deity/powerful spirit/culture figure

Semantic Field
culture-mythology
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
dios(es), deidad
Meaning Portuguese
divinidade, figura mítica

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla kivasaw (inal) great spirit, god unique does this have /kiva/ in it? compound, other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño chem-yu'at God inheritance *ya7u Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1803 -- easy to do metathesis across the *7 phrase, other complex our-head-ABS' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño yuungawish God, Lord semantic shift *jungavish Cupan Isn't this the vulture/condor word??? Hill/Miller ju-12 other complex Elliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino te-huv-soo-nar, hetekrungaiy 'el dios' (H"315)) (that which is above); $aho:vet H 061 God, good spirit inheritance *tu7apa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2570 maybe other complex Merriam 49:113 Jane Hill
Serrano ny-'ajynu'ç god (literally, 'the one at my right') unique Merriam has tamyat < Ca. 48:191) derived, other complex K. Hill Dict. Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tüvač, nühpa god (poss) (t), chief (poss) (n), earth, world, etc. (t…) inheritance *tu7apa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2570 other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal Pangattal God ("above the sun") unique CHM has man-nā'-sar 'the world maker, an old woman who had 5 brothers' (this is Gab manisar 'capitana' and maybe the manit woman 49:277 derived, other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim missing missing Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tugu-bajaa-va7a-dy God unique probably neologism on Christian concept derived, other complex sky-in-?-ABS Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi missing missing Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tyvatstsI wolf, powerful one (as mythological being) inheritance *tu7apa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2570; also tuttukua-vI 'guardian spirit' 696 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute sinawavI Sinawav,God, Great Spirit unique "Wolf" under a different name from tyva7atsi other complex Charney Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone missing missing Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone missing missing spirit helper poha-nym-ppyh?? Jane Hill
Comanche Atsabi7 Creator, holy spirit (name of deity) unique other complex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Western Mono tYnitoobEbI the Creator unique so-ahp' (made the bedrock mortar holes) Merriam 45:319 compound, other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute numu manumutoodu, manumutoopu Indian Creators unique sumatea Great Spirit, God (32) phrase Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok te:pani- creator loan Yokuts simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok tín:y-T:i- supernatural being, "a great something" unique tin:y Pmis 'something' other complex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok kuksuj-u- a one-legged man with feathers, fear of him can cause stupor and drowsiness (kuksu JHH) loan unknown %kuksu, widespread in California other complex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok missing missing Jane Hill
Lake Miwok 7oléenawa Old Man Coyote inheritance *ole:- Proto-Miwokan Callaghan 1970:94 compound Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu k'ódojape Earthmaker, the creator of Maidu mythology unique derived k'ódo 'district, country, area, place, time, year Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan 7ajk'at' creator unique 7aj- seems to have to do with thought simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani Thiphni7 supernatural being inheritance *Thiphni7, *chhiphni7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi Thiphni supernatural being inheritance *Thiphni7, *chhiphni7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam te-gah'-ah 'world maker' 44:197 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami missing missing Jane Hill
Washo detugíti7, detugítiwk God unknown derived d- nmlzr Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu missing missing Jane Hill
Yuki missing missing Jane Hill
Wappo missing missing Jane Hill
Mutsun trah-rah-tah groo-kah god or good spirit unknown phrase Merriam 39:111 Jane Hill
Esselen missing missing Jane Hill
Salinan A k<enca:niL God unknown other complex k- stative Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno missing missing Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno mah-hoo-how' World Maker (NOT coyote) unknown derived ma- nmlzr Merriam 37:529 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno šup earth, god inheritance šup Proto-Southern Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno missing missing Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa chawp mythological spirit embodied in fire ball, meteor unknown Maayehaa 'God' (high water) simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa kùkmá:T a Cocopa, and probably pan-Yuman, deity unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave missing missing Jane Hill
Yavapai missing missing Jane Hill
Kiliwa mt=ipaa Creator (earth-being) unique inherited elements compound Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) Hant Caai creator of the world according to the Seri ancestors (lit. el que hizo el mundo) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua bè-ʔid bè-ʔid unknown Also: hũyu No info In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu tupã (old word used to describe spirits causing thunder, but chosen later to describe Christian God.) tupã (old word used to describe spirits causing thunder, but chosen later to describe Christian God.) inheritance *tupã Reconstructs as 'thunder', but has both meanings in many TG languages; donor for Yucuna tupana, Kaingang topẽ; Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani wǽ̨ŋǫ́ŋį (god) god unknown Unknown Similar forms appear in Carib (Makiritare wana:di); Hup also has this as an alternate term. Maybe from Arawak? In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Yanomam omama (WM99 - progenitor figure) omama progenitor figure unknown Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam teus teus god loan Portuguese Also in Warekena Diutsu; Puinave dio; Ashuar jus Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria kohamaku kohamaku calque, direction unknown North Arawak? 'Bone-Son' Compare Arawak, 'bone' in culture figure name. Also: cohamaco (feminine) Compound bone-son' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo jʉ̃menijicʉ hʉ̃mɛnihikʉ unknown Does NOT seem to derive from 'bone'. Classifier -kɨ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano õ'akɨ̃hɨ õ'akɨ̃hɨ calque, direction unknown North Arawak? 'Bone-Son' Compound õ'a-kɨ̃hɨ 'Bone-?' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Hup g'æg=tæ̃h g'æg=tæ̃h Bone-Son calque ET 'Bone-Son' Compound bone son In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw kegteè kægtæ̂ calque ET 'Bone-Son' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani pumeníruwa, kajúyali (Melendez 2014: both Arawak loans) pumeníruwa, kajúyali (Melendez 2014: both Arawak loans) loan, loan Achagua In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan márat mythological personage, creator of the world unknown Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Pemon kate, potorito (means our father, god) (A1981); katɨ (E1980) kate, potorito (A1981); katɨ (E1980) inheritance; unknown Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup? Similar term Waiwai; maybe older. Alternate: potorito In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio paba paba semantic shift father' Maybe from 'father'? But referential kin term is distinct. In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi paapa paapa god semantic shift father' Probably from 'father' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa marʸewaka; ariyo', Var. riyo' (MM) marjewaka; arijoʔ, Var. rijoʔ (MM) unknown Alternate:marʸewaka In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna tupana, je'echú tupana, heʔetʃú loan; unique Nheengatu Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana yapi-riku-ri yapi-riku-ri calque, direction unknown Tukanoan; 'one on bone' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana tʰumĩĩkʰarɨ tʰumĩĩkʰarɨ unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa iñápirrikuli iɲápirikuli calque, direction unknown Unknown Tukanoan; 'one on bone' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro vakéǰo?thoónagí (kéǰo?tú 'create') vakédʒoʔtʰoónagí unique Bora Derived kéǰo?tú 'create', -gí gender marker In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
Achagua kuwáihiri; [others: kutʃí kutʃí, makabani, kahuijali, purunaminali, kamáisani] kuwáihiri; [others: kutʃí kutʃí, makabani, kahuijali, purunaminali, kamáisani] inheritance In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco cuwáisàiri [others: dios mitico I. Calira. 2. Maachuludani. dios mitológico I. Capilyali. 2. Cuwai. 3. Chamana iweesabaa. 4. Chamani. 5. Chawaliwali. 6. Chunisai. 7. Macabali. 8. Munuani. 9. Macuuchuiri. ("No tiene muslo") kuwáisàiɾi In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena Diutsu; kòai (Natterer) Diutsu; kòai (Natterer) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero Napiruľi Napiruľi In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Paresi ˈenore ˈenore unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure vekiyiti (god) vekijiri (god) unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Bora Píívyéébéé (piívye 'origin'), Mécáánií (me 'our' caanii 'father'), Niimúhe no discernable etymology) Pʰííβjéépéé, Mékʰáánií, Niimúʔe unique; unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane mócaani ('our father=God'); mohéédeebe (traditional deity) mókaani ('God'); moʔéédeebe (traditional deity) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai ritonõpo 'Deus' ritonõpo 'Deus' unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana kujuli (mythic creator hero) kujuli (mythic creator hero) loan Arawak, e.g. Achagua kawijali In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
Carijona rioso (SM) loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Makiritare wanādi (IDS) (Means "God") wana:di unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Mapoyo maiwaka, kaato (for the men) maiwaka, kaato (for the men) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai kaan kaan inheritance In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari makonaiama (god) makonaiama (god) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa Máipor 'God' Máipor 'God' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Northern Emberá ãŋkõré ãŋkõré In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Cofán chiga (god, sun) tʃiga (god, sun) phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra apaarich (derived from father?) apaaɾitʃ semantic shift from 'father' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez itáqui (Sun) itaki In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tu3pa3na5 (A58) tupana loan Tupi-Guarani In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kwaaʉn kwa:ʉn unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé ɔtɛ 'God' (IDS); Kumanyi 'Creatress, principal deity' (Lin97) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave dio dio loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar yus jus In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa yuus (Spanish loan) ju:s In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna apa-hui apa-hui semantic shift father' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses icbo ('lord', dueño) ikbo ('lord', dueño) unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Yagua judenu xũndenu unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Piaroa büoka bɨõka unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva llipehaidi 'creator' dʒipeʔaidi 'creator' unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Becky Walker
Carapana poca pɔka In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Tuyuka kõ'ãbãkɨ̃ kõʔãbãkɨ̃ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Siona riusu (Spanis loan) riusu (Spanis loan) loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya maija'quë maihaʔkɨ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana motỹnh motɨ̃ɲ unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi [nios] [nios] loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
Sirionó [dioso] [dioso] loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Ocaina bucoome, jonhtúúgoma, xámon bɯkoome, hõʔtɯ́ɯ́goma, xámõ unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto Jusiñamuì (God, creator) husiɲamuì (God, creator, B83) unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito cumáani (also 'father's brother'); p'ɨ-caquíha (lit. our father 'God') kumáani (also 'father's brother'); p'ɨ-kakíha (lit. our father 'God') semantic shift In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo p+atsaw pɨatsaw In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Becky Walker
Wari jam (also 'spirit') (Sousa2009) jam (also 'spirit') (Sousa2009) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-dosi-kiana (listed under "God") e-dosi-kiana (listed under "God") In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña yoso; e-duči (G71) (both mean "God"; yoso is from Spanish "Dios") yoso; e-duči (G71) loan; inheritance? Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara dyusa (Spanish loan) pačamama; wakˀa In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
Kwazá arikwãjũ arikwãjũ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick
Movima [dios] [dios] In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai atua; atua.nui; hā atua; atua.nui; hā unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang topẽ topɛ̃; ɛ̃ŋ-yɔŋ məŋ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi hotõ, karopsihi hotõ, karopsihi In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE