Chumash Ineseno

Family
Chumash
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
inz
Location
34.62°, -120.08°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7al-apaj “up, above, (in) the sky” inheritance A17 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -es unknown A 460 Jane Hill
all todo todos other yila7 inheritance Klar 1977:63 Jane Hill
and y e grammar ha unknown A15, 436 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body show inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body toq'olo inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment 7al-ush-pawat inheritance A 193 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location mi- “locative” inheritance Klar 1977:44 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body myt inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality s-7axymyk' “to be bad” loan direction unknown A 219 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body -7aqshyw' inheritance A215 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location hi mi-shup “down, under” inheritance A434 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality nox unknown A 16 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body s-aq-7uw-sh-it “it itches, it bites” A 464 unique A 464 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour s-shoyin “to be black” unknown A76:280 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body -7axul'is A 238 inheritance A 238 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body 7axti-pak inheritance Klar 1977:70 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ic-puk “pimple, blackhead” unknown A 196 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body se inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body kutet inheritance Klar 1977:73 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body kalash inheritance Klar 1977:29 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment s-ixut “it burns” inheritance A 183 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body aq-lamlam “to chew” unknown A 6 Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human suwa7 (“it cries”) unknown A 159 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion shy-Vn “to climb cliffs” unknown A 211 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment missing Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality toxom' inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion jyti, elew inheritance Klar 1977:77 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact s-ipshel inheritance Klar 1977:68 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 7inu-Vch inheritance A79, 278 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental -mish inheritance A 74 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact 7iwawan inheritance Klar 1977:17 Jane Hill
day día dia time qsi inheritance Klar 1977:80 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state aqshan inheritance Klar 1977:81 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact -ush'e7 "digs";; ushe7-sh inheritance A 19, 211 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna myj “wolf” inheritance A 460 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality nujich, 7uqsh-nuj “dirt” inheritance Klar 1977:82 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental aqsh'u-ni-wil-pi “to dream of” unknown A 324 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7aqmil inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality -k'ymym Applegate 19 unknown A19 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality nunux unknown A76:277 Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tu7 loan direction unknown Klar 1977:23 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment shup inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7uw inheritance Klar 1977:40 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna -tumun inheritance A236 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body tyx inheritance Klar 1977:84 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion pil-qot'in “to fall” (air-come.down) Applegate 54 unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality myk inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body s-xil (adj?) inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -koko7 (I) inheritance A 6 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental axunushpi A 304 inheritance A 304 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna qap “leaf, feather” loan direction unknown A 236 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ny inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna missing Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment s-pej' (Klar has pej') inheritance A 218 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion xal=nowon “to fly” unknown A 111 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing Jane Hill
foot pie body tem' inheritance Klar 1977:88 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality chHo “to be good” inheritance A 5 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state lu-nan' inheritance A 359 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body shush head hair; loan A 493 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body pu inheritance Klar 1977:90 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kay (independent pronoun) unknown A 168 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body 7oqwon' “head, hair” inheritance A 193 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental 7itaq inheritance Klar 1977:92 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion -aquni/mak, aqu/nimak inheritance A 15 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wyp beat w/ stick loan A 288 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ul'ish “grasp” inheritance A 19 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar tak'u Applegate 20 inheritance A20 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar no7 loan A 7 Jane Hill
if si se grammar hak'u, ku- inheritance A 7, 437, Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location hi mam' inheritance A 433 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body s-aq-7uw-sh-it “it itches, it bites” inheritance A 464 Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact missing Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ch'amyn inheritance A 15 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment s-liyo7 “pool, pond” unknown A 218 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental missing Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment qap “leaf, feather” loan A 236 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body -yl' "leg" inheritance A 285 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion sotoy'in inheritance Klar 1977:94 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment s-qun-t'aw “lightning flashes” inheritance A 62 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body atyk; satsatik “he is alive” A76:272 unknown A 133 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body 7al' inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7yhyj “to be long, tall” Applegate 65 inheritance A 65 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna shik “head louse” inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7yhy/j' inheritance A 14, K1977:133 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7amyn' inheritance Klar 1977:96 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7away7 inheritance Klar 1977:91 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -tete7 unknown A 49 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7yk inheritance Klar 1977:99 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ty inheritance Klar 1977:18 (and A:79) Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality mutey' “to be near” inheritance A 393, K1977:131 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ni7 inheritance A466 & Klar:1997:100 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7ikymin inheritance A 509, Klar 1977:101 Jane Hill
night noche noite time ulkuw inheritance Klar 1977:118 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar *ni- “not” (vbl pref); 7ini “not” unknown A 7 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body -noxsh inheritance A 58 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality moloq “old, long-ago” loan A 225 Jane Hill
one uno um number pakas' A 184 inheritance A 184 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other 7uch-qHal inheritance Klar 1977:102 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar c'oyini “other, other person” inheritance A 230, K1977:142 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body juxpan inheritance A 137 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ku inheritance Klar 1977:103 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact -tatan inheritance A 58 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tuhuy inheritance Klar 1977:24 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour missing Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body -kuyuw' (I) inheritance A 10 Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture ch'ayash inheritance A 183 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora -7ax-pilil' “nerve, sinew; root; bowstring” inheritance A 50 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality to-pHototon “to rot, fall apart” (to- diseased state) unknown A 362 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment xas inheritance A 232 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7ip inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact aqulu A 238 inheritance A 238 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental -kuti (I) inheritance A 7 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality c'yc'y inheritance A 99 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact myLhy; su-kuy A 255 inheritance A 255 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality aqul=k'ot “to be short, low” inheritance A 2127 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body -qenen' inheritance A 203 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental axnisin, axnisi7 “to be ashamed” inheritance A 63, K1977:66 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ylyk'yn “to sit, dwell” inheritance A 33 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body missing Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment 7al-apaj “up, above, (in) the sky” inheritance A 17 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body we7 loan A 64 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality muc'u7 “small one”; “young, small” unknown A 127, 275 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment tow' inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body uqch'yk loan direction unknown A 33 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wati-ch'eq, tipe-ch'eq “to crack, split” inheritance A 368 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact shalpan unknown A 526 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kuta7 “stand up” unknown A 81 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment 7aqiwo inheritance Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other 7al-xo7 “to rob, steal” inheritance A 150 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora pon' inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment xyp inheritance Klar 1977:111 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body oxt'oy “suckle” unknown A 257 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pok',, p'ok inheritance A 348, 375 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion aqiwywyn inheritance A 402 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body teleq' inheritance Klar 1977:27 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ko, k7a; hek'i unknown A7 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kayuwun' (indep. pronoun) unknown A 168 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality astipil “to be thick” inheritance A 259 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality qhapqhap inheritance A 37 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental saqniwiluswun “thinks of them” inheritance K1977:133 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar he7 -animate; hen'i +animate (these are non-initial in phrase)hechi7, hecha7 non-iniitial inheritance A 178 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar pi7 inheritance A 15, 168 Jane Hill
three tres tres number masyx inheritance A 184, K1977:120 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body s-iwo “throat, windpipe (< “to make sound”) inheritance A 218 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact uqshti “of throwing” unknown A 460 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment s-oxk'on inheritance A 247 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact aqsiq unknown A 403 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7elew inheritance Klar 1977:17 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body sa inheritance Klar 1977:113 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7ishkom' inheritance A 184, klar 1977:29 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pash inheritance A 208; K1977:114 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7o7 inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar k-ij-ky7 “we, us (pl)” inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar k-ij-ky7 “we, us (pl)” inheritance A 107 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality 7o7-ch “to be wet, watery” inheritance A 80 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar suk'u unknown A 15 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar asnym inheritance A 177 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar taka7 unknown A 171 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour 7ow'ow “to be white” inheritance A 260 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar kune7 unknown A 18 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship tal-hik' "be married, have wife"; s-tal'ik “his wife” A 76:281 unknown A 277 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment missing Jane Hill
wing ala asa body -kam inheritance A 192 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human 7eneq inheritance A 7, K 1977:133 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body shashan inheritance Klar 1977:116 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar p-, p-ish- dual, p-ij- plural A 166 A 166 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. t'aya (kaše Pinart) abalone inheritance Central Chumash only looks like a “shellfish” word, but probably a mistake, Pinart form is probably right WW %kys underived Applegate 134; 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ʔaya-mama; M. tah-kahts'-kuk; tah-ki'-uks Ant sp. A; M ant unique phrase meaning of elements unknown Applegate 50; Merriam 55:19 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana ʧ'ɨlɨ antelope inheritance underived Applegate 203 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus ʔal-uʃeʔ-ʃ “the digger” badger inheritance Central Chumash only relative clause 7al-, -Vsh Applegate 211 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus mahCH-he'-wah bald eagle inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived probably complex, but impossible to identify morphemes Merriam 55:7 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata wel-ĕ-wel'CH; wel-la-wel, wel'-lĕ-wel' band-tail pigeon unique reduplicated Merriam 55:9 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp mak al bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash WW %tamakala underived Klar 1977:68 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor ʧ'ɨpɨk beaver inheritance Central Chumash only noted by Kroeber; Yok. toepuek, etc. but loan is into Central Chumash WW %t'ypyk underived Applegate155 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp wati-qoq stinkbug inheritance Central Chumash only same root in Barbareno phrase but unanalyzable Applegate 197 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus stapan; swow big round tule: Timbrook S. californicus; swow S. acutus inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:29 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis taxama skunk inheritance *tVqema Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:108 underived Applegate 192 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus mɨy wolf inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno k-asiməj, hesiməj underived Applegate 460 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis ʔal-ʃɨ-Vn > ʔalʃɨhɨn “the cliff-climber” mountain goat inheritance relative clause 7al- agentive Applegate 211 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna weets; wits a bird unique underived Merriam 55:15 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus xus bear, grizzly bear inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68-9 underived Merriam 55:3 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus mah'-ah, mah black-tail jackrabbit inheritance *ma' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:105 underived Merriam 55:5 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus tɨqɨtɨq Rubus ursinus, California blackberry unique reduplicated Timbrook 2007:174 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus ʔanaq-puw wild cat inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno phrase but unanalyzable Applegate 61 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ʔaya-tulutul butterfly (Merriam confirms 55:19) inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno phrase but unanalyzable Applegate 51 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus miyiʔ, almiyi7 (211) Condor (Merriam confirms, gets with al- 55:7) unique other complex 7al- Applegate 18, 211 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? chi”; chi'-e California jay loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts loan into Central Chumash at least WW %chaj underived Merriam 55:9 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pulak'ak' (I) on p. 201 maqutikok “woodpecker” red-headed woodpecker (I); acorn woodpecker (B) (this confirms ID); Merriam confirms (55:9) loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977;116 (may be a loan, actually) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Applegate 194 2 nephew of the sun, only one who did not die in the first flood (Applegate 531) 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae i'lepesh chia inheritance *'epV- Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:75-6 same other complex -Vsh resultative Timbrook 2007:188 1 “given as a ceremonial offering at most public and private rituals” Timbrook 2007:192 1 1 to clear eyes of particles gathered (wild but closely managed) women toasted, ground into flour 0 0 to Island Chumash “one hatful of chia worth five hatfuls of acorns, 5 o 8 hatfuls of Chia for a good elderberry-wood bow, also could be bought w/ strings of shell money (Timbrook 2007:192 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota an-ne-pĕH barn swallow (Hirundo) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash other complex 7al- Merriam 55:11 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana tesk'; nek' coot unique underived Merriam 55:15 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii koon' cottontail rabbit inheritance *kuni Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:105 underived Merriam 55:5 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. koi-dă-kwel'; kwel-lă-kwel Cottonwood inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash unknown Merriam 55:21 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans xuxaw' coyote unique Obispeno 7alaxəwət; note %kaw 'fox' underived Applegate 19 1 approaches house to warn of death 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ah'-ă, ah'; ahk' crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno t-a7 underived ʔaʔ-ʔiwaʃ crow-pejorative Merriam 55:9 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii momoy Datura wrightii, Jimsonweed, toloache loan into protolanguage *mom'oy < *moy Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977:93 sees as inheritance but really a loan from Gab. or Lu “moon” WW %moji ~ %moni same reduplicated Timbrook 2007:65 1 taken at initiation to seek dream helper, and any time afterward 1 1 painkiller for serious injuries and broken bones gathered (wild) men, women boiled to make infusion 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer inheritance Central Chumash only underived Merriam 55:5 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tak Pinus, except for jeffrey, monophylla inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno underived Timbrook 2007;142 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris -qoʔ dog, pet inheritance *qo' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:104 underived Applegate 65 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum tok Indian-Hemp, Dogbane, A. cannabinum inheritance Central Chumash only B, Cr, I, V, but Cr is probably just B underived Timbrook 2007:31 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura an'-noo-wĕh' dove unique other complex 7al- Merriam 55:9 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae ʔoloxwoʃkoloy duck sp unique Central Chumash only Note Yokuts oxuxum (Palewyamni and Yawelmani) and oxoox in Hometwoli (Kroeber); -koloy root in Ventureno other complex, phrase 7al- ...-Vsh, koloi Applegate 61 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus qayas Sambucus mexicana, Merriam confirms 55:23 inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:195 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus she'-oo elk loan Central Chumash only Yokuts could this be from Yokuts %sok, the /soyo/ form??? WW %sok underived Merriam 55:3 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ahl-le'-de-mo' fish (any) inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno other complex 7al- Merriam 55:17 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera step, ʃtep flea inheritance *-tep Central Chumash only Central Chumash; There's a tepuchi word in UA -- check? Or is this a Californianism. Klar 1977:86 thinks from PUA but that's wrong underived Applegate 61 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. se'-ut; se-yoot' flicker unique Central Chumash only underived Merriam 55:9 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera 7axunpes fly inheritance *axulpes Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:86-7 phrase but unanalyzable Klar 1977:86 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei meq yucca unique underived Applegate 192 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon k'noo'-e Gray fox (Urocyon) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:3 2 approaches house to warn of death 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wah-kahk' frog inheritance *waqaq Proto-Chumash Obispeno weqeq WW %wakat reduplicated Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos slow' eagle inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Applegate 246; clan symbol (Applegate p. 452) 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. stɨmɨy Ribes spp., gooseberry inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:170 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer p'shōsh' gopher or bull snake inheritance *pSoSo Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) cweq grass, herb unique underived Applegate 280 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera tuq grasshopper (Merriam forms confirm) inheritance *ti/uqu (< *-qu) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Klar 1977:89 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ʔemet' ground squirrel (Merriam 55:5 confirms Citellus beecheyi) inheritance *emet', em'et' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:110 underived Applegate 212 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muhu great-horned owl (Merriam confirms mo-hoo) unique Central Chumash only Central Chumash; Gab. muhut; this is a Proto-Uto-Aztecan word. But it's sound-imitative..., and if loan, is in to Central Chumash underived Applegate 155 1 Warns “a good person will die” (Ono 89) 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis xus bear, grizzly bear inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash underived nunaʃiʃ “animal; beast, devil” Beeler 1978:181 (and used this way in an Ono text, as “(big) vs. (small) animals re hunting preferences Merriam 55:3 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae ʔana-mekeyeye > ʔenemekeyeye horned toad (Merriam confirms 55;17) inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno reduplicated 7al- Applegate 195 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing inheritance missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae yuxnuc' hummingbird inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Applegate 32; 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. šoo tobacco loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts loan from Yokutsan into Central Chumash WW %sokon underived Heizer Pinart I:52 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica mulus Juniperus californicus, California Juniper inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:108 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera -ʃik head louse inheritance *Seke Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:96 underived Applegate 239; 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos ahl-was-kah'-lah, ahl'-le-wŭ'-hŏCH-nŭ mallard unique Central Chumash only other complex 7al- Merriam 55:13 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. sq'o'yon Arctostaphlos spp., manzanita inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash? Ventureno tsqoqo'n underived Timbrook 2007;34 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa oo-woo'-mo oi'-yo-so' “food of worms” Broad leaf Milkweed unique phrase Merriam 55:27 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis 7okhponush A. fascicularis inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno other complex -Vsh resultative Timbrook 2007:40 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus mekhme'y Mission tule, J. textilis inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno reduplicated Merriam 55:29; Timbrook 2007:102 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos hoo'-e hoo'-e mockingbird (thrasher?) unique reduplicated Merriam 55:11 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera pɨwɨʔ mosquito inheritance *pewe(we)' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:98 underived Applegate 458 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tuk'em' mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Widespread Californianism, note NUA *tuCkuC; Klar 1977:98 but I think post-Proto-Ch, hence irregularity WW %tuku underived Applegate 192 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. t'i-yah mussels (fresh water) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:17 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata qoy' olivella shell inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno underived Applegate 283 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kăo-kăo (Pinart has xaixai “pajaro azul”) crested jay (Cyanocitta) loan unknown WW %kaj reduplicated Merriam 55:9 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla posh Pinus monophylla (is this maybe just the nut?) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:142 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum 7alaquc'um clam sp. inheritance *'ala-qu-Cum Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:97 other complex 7al- Klar 1977:97 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys ŏCH-wahn Pocket gopher inheritance Central Chumash only underived Merriam 55:5 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum yasis Toxicodendron diversilobum, poison oak inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:214 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. H'shahp, k'shahp' rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno kaxʃap underived Merriam 55:17 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp tish-oo-lun red ant inheritance Central Chumash only same root in Barbareno underived Merriam 55:19 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus ʧ'oq' blackbird (Merriam confirms 55:9) loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts Central Chumash; Kroeber noted this loan; Proto-NimYokuts *ch'ax (Golla 1964:60). But it's into Central Chumash; a widespread word. WW %chak underived Applegate155 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwitch, ku'-witch red-tailed hawk inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:7 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus qewqew roadrunner unique reduplicated Applegate 152; 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica wewey' Sage herb inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash reduplicated Merriam 55:27; (Applegate 192) 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss ah-ko-wutch'; lap (Pinart) salmon unique Central Chumash only lap may be Yokutsan loan WW %lvp other complex 7al- Merriam 55:17 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? o'-no-kō'k Scaly lizard inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno underived probably complex, but impossible to identify morphemes Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna i-yu-wes'-sĕ snake (any) unique other complex I'll bet this is an 7al form misheard by CHM Merriam 55:17 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum kot' Soaproot (Merriam 55:29 confirms) loan Yokuts *ThoxoTh Golla 1964:65 WW %svkv underived Timbrook 2007:56 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata shu'nay Rhus trilobata inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:166 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco ke'-lik sparrow hawk loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only unknown a widely-distributed form, might be loan WW %kili underived Merriam 55:7 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae k'toot' (in left margin) spider inheritance Central Chumash only underived Merriam 55:19 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ʧaniyuxyux small skunk sp inheritance phrase but unanalyzable Applegate 49 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae kŏp-kŏp; kōp-kōp; koop'-kop toad inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Barbareno reduplicated Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) pon' (Klar) a tree, dead tree or log, stick (Merriam's def) inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115-16 underived Merriam 55:31 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera pokh Yuca whipplei, Chaparral Yucca, Spanish Bayonet unique underived Timbrook 2007:226 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ʔonoq(') turkey vulture (Merriam confirms) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Applegate 133 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines shahk'-ă turtle inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:17 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia ku'w Valley live oak (Note, Merriam has these reversed) inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ta' Valley oak (Q. lobata), also heard for Valley live oak inheritance *ta' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:163 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica takak quail loan into protolanguage *takaka Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977:105, but a widespread arealism, perhaps a loan WW %kaka underived Applegate 194; 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis wawaw' goose (Merriam says “geese, all kinds”) inheritance Central Chumash (JPH has for Barbareno) reduplicated Applegate 451 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus paxat whale inheritance *paqat(V) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115 underived Klar 1977:115 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos hew pelican (may be brown) inheritance *sew Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:103 WW %hew underived Klar 1977:103 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica nunit' Vitis californica inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash; maybe %sonot underived Timbrook 2007:224 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) shushtewesh wild oats unique other complex -Vsh resultative Timbrook 2007:43 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica washtiq'oliq'ol wild rose, R. californica unique Central Chumash only looks a little loan-y, irregular phrase meaning of elements unknown Timbrook 2007:172 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing Beeler 1978:180 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. shtajyt Merriam defines as Willow sp (small narrow leaves, no [bracts?] Timbrook S. lasiolepis inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:23; Applegate 409 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ʧ'iʔ (Merriam kē'-e 55:5) woodrat inheritance Central Chumash only underived Applegate 202 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) ʔaya-muʃmuʃ caterpillar unique phrase but unanalyzable Applegate 49 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper skon worm, reptile inheritance Central Chumash only underived Applegate 132 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. oo'-e (said fast) yellow jacket inheritance *ɨyɨ, *ɨyɨ' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977;117 underived Merriam 55:19 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia chu'-ă-chuk Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique reduplicated Merriam 55:11 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum wishap Yerba santa, E. crassifolium inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:83 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna takay'as “red ant” inheritance Klar 1977:64 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wic' Applegate 156 loan direction unknown A 156 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna 7axunpes inheritance Klar 1977)86 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna -qo7 “dog, pet” inheritance A 64 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna wy inheritance A 234 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna xshap “rattlesnake” inheritance A76:279 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food šïpïtïš acorn mush inheritance Proto-Central Chumash see Ventureno derived sïpït 'to make acorn mush' plus resultative -Vš Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
ball game food heswasin to play jai-lai loan unknown JPH said was not I. derived resultative -vsh applegate 1972 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress cux headdress loan Yokuts Pyokutsan *cux by Golla 1964; early as also in Ventureno simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ya7 arrow inheritance *ya Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation 7eskwela school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material kHiwis stone jar (Henshaw glosses as 'small steatite olla') loan Yokuts JPH (155) simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pïs' ï is barred i basketry bowl unknown caya7 a kind of basket 79; this is main word in Kroeber 1902; also in Merriam 37:557; wačkay' 'carrying basket' 142, also 7aya p. 197 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material al'-ahts-oo'-moo-mŭ subglobular choke-mouted basket unknown derived al agentive, -mu7 Merriam 37:521 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material 7epsu7 basket-hat inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material 7apï ï is barred i kind of bead unknown čiphï7 a kind of long bead p 249 -- I've passed 2 other kinds, FIND simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7ax hyphen on left bow inheritance *aqa Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977:65;also ič-kuyan 'bow, weapon' p. 197 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport tomol sewn-plank canoe inheritance *tomolo Proto-Central Chumash Klar 1977:76 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool štiwal' carrying net unknown simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation woteya bottle loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wot' chief inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress 7ičk'ï7 men's loincloth inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also su-yuq-lal'am 'woman's buckskin loincloth' p. 353 (yuq 'of the legs'); Merriam confirms main entry 37:513 and also has pe'-at derived inst -7i7 Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
cook food food s-7ipšel to cook inheritance *pSel Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
corpse food 7amïn'-iwaš corpse (lit body-former/dead) unique derived 7aqša 'to die' Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology axi-kum to dance inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology mah-hoo-how' World Maker (NOT coyote) unknown derived ma- nmlzr Merriam 37:529 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool 7ic-k'umu7 walking stick, digging stick unknown kush-kōk Merriam 37:519 derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool pïl'i7 ladle, dipper (phonetic pïl'i7) unknown simplex pï7-7i7 'ladle, dip + iNST) Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tampol drum loan Spanish WW %tambor simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation takak chicken (literally 'quail') loan into protolanguage, semantic shift Northern Uto-Aztecan from 'quail' word WW %kaka simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
earring other su-wayan earrings inheritance *wayan Proto-Chumashan WW %sonot derived wayan 'hang'? Klar 1977 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology lewlew supernatural being inheritance Yokuts really nasty in Barb; B lewlew 'proper name of a mythological creature' (Beeler); Merriam 37:529 gives no-nah-shush (see other lgs, where is 'devil') WW %lewasip reduplicated Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool mah-kā-kwā'-dah-nŭ fire drill unknown Proto-Central Chumash derived Merriam 37:519 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other ma-kap' fire place (lit. fire house? JHH) unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other sapiwil'e7 kindling, firewood inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also pon' 'tree, stick, wood' e.g. wood on p. 299; note B. sapiyiw 'red-hot coal', sapixi 'kindle' derived su+api+wil=7i7 Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food šaxšilš to fish, lit. to cause many to bite unique note B. saxanpin 'to catch fish'; also tululun 'to fish with a pole' 261. uti-aqkalan 'to catch with barb or hook' 268 derived su+axcil=š su 'to apply to, do as N does' Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool ma-sis-kŭr-nŭt-ha-sas-sĭki fish line unknown phrase Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool saxsïl' fishhook unknown derived su-axsil-7 'to cause to bite' (-7 'instrumental' gives l') Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
acorn bread food k'apit' ball of acorn dough baked in hot ashes loan Yokuts JPH simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
wheat food tiliwu wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tiwalulay' flute inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also in B derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food 7al-qapač animal (being hunted in e.g.) unknown derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics momoy Jimsonweed, toloache loan into protolanguage *mom'oy from *moy Proto-Chumashan Gabrielino may not be proto if from Gab. Moya- 'moon', loan wouldn't be into Proto-Chumashan WW %moji ~ %moni reduplicated Klar 1977 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
honey miel mel food 7aq'ikaš' honey (lit 'to burn in the throat' unknown derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
house other 7ap house inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also mam' p. 433 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food wïl to hunt (in 'hunter') inheritance *wïl Proto-Central Chumash also xuniyïw 'to hunt, look for' < xul-ni-yïw p. 357 derived wï 'deer' +-l 'an archaic derivational suffix' Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material 7ïw knife inheritance *7iw Proto-Chumashan simplex from 'cut'? Klar 1977 Jane Hill
mat culture-material 7as mat inheritance *7as Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7alqap mortar inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
necklace other 7el' necklace inheritance *el' Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool sHewu awl unknown Merriam 37:519 confirms simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport 7uštap'i7 oar unknown derived 7uštap-7i7 row-INST Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tsoo-te'-ŭk stone pestle inheritance Proto-Central Chumash Henshaw has same word; I think this REALLY looks like the B form so am going to call it cognate in spite of the t here, n in Barb. simplex Merriam 37:519 Jane Hill
pinole food i-wa-hoc meal of seeds unknown in same row as good form for Ventureno derived resulative -Vsh Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other 7uwaš pipe inheritance Proto-Central Chumash Merriam 37:519 ahks pahmo (looks like a bilingual consultant involved, this is Yokuts);note Henshaw's en-was in Barbareno (nasalization infirst syll); B. uwash (beeler) derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
pitch food pïl pitch inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool 7oya pot loan Spanish also sukuy' 'pot' 314 WW %la olla simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool mah'-iah he-koo'-e quiver unknown al-ah-tats Henshaw (cog w/ Barb) phrase Merriam 37:517 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology c'iwis rattle inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology ta-sŭr red paint inheritance Proto-Central Chumash B tasin 'be red' (Beeler) simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
salt sal sal food tip salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool 7ušuy' seed beater unknown Merriam has i-yah'-we 37:521 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology haxwi=7 clothes, clothing inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived final -7 is instrumental from haxwi-n 'to dress' Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool talip' sinew-backed bow loan Yokuts JPH, klar 1977:168 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material čwin buckskin apron, dress unknown smïlï bark apron, dress 100, šaknatïš' 'apron' 376 simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool 7aqkay' trap unknown simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7iwonuš' song, tune inheritance Proto-Central Chumash B 7iwon 'make sound' derived iwo 'to sound' Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ahk-ki'-e spear for fish (hmm, same as word for 'trap', probably wrong) unknown derived looks like -7i7 inst suffix Merriam 37:517 Jane Hill
stirring stick food ŏsh-kŭk stirring stick unknown simplex Merriam 37:519 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture miyaš string, twine inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also pox 'line, cord' 474 (CB pox is 'cactus, mescal' -- is this agave fiber? derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material č'ïlï sack, bag unknown also 7atuc' 'tight-mesh bag' p. 18; Merriam 37:521 confirms main entry simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
string of shell money other 7alčHum H is superscript money inheritance 7ala-qu-Cum, *ana-qu-Cum Proto-Chumashan I disagree; cognacy is not perfect and shell money is too late to be P-C derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology ti-moloq to talk about old times inheritance Proto-Central Chumash B moloq 'a long time ago' derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology se-hōt'-tah-koo cremation unknown derived se-hōt ah-pōn-po 'funeral pyre' vb. Probably 7ixu or 7ixo Merriam 37:529 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics šow pespibata loan into protolanguage Proto-Central Chumash Yokuts WW %sokon simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material I'-yah-koo'-e circular winnower unknown see also 'seed beater' derived Merriam 37:521 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapatu shoe loan Spanish WW %zapato simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics 7axiyep' medicine inheritance Proto-Central Chumash B 7axiyep 'cure' (Beeler) derived axi+yep=7 Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material č'omš cradle inheritance Proto-Central Chumash Merriam 37:521 has swah' 'baby basket'; B ch'omsh 'cradle' derived Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing note: sululalu 'white man' 163 Jane Hill
corn food mays corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
beans food piliholi beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation katu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sumulelu hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation wansaq' split-stick rattle inheritance *wanS-aq'a, *wacs-aq'a Proto-Chumashan derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture skynyt' inheritance A 241 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ixty7sh “roof, thatch” inheritance A 80 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7alqap “mortar” inheritance A212 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ic-k'umu7 “walking stick, digging stick unknown A 197 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7ax “bow” inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ya7 “arrow” inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
house other -7ap inheritance A 5 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG dense sedentary no