1pl.incl

Semantic Field
grammar
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
nosotros (inclusivo)
Meaning Portuguese
nós (inclusivo)

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim mah'-kin (dual) 223 loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tahwyh (tahai) (dl), tammyn (tammi) pol inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla chem inheritance S 1977 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7oTi:\-m inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi taw(y), (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno k-ij- (pl; du is k-ish-); k-ij-ky (indep) inheritance Ono 1996:21, 96 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno mashche (pl) unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno k-ij-ky7 “we, us (pl)” inheritance A 107 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno k'itYy (pl), ksitYy (du) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno kiske unknown Pinart II Jane Hill
Cocopa nya:c; see “I” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tahY, takwY (du), tany (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño chem [tʃəm] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen leT unknown ? Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7iyo:mama unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'enyaawapch [Ɂəɲaˑwaˈpʧ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tawa inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa pa-/mi-7+nya7-p inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 7icam inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ma/a (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño cha:7um inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu nisa/m (du), nise/m (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7inyeechvch inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun makke inheritance O77:165 Jane Hill
Nisenan ne:s, na:s (dl) inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tammi inheritance Thornes 03:157 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7ic:i- (thou and I) inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 7ic:y- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A ha:7kh, kak (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M kHa' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ha-, he unknown Jane Hill
Serrano acam inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tangwa-, inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7oTic:i-, 7oTiT:i inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute tamI (dl), tawI (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal kil, loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tammy; inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo 7i/si inheritance Jane Hill
Washo le\cici unknown K268 Jane Hill
Western Mono taaqwa inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu p'ele inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai nya/chv- (multiple plural) inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami na7an inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi mak (dual), mai (plural) inheritance K07:221 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne na'ak' (dual), na'an- (plural) inheritance N 1944:230 Jane Hill
Yuki mi:, me: inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Arabana arniri inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi arridil XXngl cf Mcgregor's idea that the -il might be related to the -bili of Ya. arridil inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra nguburr- unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu ŋalimalanha semantic shift Claire Bowern
Dhuwal ŋilimurr(u) semantic shift Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋalimurru semantic shift Claire Bowern
Diyari ngayana semantic shift Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu ŋilimurr(u) Claire Bowern
Djapu ŋilimurr(u) semantic shift Claire Bowern
Djinang lim semantic shift Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng giya inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi yardi Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋalimurru semantic shift Claire Bowern
Gurindji ngaliwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru ngaliwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Jawi arridil arridil inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri -nya inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija yuwurrun inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala -la inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung yayi inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka ngalyawaRa semantic shift Claire Bowern
Mudburra jibilyaku Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngayi parlaa semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngamini ngayini semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngarluma ngaliguru semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl yarreedee <yarreedee> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru yadirri XXngl yadirri yadirri inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta ngañcurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina yarrju yarrju inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul yadiV yadiV inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ŋina unique Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ŋalma (including addressee), ŋanapu (excluding addressee) semantic shift Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu limalanha semantic shift Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngalimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Warrwa yadirr yadirr inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu lima semantic shift Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha ngandra inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawuru yadiri yadiri inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua wája wája inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Piapoco wía wía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yukuna weká weká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tariana w(a)ha w(a)ha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Baniwa wháa wháa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Resígaro fa?á faʔá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B. no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kabiyari whé, wa- whé, wa- See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Warekena wa-ya wa-ja See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yavitero waya-ha waja-ha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Wapishana waɨnau waɨnau inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B. no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Mandawaka wájaha, wa- See Language page Ana Paula B. no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Paresi wiso witso inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Baure viti' viti' inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Waurá ai-c̷u ai-¢u unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Arutani materya materya See Language page John Blaha no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Sape mɨyono mɨyono See Language page John Blaha no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Bora mïʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, mïʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} mɯʔ-tsʰi {m.d.}, mɯʔ-pʰɨ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Muinane mɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, mɨ́-si {m.d.}, mɨ́-ɸe {f.d.} mɨ́ɨ́-ʔai {pl}, mɨ́-si {m.d.}, mɨ́-ɸɛ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Akawaio nya nya inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect kuyaʔnɔkoŋ, ina kujaʔnɔkoŋ, ina See Language page Lauren Franklin no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Apalai kymarokomo, kuahtao kɨmarokomo, kuahtao inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Wayana kut kut inheritance See Language page PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Carijona aɲa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tiriyó kïmë (you and i) kɨmǝ (you and i) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Eñepa yuto-kon, weʔɲəkon yuto-kon, weʔɲəkon inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Makiritare kɨnwanno (includes more than one listener); künwanno (KH) (also means 'su') kɨnwanno (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Makushi anna anna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Mapoyo naha naha See Language page Melody Ann Ross no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Pemon yuurönokon, yuuröto (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Wai Wai kɨɨwɨ; kɨwyam kɨɨwɨ; kɨwyam inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Waimiri Atroari kyky kɨkɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yukpa ejpe epi See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kalapalo kukuge kukuge inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Muisca chie ʂie See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Northern Emberá dhá dyĩrã́ dhá dʒĩrã́ See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Macaguan kemʉkát kemɨkát, wakhan [Queix1993] inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Cofán ingi iŋgi See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Candoshi-Shapra iya ija unique See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Taushiro ayo ajo See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Páez cucuexs, cuecu kukueʃ, kueku See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tikuna yixemax [5, 4, 2] yixemax [5, 4, 2] unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Urarina kana kana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Camsa be.ndát bəndat See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Andoke keə̃ keə̃ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Waorani bõ-dõ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Hodï yeti unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Pumé ãrõrẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Puinave bitu bitu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Máku te:kene te:kene See Language page PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Warao oko oko See Language page John Blaha no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Ashuar ii i: See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Huambisa ii i: See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Aguaruna íi i: inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Hup ʔɨ́n ~ʔɨ́d inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yuhup ʔɨ̃d ~ʔɨd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Dâw id ʔid inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Matses umbi umbi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yagua vuñi wuɲi unique See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Ingá nukanchi nukantʃi See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Napo Lowland Quichua ñucanchi ɲukantʃi See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Quechua Ayacuchano noqanchik noqantʃik See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Piaroa ujutu uhutu inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Sáliva ãxu ãxu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Barasano ~badi ~badi See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Cubeo maja maxa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Carapana marĩ mãɾĩ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Desano mari mari inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kotiria ~bari mãɾĩ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Makuna ~badi ~badi inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yuruti bãrɨ̃́ bãrɨ̃́ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Waikhana bã'rĩ bã'rĩ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Siriano bã'rĩ́ bã'rĩ́ See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tanimuca bãrã bãrã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tatuyo bã'rĩ bã'rĩ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tukano mãrĩ́ mãrĩ́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Tuyuka bã'rĩ bãʔrĩ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B. no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Waimaja ~mání ~mání See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Maihiki mai ja mai xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Koreguaje mai mai inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Siona mai mai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Secoya mai maiʔ See Language page Amanda N no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Karitiana yj (com v.i.), yjja (com v.i.) ɨj inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Nheengatu ya (used before a verb) yandé ("Etimologia: cf. ya, Se usa antes do verbo já completado para insistir) ja (used before a verb) jandé ("Etimologia: cf. ya, Se usa antes do verbo já completado para insistir) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kokama ini ini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Wayampi ya-; yanɛ ja-; janɛ inheritance See Language page PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Sirionó nane nane inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kamayurá jene jene inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Ocaina xa(jo) {pl}, xo(xo) {m.dual.}, xac(a) {f.dual.} xa(ho) {pl}, xo(xo) {m.dual.}, xak(a) {f.dual.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Nɨpode Witoto kaï {pl}, {kóko {m.d.} kaɯ {pl}, {kóko {m.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Minica Witoto kaï {pl}, kóko {m.d.}, káïñaï {f.d.} kaɯ {pl}, kóko {m.d.}, káɯŋaɯ {f.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Murui Witoto kaï {pl}, koko {m.d.}, kaiñaï {f.d.} kaɯ {pl}, koko {m.d.}, kaiɲaɯ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Ninam kahowamak, wamak; kamatšamakə (EM72) kahowamak; wamak; kamatʃamakə (pl. incl) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yanomam kamiyamak (pl. incl. EM72) kamijamak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Yanomami kamiyə pəhəkɨ (dual incl. EM72), kamiyə pəmakɨ (pl. incl. EM72) kamijə pəhəkɨ, kamijə pəmakɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Sanumá kamitšamak (pl. incl. EM72) kamitʃamak inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Iquito p'ɨ- (incl), p'ɨɨja (incl, stand-alone pronominal form), cana-, canáaja (stand-alone pronominal form) p'ɨ- (incl), p'ɨɨha (incl, stand-alone pronominal form), kana-, kanáaha (stand-alone pronominal form) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Záparo kana, kanaha, pa= kana, kanaha, pa See Language page Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Wari wariʔ wariʔ See Language page PLE Emphatic pronoun.
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-se-ha e-se-ha See Language page Joyce McCormick no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Cavineña e-kʷana; e-kʷana-ra; yac̷e (e-kʷana is the absolutive form, e-kʷana-ra is the ergative form; yac̷e is the dual form ("we two")) e-kʷana; e-kʷana-ra; yače inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Central Aymara jiwasa (DL: you and me), jiwasanaka xiwasa See Language page PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kwazá txana txana See Language page Joyce McCormick no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Movima i-ɗe i-ɗe See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Kaingang ẽg ẽg See Language page PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted
Djeoromitxi hirü hirø See Language page PLE no inclusive/exclusive distinction unless noted