguese or Tupi-Guarani See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure Manihot esculenta ka'ha- ka'ha- missing bitter/sweet not distinct? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Anissa Capuccino
Bora Manihot esculenta pʰákʰʸoómï pʰákʰʲoómɯ inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Muinane Manihot esculenta fáicúumɨɨ (W97) ɸáikúumɨɨ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Wayana Manihot esculenta tapakula tapakula unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
Mapoyo Manihot esculenta amaka amaka See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai Manihot esculenta šeere; saraΦu šeere; saraΦu missing generic? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo Manihot esculenta kusiugu kusiugu inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Joyce McCormick
Cofán Manihot esculenta a´mba aʔmba See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Candoshi-Shapra Manihot esculenta kazinzi (not specified as sweet or bitter) kaʂinʂi loan Arawak? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Taushiro Manihot esculenta shie (not specified as sweet or bitter) ʃiɨ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Tikuna Manihot esculenta tô-é (Alv44) toʔé unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina Manihot esculenta laano (not specified as bitter or sweet) la:no unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa Manihot esculenta bʃendɨ́-ɕe (‘general’) bʃendɨ́-ɕe (‘general’) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Andoke Manihot esculenta pãẽ́pa pãẽ́pa unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé Manihot esculenta bai 'manioc, sweet/bitter' (Lin97); tãbɛ (tapioca, manioc; IDS) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave Manihot esculenta uõk-nɤʔ uõgnɤʔ unknown cf. TG See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar Manihot esculenta máma mama See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Huambisa Manihot esculenta mama mama See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Aguaruna Manihot esculenta yujúmak, máma juxúmak, máma unknown; loan, direction unknown (into protolg?) Boran and Araona terms for 'manioc food/bread', e.g. Bora (archaic) maʔmá-ɯ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Matses Manihot esculenta pachid patʃid inheritance? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Yagua Manihot esculenta jasuche xasutʃe doubtful loan W. Tukanoan, e.g. Orejon xãso See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua Manihot esculenta lumu lumu See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Ingá Manihot esculenta rumu (not specified as bitter or sweet) rúmu (‘general’, H&R) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua Manihot esculenta lumu (not specified as bitter or sweet) lumu See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano Manihot esculenta rumu (CP94) rumu See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa Manihot esculenta ahtá ɨ'reh (K76) ahtá ɨʔreh doubtful loan Carib uto 'manioc food' forms See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Sáliva Manihot esculenta piquilla pikidʒa unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Becky Walker
Siriano Manihot esculenta ñumúducʉ (type of yuca) ɲumúdukɨ (type of yuka) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Amanda Meeks
Koreguaje Manihot esculenta ã'sova ãʔsoba inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
Siona Manihot esculenta ja'nso, quëi haʔnso, kɨi inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Ocaina Manihot esculenta bóójin bóóhin unknown See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto Manihot esculenta ma.íka(hï) ma.íka(hɯ) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto Manihot esculenta má.ika(hï) má.ika(hɯɯ) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Manihot esculenta ma.ika, fareca ma.ika, ɸareka (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito Manihot esculenta asúraaja (Manihot esculenta) asúraaha (Manihot esculenta) unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Cjnthia Hansen
Záparo Manihot esculenta mu+ha muɨha See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Becky Walker
Wari Manihot esculenta ʔiri kop (Sousa2009) ʔiri kop (Sousa2009) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
Central Aymara Manihot esculenta yuka (loan) yuka See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
Trumai Manihot esculenta maisauarɨ maisauarɨ See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebekah L. Evans, PLE