Piaroa

Family
Saliban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pid
Location
4.42°, -67.76°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Krisólogo B., Pedro J. 1976. Manual glotológico del idioma wo'tiheh. (Lenguas indígenas de Venezuela, 16.) Caracas: Centro de lenguas Indigenas, Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas, Universidad Católica "Andr'es Bello". Krute, D.L. 1989. Piaroa nominal morphosemantics. Ph.D. Dissertation. Columbia University. Monsonyi, E. E. 2000. Elementos gramaticales del idioma piaroa. M.S. González de Pérez & M.L. Rodríguez de Montes (eds.) Lenguas indígenas de Colombia: una visión descriptiva: 657-668. Santafé de Bogotá: ICC.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location wE'mena' (K76) wæʔmenaʔ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
and y e grammar ã' ãɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment añari'ca', ohkura ɨ'ca'pheh (K76) aɲariʔsaʔ, ohkura ɨʔsaʔpheh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location denE', nE', n denæɁ, næɁ, n See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
back espalda costas body aheha yó'toh (K76) aheha yóʔtoh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality suropa sũɾ̃ɔphã unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body chukwäma tʃukwæma unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location de'E'anɨh (K76) deʔæʔanɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
big grande grande quality buo buɔ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
black negro preto colour idikwa'a idikwaʔa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body chukwoja tʃukwɔha inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body pe'bi'tu'yuh (K76) peʔbiʔtuʔyuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body chiwe'ka tʃwekʔa unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body kahtEteh (K76) kahtæteh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human ji'kichawa hĩ̃kʔĩtʃãwã unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment ahiya i'co'phah (K76) ahija iʔtsoʔphah unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality diyawa'a dijawaʔa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ɨ'co'peɨ'nE, co'peɨ'nE' (K76) ɨʔtsoʔpeɨʔnæ, coʔpeɨʔnæʔ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
day día dia time moro m ̃ɔr̃ɔ doubtful loan Witotoan mona See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality i'dikua'a' (K76) iʔdikuaʔaʔ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality joa'a hɔaʔa unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment rehé'i'capheh (K76) rehéʔiʔtsapheh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body chäja (oído) tʃæ̃hã unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment redä'kä redækʔæ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna iyä ijæ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body chi'äjäre tʃiʔæhæɾe unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality ohtoh (K76) ohtoh inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body ade ãdẽ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship čá'oh tʃá'oh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna ujwabiyä uhwabijæ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment okurä ɔkuɾæ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment e'u', e'u'thɨh orquídea eɁuɁ, eɁu'thɨh orkídea unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ohku i'ko'phah ohku iɁkoɁphah See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora u'wEhu o'báh uɁwæhu oɁbáh inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality adiwa'a ɑdiwɑʔɑ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body chuwo'che tʃuwotsʔe inheritance cf. Hodi tuuwë See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hand mano mão body chumu tʃũmu inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar jwau hwãũ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body huˈuh huɁuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality hamáka'aˈ hamákaɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
how? como como grammar hua'u kO'ra'nɨh huaɁu kɤɁraɁnɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar tjü thɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
if si se grammar See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ha'kuE' haɁkuæɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body uhkuámE', wa'ća ecehuh (K76) uhkuámæʔ, waʔtʃ'a etʃehuh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment ojiyä ɤhijæ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ći'o'wehke'a' s'iɁoɁwehkeɁaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body tɨhtárema' tɨhtáremaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ku'u'pakua'a' kuɁuɁpakuaɁaɁ unique cf. thunder See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body chatjiyä tʃɑthijæ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality ohta'a ohtaɁa unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kʰ'ɨ'ɨ kʰ'ɨʔɨ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human chimi, ubo tʃĩmi, ubɤ unique; inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna chidepä tʃidepæ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment j'o'dok'äwa yo'dok'æwa unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ahúh (K76) ahúh (K76) unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body chä tʃæ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
name nombre nome human wã'bẽ́ wã'bẽ́ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality tɨk'ɨh tɨkɁɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body curupækæ tʃurupækæ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality jareü hɑɾeɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
night noche noite time yodo jɤdɤ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar hE'kuah hæɁkuah unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body chijyu tʃɨ̃hĩjũ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality täbo isa tæbɤ ĩsɑ̃ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
one uno um number yatetä jɑ̃tẽt̃æ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar ka'rã' kaɁrãɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body na'wáća'á', wáɨ'ya pe'ɨ'ɨh naɁwás'aɁáɁ, wáɨɁja peɁɨɁɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human tjüja isa thɨhɑ̃ ĩsɑ̃ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment ahiya' ahijaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour tua'a tũɑ̃ ʔɑ̃ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture mänä mæ̃næ̃ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora dau uwäyupjä dau uwæjuphæ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality kuai'ca'a kuaiɁsaɁa unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment reba rẽb̃ã unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ća'énpuɨh huná'wa'a s'aɁénpuɨh hunáɁwaɁa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
short corto curto quality beá'a' beáɁaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ne'Eriha'ah (K76) neʔærihaʔah unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
skin piel pele body chijeta tʃĩhẽtã unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment morojä morohæ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality ji'kichawa hĩkʔĩtʃãwã unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment okurä isopja ɤkuɾæ isɤpha unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment siri'ko siɾikʔɤ loan Carib See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ra'uh, dáuh (palo, tree) raɁuh, dáuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment ido'ki idɤʔki unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body iwiripa ĩwĩɾĩpʔã unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar chuja tʃuha unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar jwätü hwætũ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality baréhpa' baréhpaɁ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality aña'wa' añaɁwaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar pide pide unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar uku uku inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body ahkua ka'rána' ahkua kaɁránaɁ loan Spanish? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
three tres tres number wämetúkwä wæme'tukwæ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment ku'u'pE kue'ɨh kuɁuɁpæ kueɁɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bite morder morder body ñi'éhuh ñiɁéhuh inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body phuɨ'ɨh phuɨɁɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body huEpuɨh (K76) huæpuɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment kuõ'i'ihkuEhuh kuõɁiɁihkuæhuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ćE'ɨh s'æɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion ćo'acih s'oɁakih unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
come venir vir motion ɨhćɨh ɨhs'ɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ichü iʧɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
count contar contar mental hi'euh, pahántɨh hiɁeuh, pahántɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental ahE'uh ahæ'uh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kwi'opü kwi'ɤpɯ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state korupäi'ü kʔɔɾupæiʔɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental kohtɨ'kuéhɨh kohtɨɁkuéhɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body awu awu inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
eat comer comer body ku ku unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion moa'ćéh moaɁs'éh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental ye'e'kua' jeɁeɁkuaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion yuhcá'ćia'a' juhk'áɁs'ɁiaɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion ko'ü kɤʔɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state bui'o hue'ɨh buiɁo hueɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental äjuku æ̃hũkũ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion daha'wa'ćih dahaɁwaɁs'ih doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact he'a' ca'a' heɁaɁ saɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ću'wEdɨh s'uɁwædɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact kwä'ü iku kuæʔɨ iku unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental wojwa wɤ̃hw̃ɑ̃ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion a'ekuahtih (K76) aʔekuahtih doubtful loan Arawak kua See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hɨ'ɨh hɨɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pa'tápuɨh paɁtápuɨh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental péɨh, pEɨ'ɨh, pEéɨh, pe'ɨh péɨh, pæɨɁɨh, pæéɨh, peɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact ka'rEuh kaɁræuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
see ver ver mental tópu tɤpu unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact pho'ɨh phoɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state pa'bãnih paɁbãnih unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body ä'ü æʔɨ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body kɨrɨ'puɨh kɨrɨɁpuɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body ću'uh s'uɁuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact nukuáe'uh nukuáeɁuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wi' hepui'nE ke'wɨ' wiɁ hepuiɁnæ keɁwɨɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other na'ukuh naɁukuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body rahádɨ'ɨh rahádɨɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body riá'di'a'a' riáɁdiɁaɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion wechapu wetʃtapũ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ɨhkúh, wɨ'ɨh ɨhkúh, wɨɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact nɨ'kɨh nɨɁkɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ka'rEuh kaɁræuh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body e'do'wa' eɁdoɁwaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion kweächü kweʔætʃɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other a'dɨ'tɨh aɁdɨɁtɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body a'ya e'puɨh aɁja eɁpuɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body chine tʃine unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body chaku tʃaku unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
two dos dois number taju tãjũ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
water agua agua environment ajiya ahija unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ujutu uhutu inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar däje dæhe unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar ko'me'na' koɁmeɁnaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar te'nehE' teɁnehæɁ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour tea'a teaʔa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar di di inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship ihthɨ'muɨh tahúh ihthɨɁmuɨh tahúh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment ɨ'cphah ɨɁsphah unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
wing ala asa body ɨhá'bE' ɨháɁbæɁ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human isaju isahu unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tua'a tũãʔã unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ukutu ukutu inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
foot pie body chijepu tʃĩhẽpũ inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
all todo todos other k'atoi'ü kɑtoiɨ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ɨ'name'a' ɨɁnameɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body (your feces) tjäsikje tʰæsikʰe unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body cupʰærepʰa tʃupʰærepʰa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body ahéri'waćɨ'ɨh ahériɁwas'ɨɁɨh inheritance? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ihki'wá'a' (K76) ihkiʔwáʔaʔ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment dau ijeta dau ĩhẽtã inheritance? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body t'onheh tɁonheh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body chami iso'ki tʃɑ̃mi isɔkʔi unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sun sol sol time kjäwa khæ̃wã unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment muɨ'Ek'a' muɨɁEkɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
green verde verde quality jatua'a hɑtuɑʔa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality dua'a duaʔa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. kohuæ kohuæ inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna pʰiyuæ pʰiyuæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ɨhúreh (K76) ɨhúreh inheritance See Language page Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. yahO', yahóh (K76) jahɔʔ, jahóh unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans kuahtá' (K76) kuahtáʔ unknown See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. t'émɨh (K76) t'émɨh doubtful loan cf. West Tukanoan See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae jiude hiude unique See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae tirɨh (K76) tirɨh doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Tiriyo atura See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ɨhthirihih 'buho', huara'ra' 'lechuza' (K76) ɨhthirihih 'buho', huaraʔraʔ 'lechuza' unique See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ha'wóh (K76) haʔwóh unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica pa'dá' (K76) pa'dá' unknown See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae onúkuh (K76) onúkuh loan - WW %motkuku See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae pa'réh (K76) pa'réh unknown see Hodɨ bole See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae missing See Language page Widespread South America Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pátu'bi (Sp) (K76) pátuʔbi (Sp) loan Spanish See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba raca te'á' (K76) , ækæɾæ (Zamponi) ratsa teʔáʔ, ækæɾæ (Zamponi unique; loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae phehé'phɨ' (K76) phehéʔphɨʔ unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ɨ'wɨrɨh ɨɁwɨrɨh unknown See Language page Not native; widespread Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ñuhúh (K76) ɲuhúh unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri akuá (R95) akʷa unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. buoiwa (R95) buoiwa (R95) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ku'wE', wãporah (K76) kuʔwæʔ, wãporah unknown See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pOɨ'cah pɤɨɁsah inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. a'nacih aɁnasih See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae kari'be', ma'buɨh kariɁbeɁ, maɁbuɨh doubtful loan possibly from karib See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. tãćéh tãsɁéh See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. nɨ'ɨ'wa' nɨɁɨɁwaɁ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. nɨ'ɨ'wa' (K76) nɨʔɨʔwaʔ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura weuæ weuʷæ See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. hu'ba'wa huɁbaɁwa inheritance See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata mehé ka'tephah mehé kaɁtephah unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. cibárih sibárih loan - WW Carib See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes da'Eh daʔæh See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae ca'rúra' saɁrúraɁ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna wiriät'erä; ahkáh (K76) wiriæt'eræ, ahkáh doubtful loan Carib See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria buɨ're'reh, buɨá're'reh buɨɁreɁreh, buɨáɁreɁreh unknown See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis muñé, muje (R95) muñé, muje (R95) loan Arawak, e.g. Piapoco/Achagua múja See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. ne'ne'a (K76) neʔneʔa doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Witoto? cf. Murui neere See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa warɨ'mE' (K76) warɨʔmæʔ unique See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea pho'E' (K76) phoʔæʔ unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pahá'rɨh paháɁrɨh loan - WW %pipiri See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua puɨ'orɨh puɨɁorɨh See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) pujäi puhæi inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra reuwa reuwa See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens ra'ahthéh raɁahthéh inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ka'ná kaɁná unknown possibly from TG nana? See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. tukusibi tukusʷi'bi unique See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. herú'we' herúɁweɁ unknown See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) baˈwi'pahk'uáˈ baɁwiɁpahkɁuáˈ unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays (ear of corn) namɨt'ä namut'æ inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hæt'e(i)sohæ hæt'e(i)sohæ unique See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna dau dau inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana muɨñɨh muɨñɨh inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. wípo'ruE' (K76) wípoɁruæɁ unknown cf. Arawak wiru, Nukak See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ɨ'cá'bE'(K76) ɨɁsáɁbæɁ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] idíkua' idíkuaɁ See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana naćá'phah nasáɁphah unknown See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. t'oruh tɁoruh See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui i'cokɨh iɁsokɨh See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ñɨñɨ'ɨ'reh (K76) ɲɨɲɨʔɨʔreh unique See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ahtá ɨ'reh (K76) ahtá ɨʔreh doubtful loan Carib uto 'manioc food' forms See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum ća'oh saɁoh See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas wi'ria' (K76) wiʔriaʔ unknown See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. huá'reh huáɁreh See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wayá'keh wajáɁkeh See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. wayá'keh wajáɁkeh doubtful loan Carib See Language page plant Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. wi'phuh wiɁphuh See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. i'c'ta' wo'dúh iɁsɁtaɁ woɁdúh unknown See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi tuwipae tuwipae loan - WW %tuipa See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola niphoh niphoh See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic ic'tɨh isɁtɨh See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae i'cotɨh (K76) iʔkotɨh See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ahkúE' ahkúæɁ unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ma'yáhtɨh, ma'yá' maɁjáhtɨh, maɁjáɁ unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria tuhkuá kuahkua' tuhkuá kuahkuaɁ unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae awéntih nɨehtukeh awéntih nɨehtukeh unknown cf. %tjuku See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera herépE' herépæɁ unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora wi'ah wiɁah unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda wa'ča'c'a waɁtsaɁsɁa See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ɨ'dɨyuh ɨɁdɨjuh inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea bɨk'ɨ'thɨh bɨkɁɨɁthɨh unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera na'nɨeh naɁnɨeh unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. cæwo tsæwo unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera i'ćtuo'mɨh iɁs'tuoɁmɨh unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita pEhũh pæhũh inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kʰæriou kʰæriou doubtful loan Arawak kera- forms See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae éu'keh éuɁkeh inheritance See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca weñapa yavi (R95) yæwi loan Arawak jawi See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. he'miña' heɁmiñaɁ See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha kapáru (R95) kapáru (R95) loan - WW %kaparu See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] imú (R95) imú (R95) doubtful loan Tukanoan See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella c'ik'a c'ik'a unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons jichú (R95) jichú (R95) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus baráta (R95) baráta (R95) loan Carib, cf. Yukpa poróto See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae yaváre; yäväre (R95) javáre; jævære (R95) loan - WW See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis täu (R95) tæu (R95) See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis iwɨrɨ'ahéca, mɨkuɨbɨh iwɨrɨɁahésa, mɨkuɨbɨh unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu maquíra (R95) makíra (R95) loan Carib See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari imé (R95) imé (R95) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae käya (coendou prehensilis), käriyäi (sphiggurus insidiosus) (R95) kæja (coendou prehensilis), kærijæi (sphiggurus insidiosus) (R95) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua dáwo (R95) dáwo (R95) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. äkuri æk'uri loan Carib See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris wa'u (R95) wa'u (R95) unknown See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) jará (R95) jará (R95) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kæsiri kæsiri unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris owo; bupoña (R95) owʰo doubtful loan, direction unknown Hodi See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus sewáya, mejaca ñama (R95) næiæ unknown; loan (into protolg?) Tukanoan See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus mu'úro' muɁúroɁ See Language page Paulina Franco, Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ɨ'cá'keah ɨɁsáɁkeah unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material pãhãntɨh pãhãntɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material ka'má' kaɁmáɁ loan Spanish See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material wEri'cah wæriɁsah unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material deEkia' deækiaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport wOik'a' wɤikɁaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology waná'wɨh (K76) wanáʔwɨh (K76) unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology mEríh mæríh loan N. Arawak *mali- In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology mErí', me'ñeuh, pɨ'ɨh mæríɁ, meɁñeuh, pɨɁɨh Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material wahtá be'čuɨh wahtá beɁtsuɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tɨk'ata'wE tiñɨ'ɨh tɨkɁataɁwæ tiñɨɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other emuɨhunúh, muɨ'epuɨh emuɨhunúh, muɨɁepuɨh unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other mɨ' mɨɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology büoka bɨõka unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tereterena tereterena doubtful loan Tukanoan multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material na'wo'da' naɁwoɁdaɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material kurak'a'a kurakɁaɁa unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool da'pEk'eh daʔpækʔeh unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool p'oari p'oari unique hunting, warfare See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dahkuo'da' dahkuoɁdaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool p'o'obü p'o'o'bɨ unique arco See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport kuaɨ'bo'da' kuaɨɁboɁdaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material carma' sarmaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool karɨh karɨh doubtful loan - WW %parapi, via Achagua karahi See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material caránba'ya, carámna' saránbaɁja, sarámnaɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ränij'u ræniyu unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ihtanéhah ihtanéhah unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
honey miel mel food ma'yah (K76) maʔjah doubtful loan Arawak mapa only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture a'núcoh aɁnúsoh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material wE'módeh 'roof' (K76) wæʔmódeh 'roof' unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology uutjäwä uutʰæwæ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation huya'ro pahkué wo'dE' hujaɁro pahkué woɁdæɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation i'cE'nuh iɁsæɁnuh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation kuyáru ɨ'chE' kujáru ɨɁshEɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kohtɨ'kuéhɨh kohtɨɁkuéhɨh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ahkE'ra' ahkæɁraɁ loan - WW %takara See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wahtmeh wahtmeh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other hahthé hua'wak'a' hahthé huaɁwakɁaɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation a'cúka ɨcá'pheh aɁsúka ɨcsáɁpheh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tik'ata'wE tɨ'ñɨ'ɨh tikɁataɁwæ tɨɁñɨɁɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress capátuk' (singular) capátukɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation ćura'nau'icah s'uraɁnauɁisah See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation čurado ɨ'ca' (K76) tʃurado ɨʔtsaʔ loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation mi'cih miɁsih loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ur'we'ah urɁweɁah unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress k'ayuak'a' kɁajuakɁaɁ loan Arawak (Achagua/Piapoco?) See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology u'rú'wa', ru'wá' uɁrúɁwaɁ, ruɁwáɁ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool daú' daúɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress ćahthah s'ahthah See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
salt sal sal food k'Erue buɨh kɁærue buɨh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ra'úh raɁúh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool nuäi nuæi unknown currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool cu'do'k'i cu'do'k'i hunting and warfare See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool ha'bháh haɁbháh unknown esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food c'oɨh ts'oɨh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food tõ'õ'pE'rɨh tõɁõɁpæɁrɨh See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food pOɨ' e'muɨh pɤɨɁ eɁmuɨh inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ok'oya we'a kuo'tah okɁoja weɁa kuoɁtah loan - WW %kuja See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool wʰo'odæ wʰo'odæ inheritance? esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tawawek'a tawawek'a loan Arawak; cf. Ignaciano tijuwareka See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tawawek'a tawawek'a See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture iré'ca' (chicha) iréɁcaɁ unknown prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food icá'pheh isáɁpheh inheritance? agriculture See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ɨ'rɨ'cɨh ɨɁrɨɁsɨh unknown usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ɨhtá'buɨh ɨhtáɁbuɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food a'rah aɁrah doubtful loan Arawak word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ñiñékuah ñiñékuah unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool u'úhkuah (K76) uʔúhkuah can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ćuáda' kuawáhkia' s'uádaɁ kuawáhkiaɁ See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
house other rúmah rumɑh unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker