Nheengatu

Family
Tupian
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yrl
Location
1.05°, -66.96°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
da Cruz, Aline. 2011. Fonologia e Gramática do Nheengatú: A língua geral falada pelos povos Baré, Warekena e Baniwa. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. (Doctoral disseration). Grenand, Françoise and Epaminondas Henrique Ferreira. 1989. Pequeno Dicionário da Língua Geral. (Série Amazônas, Cultura Regional 6.) Manaus: SEDUC. Mello, Octaviano. 2003. Dicionário Tupi-Portugues, Portugues-Tupi, 2nd ed. Manaus: EDUA.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location iwaté iwaté inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ãmũramẽkuri (uma outra vez) ãmũramẽkuri (uma outra vez) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
all todo todos other payẽ pajẽ inheritance? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
and y e grammar i i loan Span/Port y/e 'and' See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
armpit axila, sobaco axila body iuáuíra iwáwíra inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tanimbuka tanimbuka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
at en, a em, a location çuiwara (from çui=de/ wara= marca do hábitato) suiwaɾa (from sui= de / waɾa=marca do hábitato) unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
back espalda costas body kupé, ku'á kupé, ku'á inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
belly barriga barriga body marika (from portuguese) marika loan Portuguese barriga See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
below abajo, debajo abaixo location yawika ('to lower') jawika (to 'lower') unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
big grande grande quality açu asu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bite morder morder body çuu (with variant çu'u) suu (with variant su'u) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
black negro preto colour pixuna, tapayuna (piju=black, used in various native tupi languages, tapajuna used for color of skin) piʃuna, tapajuna (piju=black, used in various native tupi languages, tapajuna used for color of skin) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
blood sangre sangue body tui tui inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
blow soplar soprar body peyu peju inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bone hueso osso body kãwera kãweɾa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
breast pecho, seno peito body kambi, putiá kambi, putiá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
breathe respirar respirar body angá (noun, respiração) anga (noun, respiração) unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
burn quemar queimar environment kay kaj inheritance Arawak See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
child niño, niña criança human taina, aina taina, aina unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
climb subir subir motion yupíri jupiɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cold frío frio quality uçanga usaŋga unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
come venir vir motion yuwirí, úri juwiɾi, uɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cook cocinar cozinhar impact memũy memũi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality até (from eté= verdadeiro) atɛ (from ɛtɛ= verdadeiro) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
count contar contar mental papári papaɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cry llorar chorar mental yaciu, yaxiu (variant) jasiu, jaʃiu (variant) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cut/hack cortar cortar impact munuka, yapina munuka, japina inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
day día dia time ara ara inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
die/be dead morir morrer state manũ manũ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dig cavar cavar impact pikũy pikũi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dirty sucio sujo quality kiá kia inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dream soñar sonhar mental kérpi keɾpi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
drink beber, tomar beber body u u inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dry seco seco quality tikanga tikaŋga inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dust polvo poeira environment mukawa kuí mukawa kuí inheritance/sem shift? see 'flour' See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
ear oreja orelha body nambi nambi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
earth/soil tierra terra environment iwi (Mello2000) iwi (Mello2000) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
eat comer comer body mbau mbau inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
egg huevo ovo fauna upiá upiá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
eye ojo olho body eça, ceçá esá, sesá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body tiputi tiputi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fall caer cair motion wári waɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
far lejos longe quality pekatu (from pé=caminho, katu=bom), apekatu (from ape=ai, katu=bom) pɛkatu (from pɛ=caminho, katu=bom), apɛkatu (from apɛ=ai, katu=bom) unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fat/grease grasa gordura body kawaçawa (kawa=gordo, sawa=nominalizer) kawasawa (kawa=gordo, sawa=nominalizer) unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
father padre, papá pai kinship parú, pai (from POR) paya parú, pai (from POR), paja unknown; doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fear miedo medo mental akayémũ akajɛmũ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
feather pluma pena fauna awa awa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fire fuego fogo environment tatá, atá tatá, atá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fish xx xx fauna pirá (generic word for fish) akará (generic term used to refer to certain species of fish such as cichlids, there are other terms for "fish." pirá (generic word for fish) akará (generic term used to refer to certain species of fish such as cichlids, there are other terms for "fish.") akarí (also used for generic name for a species of fish) inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
flower flor flor environment putira putiɾa inheritance Tikuna See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fly volar voar motion wewé wewé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
foot pie body inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fruit fruta fruta flora iwa iwa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
good bueno bom quality katu katu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
grow crecer crescer state yukiriári (from kiriári=do portuguȇs criar), yumijã (from mujã=fazer), puãmu jukiriari (from kiriari=do portuguȇs criar), jumijã (mujã=fazer), puãmu unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body awa awa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hand mano mão body pu pu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
head cabeza cabeça body akanga akaŋga inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hear oír ouvir mental cendu sendu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
heavy pesado pesado quality pucé pusé unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hide esconder esconder motion yumimi, kiriri (esconder-se) jumimi, kiɾiɾi (esconder-se) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hit golpear, pegar bater impact peteka, tuká, nupá peteka, tuká, nupá inheritance likely loan Nheengatu > Warekena (Arawak) peta (other N Arawak forms distinct) See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other aikwé aikwé unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
how? como como grammar maupé maupɛ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
if si se grammar ça, aramẽ sa, aɾamẽ unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kwarupé (contração de kwara upé), kwara kwaɾupɛ (contração de kwaɾa upɛ), kwaɾa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
intestines intestinos intestinos body búxu búʃu unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body yuçara, karãy jusaɾa, karãj unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
kill matar matar impact yuká juká inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
lake lago lago environment ipá ipa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
laugh reír rir mental puká puka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
leaf hoja folha environment awa, ka'a, uá awa, kaʔa, uá inheritance; inheritance; unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yenũ jenũ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment werá wera inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body murári murari loan Portuguese See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
liver hígado figado body piá (also used for heart and stomach? piá (also used for heart and stomach? inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
long largo comprido, longo quality puku puku inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kiwa kiwa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
lung pulmón pulmão body angariru, piayawewa´á angaɾiɾu, piajawewaʔá unique; unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
meat/flesh carne carne fauna çuukwera suukwera inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
moon luna lua environment yaci jasi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship maya, mãmãy maja, mãmãj unknown; loan Span/Port? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mouth boca boca body yuru juru inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
name nombre nome human eɾa eɾa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
near/close cerca de perto quality uaki (uá= rostro) uaki (ua= rostro) unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
neck cuello pescoço body ayura ajuɾa inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
new nuevo novo quality piçaçu pisasu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
night noche noite time pituna (from piʃuna=black) pituna (from piʃuna=black) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
no/not no não grammar umba´á umbaʔa unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
nose nariz nariz body tĩ tĩ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
old viejo velho quality tuyuwé tujuwé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
one uno um number yepé yepé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
open/uncover abrir abrir other pirári pirári inheritance? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
other otro outro grammar ãmũ ãmũ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body maci, çaci masi, sasi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
person/human being persona pessoa human mira mira unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact peteka, nupá peteka, nupá unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
rain lluvia chuva environment amãna amãna inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
red rojo vermelho colour piranga piɾaŋga inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
road/path camino caminho manufacture inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
root raíz raiz flora apu apu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
rotten podrido podre quality uka uka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sand arena areia environment iwikũĩ (morphologically complex: iwi = terra) iwikũĩ (morphologically complex: iwi = terra) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
say decir dizer mental yẽ'ẽ jẽʔẽ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
scratch rascar rasgar impact çuruka (~torn) suɾuka (~torn) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
see ver ver mental mã´ã mãʔã inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact yapi japi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
short corto curto quality atuka atuka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
shoulder hombro ombro body apa apa unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental tiçawa ('shame') tisawa ('shame') missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sit sentar(se) sentar state apika apika inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
skin piel pele body pirera (same as bark) piɾeɾa (same as bark) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sky cielo céu environment iwaka, iyuwaka iwaka, ijuwaka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sleep dormir dormir body kíri kíri inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
small pequeño pequeno quality miri, ananika (possibly from portuguese anão) miɾi, ananika (possibly from portuguese anão) inheritance; unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
smoke humo fumaça environment tatatinga (tata=fogo, tinga=branco) tatatiŋga (tata=fogo, tinga=branco) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body uçetúna usetuna inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
spit escupir cuspir body tumuna (Mello2000) tumuna (Mello2000) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact munuçuka munusuka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact yami jami inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state puãmu puãmu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
star estrella estrela environment yacitá (older term, yaci=lua, ta=tatá=fogo), estrela (from POR, newer term) jasitá (older term, yaci=lua, ta=tatá=fogo) estrela (from POR, newer term) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
steal robar roubar other mundá munda inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora mirá mira inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
stone piedra pedra environment itá itá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
suck chupar chupar body pitera pitera inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sweat sudar suor, suar body ucíaí utsíaí inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
swell hincharse inchar body punga (inchado) punga (inchado) unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
swim nadar nadar motion witá witá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tail cola, rabo rabo body uaya uaja inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
that ese/esa esse grammar kuá, yã'ã kuá, yãʔã inheritance cf. Máku kua See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kawa kawa unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
thin delgado fino quality kai kai unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
think pensar pensar mental maité, manduãri maite, manduãri unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
this este/esta este grammar kuá kuá, yaʔá, yawaʔá, paʔá, kuá, unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
2sg xx xx grammar re, ere, indé re, ere, indé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
three tres tres number muçapíri musapíɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
throat garganta garganta body kuruka kuruka doubtful loan Portuguese/Spanish? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact yapi, mburi (jogar fora) japi, mburi (jogar fora) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
thunder truenos trovão environment trovã [Pt loan] trovã [Pt loan] loan Portuguese trovão See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact yaputi, pukwári japuti, pukwári inheritance; inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tongue lengua lingua body apeku apeku inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tooth diente dente body aya aja inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other muyeréu (mu=fazer, yeréu=virar-se), yeréu mujereu (mu=fazer, jereu=virar-se), jereu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
two dos dois number mũkũy mũkũj inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
vomit vomitar vomitar body wena wena inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
walk caminar, andar andar motion watá, muratá watá, muratá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
water agua agua environment i'i ii iʔi, ii (the two differ by refering to one water being considered fresher than the other) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
wet mojado molhado quality mururu (verb, molhar) mururu (verb, molhar) loan Portuguese See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
what? que, qué que grammar maá maá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
when? cuando quando grammar ramẽ, maramẽ (ma=mã´ã=coisa, ramẽ=quando) ramẽ, maramẽ (ma=mãʔã=coisa, ramẽ=quando) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
where? donde onde grammar maciwã, mamẽ masiwã, mamẽ inheritance; inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
white blanco branco colour murutinga muɾutiŋga inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
who? quien, quién quem grammar awá awá inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
wife esposa esposa kinship imiriku imiriku inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
wind viento vento environment iwitu iwitu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
wing ala asa body pepu pepu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
woman/female mujer mulher human kuyã, way (old woman) kujã, wai (old woman) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
work trabajar trabalhar other puraki puɾaki inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tawá (used for the generic word for yellow), uaiwa (used to refer to color of skin) tawá (used for the generic word for yellow), uaiwa (used to refer to color of skin) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bad mal mal quality puxuwera puʃuwera unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar u u inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
1sg yo eu grammar ixé iʃé inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
leg/foot pierna perna body etimã etimã inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
man/male hombre homem human apigá, apigawa (apigawa is an older variety of apiga) apigá, apigawa (apigawa is an older variety of apiga) unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tau, tai tau, tai (etym: from "ta" which is most likely a 3rd person possesive) unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kwáu, koyecéri (from POR) kwáu, kojeséri (from POR) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ya (used before a verb) yandé ("Etimologia: cf. ya, Se usa antes do verbo já completado para insistir) ja (used before a verb) jandé ("Etimologia: cf. ya, Se usa antes do verbo já completado para insistir) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
2pl ustedes vocês grammar peyẽ pejẽ inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bark corteza casca environment pirera pirera inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fingernail uña unha body puãpé (pu=pe) puãpé (pu=pe) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
heart corazón coração body piá (also used for stomach and liver?) piá (also used for stomach and liver?) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sun sol sol time kuraci kuɾasi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment yumbuiçawa (yumbui-lavrar, çawa-nominalizer) jumbuisawa (jumbui=lavrar, sawa=nominalizer) unique See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
green verde verde quality çuikíri suikíɾi inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hot caliente quente quality çaku saku inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana uruku uɾuku inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. inga (family Mimosacea) (many other trees described by inga) iŋga (family Mimosacea) (many other trees described with inga. inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuti, akutia akuti, akutia loan into protolg, direction unknown Proto-Tupi-Guarani Carib Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: akutia underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yakaré (generic term) diridiri (giant alligator, from arawak) jakaré (generic term), diridiri (giant alligator, from arawak) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: diridiri (giant alligator, from arawak) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis pirá yawara ('fish-jaguar') pirá jawara ('fish-jaguar') unique Compound fish feline/jaguar' See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wawiru 'rat' wawiru 'rat' rat, mouse unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes çukuriyu, mbuyawaçu (possibly fictitious animal) sukuɾiju, mbujawasu (possibly fictitious animal) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: mbuyawaçu (possibly fictitious animal) underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora xibui ʃibui inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae çaiwa, taçiwa saiwa, tasiwa Generic, but same term also means 'formiga-lava-pe, Solenopsis' inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) wariri, wariri'i waɾiɾi, waɾiɾi'i doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Wayana walisi Also: waɾiɾi'i underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tatu tatu inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum canarâna 'false cane' kanarana unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. pakuá, pakuvá pakuá (word for banana, types of banana are identified by this word) bayé (variedad de banana), pakuvá inheritance? Mello 2000 reconstructs to PTG; probably a semantic shift from Heliconia. Also: pakuvá; bayé (variedad de banana), underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. andirá andirá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. fejã (from POR, replaced tupi word /kumanda/) fejã (from POR, replaced tupi word /kumanda/) loan Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also fejã (Pt loan) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis iramayã, yandaira, pirayaira, irucu iramajã, jandaira, pirajaira, irucu inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Mello 2003 reconstructs 'ira'. Also: yandaira, pirayaira, irucu ira' = honey, bee Compound ira 'honey/bee' mãjã 'mother' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna uirá wirá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala pindaiwa mirá (scientific name unknown) iwira (other name describes envira trees, under family name Annona) pindaiwa mirá (scientific name unknown) iwira (other name describes envira trees, under family name Annona) unknown Also: pindaiwa mirá (scientific name unknown) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba iwakaiwa (iwa = tree, iwaka=fruit of bacabeira; matches nomenclature), iwa pixuna (iwa=fruit, pixuna=black) iwakaiwa (matches nomenclature),iwa piʃuna??(iwa=fruit, piʃuna=black) unknown Compound either 'tree fat' or 'tree wasp' See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae jibuya (ji=machado, buya=cobra) jibuya murutinga (white boa) ʒobóia (ʒi=machado, buya=cobra), ʒobóia murutiŋga (white boa) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Compound (ji=axe, buya=snake) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kuya kuja inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] kastaya (borrowing from POR) kastayatiwa kastaja (borrowing from POR), kastajatiwa castanha-do-Para loan Portuguese underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha aimoré (Mello 2003); makaka marikawaçu (makaka=macaco, marika=barriga, wasu=grande) aimoré (Mello 2003); makaka marikawaçu (makaka=macaco, marika=barriga, wasu=grande) loan; loan/calque Carib? Carijona aimoré; Portuguese macaco' (plus calque 'big-bellied'?) Also: aimoré (Mello 2003) Phrase (makaka=macaco, marika=barriga, wasu=grande) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing Probably tocandira See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera panapana panapana inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kapiuçara, kapiwara kapiusara inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani. Also: kapiusara No info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum akayu akaju inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea daridari daridari unknown Probably onomatopoeic. Also: jakirana (reconstructs PTG; Mello 2003) Reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. xipu (many other words used for this type of vine) ʃipu (many other words used for this type of vine) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca ipadu ipadu loan - WW %patu WW %patu underived See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria arawé (also used for different species of insects) arawé (also used for different species of insects) inheritance? - WW Proto-Tupi-Guarani %arawe, Mello 2000 *taraBe; cf. Carib (*)masarawa Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Generic, used for certain other insects underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu taititu taititu inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: kaitetu, tayasu underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) amaniú amaniú inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura uça usa inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. urumutum uɾumutum inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Phrase uru 'big' ('big mutum') See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus çuaçu suasu inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yawara jawara (once used a generic term for felines?) semantic shift jaguar Similar shift in many languages underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis yawara ka'apura jawara ka'apura (jawara = carnivoro, ka'a=mata, pura=morador) unique Phrase jawara = carnivor, feline, ka'a=forest, pura=dweller See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae pikaçu, (Columbidea) pumba (from POR) pikasu (Columbidea) pumba (from POR) Columbidea inheritance Also: pumba (from POR) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family ipekai ipekai inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. aí tapuru (species of parastic larva found in palm trees, etym: ai = laziness/sloth, tapuru = wormy) aí tapuru (species of parastic larva found in palm trees, etym: ai = laziness, tapuru = wormy) unknown Compound 'sloth worm' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus puraké puraké inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pirá pirá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas pirá uruku piɾá uɾuku unknown Compound fish achiote' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. timbu, kunambi (flowwing plant, not a poisonous vine, but it is used as fish poison) timbu, kunambi (flowwing plant, not a poisonous vine, but it is used as fish poison) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: kunambi (plant, not vine) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera tumbira tumbiɾa unknown No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera meru meru inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana jenipá ʒenipá inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis yawakaká jawakaká (jawara = carnivor, kaka = ?) unknown No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) caápií kaápií inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Other complex ka'a 'grass' pĩ ?? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans yakami jakami inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba mãgwari (Ardea cocoi) mãgwari (Ardea cocoi) Ardea cocoi inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti akuti waya (akuti=cutia, waya=rabo, doesn't match specfically, same genus) akuti waya (akuti=cutia, waya=rabo, doesn't match specfically, same genus) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. yaku jaku inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae karipira, wirawasu (Mello 2000) karipira, wirawasu (Mello 2000) gavião real ('royal hawk') unique Other complex bird-AUG See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kĩ ĩya, murupi kĩ ĩja, murupi Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum annum inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: murupi (Capsicum frutescens) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] wariwa wariwa inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae waynambi wajnambi inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. kameleu kameleu loan Portuguese underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yawaɾaté, yawaɾate (yawara=felino, te,ete=legitimate) jawaɾaté, jawaɾate (jawara=felino, te,ete=legitimate) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani cf. Arawak, Tukanoan Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Other complex jawara 'feline', -(e)te 'true' See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura yapurá yapurá name of river; presumably also name of the tree unknown underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra çamu'uma samu'ua unknown No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. waçai, waçai iwitepura, waçai ka`atingapura, waçai maniwa, morpheme "pura" meaning whole, or indicator of place wasai, wasai iwitepura (a species of the assai tree) wasai ka'atingapura (another species of the tree with a smaller fruit?) wasai maniwa (a porridge made out of manioc and assai berries. Nutritious and very filling, purple in color) morpheme "pura" mean inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. cará kará inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae wariramba wariramba inheritance Subgroup Apiaka No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. çaiuwa saiuwa unknown Also: usaiwa underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kuisí (Mello 2003), gagaluna kuisí (Mello 2003), gagaluna loan - WW Portuguese %kukuj; Portuguese Also: kuisí (Mello 2003) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. arara arara loan into protolg? - WW Proto-Tupi-Guarani %arara Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. There are several species of macaw that are classified by their color in Nheengatu. Example: arara cukiri translates to blue macaw.) araramiri (arara=macaw,miri=small) arara'I (Ara severa) underived See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays mílyu (from POR) mílju (from POR) loan Portuguese Also: auatí (awatí) Mello 2003 (inherited PTG) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. iwarawá (G&F: Carib origin?) pirá tapi ira ('fish-tapir') iwaɾawá (G&F: Carib origin?) pirá tapi ira ('fish-tapir') unknown G&F attribute to Carib, but similar term exists in Kokama. Also: pirá tapiʔira 'fish tapir/cow' No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mandi'i mandi'i inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta maniaka (Mello 2000) maniaka (Mello 2000) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Other complex mani 'manioc' + oca See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta makaxera makaxera loan Found Urubu-Kaapor, Asurini (with note saying a Port loan); other TG lgs have 'manioc-sweet'. Also found in Arawak. Could be a loan in TG, certainly a loan into other lgs. No info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa miriti, turiyá (Mauritia esp.) miriti, turijá (Mauritia esp.) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. karapanã karapanã doubtful loan, direction unknown possibly from Carib; shared Kaapor-Tembe-Nheengatu May be inherited (Kaapor-Tembe-Nheengatu) No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis bakúyari bakújari unknown No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae mikura mikura inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes kuruyá, murukututu (screech owl) kurujá, murukututu (Screech owl) unknown %murukutu / kurukutu Also: murukututu (screech owl found in South and Central America) No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) paka paka inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. paku paku inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana karanã, kawayá karanã, kawajá unknown Also: kawayá underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kuriká, parawa'i (small parrot) weu (Amazona festiva) kuriká; parawa'i (small parrot) weu (Amazona festiva) loan - WW; doubtful loan - WW Proto-Tupi-Guarani %kuli; %awaro Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea paxiʔiwa paxiʔiwa inheritance Compound iwa 'tree' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes kurupira pupuya (kurupira=curupira/ pupuja=pupnha), pupuya kuɾupiɾa pupuja (kurupira=curupira/ pupuja=pupnha), pupuja inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nãnã, abakaxi nãnã, abakaʃi inheritance - WW Subgroup Guarani Also: nãnã underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae piraya (pira=fish, ya,aya=tooth) piɾaja (pira=fish, ya,aya=tooth) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Other complex pira=fish, ya'aya=tooth See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kuãdú kuãdú inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing Probably same as 'sweet potato' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. seringá seringá unknown underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones yararaká, rakraya jararaká, rakraja scorpion, venomous snake semantic shift from 'snake' Mello (2003) reconstructs PTG *jawajɨr. Also: rakraya scorpion, venemous snake underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua patawá patawá unknown underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. ai ai inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: aiwasu ('royal sloth', lit. 'sloth-AUG') underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata teyu (lagarto generico), teyumiri (small lizard, teju=lizard, miri=small, family Geckonideo) teju (lagarto generico), tejumiri (small lizard, teju=lizard, miri=small, family Geckonideo) lizard (generic) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda uruá (generic term for water snails) urua (generic term for water snails) water snail inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna buya buja inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox yararaka (Bathrops atrox) jararaka (Bothrops atrox) Bothrops atrox; also scorpion inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. çurubĩ suɾubĩ inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yandu jandu inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. jirimũ ʒirimũ inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae akuti puru akuti puru inheritance maybe 'jumping agouti'? Phrase akuti 'agouti', puru 'ornamented' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. yawawira jawawira inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 No info Probably complex See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas batata, yutika (G&F: no longer widely used) batata, jutika (G&F: no longer widely used) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Also: cará, batata (Pt loan). Grenand & Ferreira: yutika no longer widely used. underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tapi'ira ka'apura (tapirus terrestris) kaiwara (variant of the former) tapi'ira ka'apura (tapirus terrestris), kaiwara (varient of the former) tapirus terrestris inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: kaiwara Phrase tapir forest-dweller See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kupĩ ' ĩ, maniwara (mani=manioc, wara=eater) kupĩ ' ĩ, maniwara (mani=manioc, wara=eater) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea karapátu karapátu loan Portuguese Etymology reportedly from Pre-Romance caparra+ato underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. tari'ira tariʔira inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae inambu (other species go by this name) inambu (other species go by this name) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 includes other species as well? underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura yu'i (generic term, frog) aru (species of frog) kururu (type of frog, onomatopeia of cry), pakará (Leptodactilideo) mawá (Leptodactylus pentadactylus) ju'i (generic term, frog) aru (species of frog), kururu (type of frog, onomatopeia of cry) pakará (Leptodactilideo), mawá (Leptodactylus pentadactylus) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum baruri baɾuɾi unknown Proto-Tupi-Guarani Mello gives pitima (inheritance) Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: baɾuɾi underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria yauti (yellow footed), karumbé (red footed), jurara majã (giant tortoise, jurara=tartaruga, maja=mae) jauti (yellow footed) karumbé (red footed), jurara majã (giant tortoise, jurara=tartaruga, maja=mae) yellow-footed tortoise inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. karumbé (red footed), jurara majã (giant tortoise, jurara=tartaruga, maja=mae) underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tukana tukana inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna mirá (possible generic term) iwa (morpheme meaning tree, used in compound words) mira (possible generic term) iwa (morpheme meaning tree, used in compound words) inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000. Also: iwa (mainly used in compounds) underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana kunuri kunuri Cunuria crassipes unknown underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui ukuki ukuki unknown underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae urubu urubu inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kawa kawa inheritance Probably inherited; Loan INTO Port.; FERREIRA, A. B. H. Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa. Segunda edição. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1986. p.299 underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons kai arara kai arara unknown Lit. 'parrot monkey' Compound kai 'monkey' arara 'parrot' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus makaka pixuna makaka piʃuna loan Portuguese 'macaco' + TG 'black' Phrase monkey' + 'black' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari tayaçu ka'apura tayasu kaʔapura inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Reconstructed PTG Mello 2000 Phrase peccary forest-dweller See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing Probably kukura See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae arapáçu aɾapásu inheritance Subgroup Urubu-Kaapor Mello 2000 underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. tayuba tajuba unknown Phrase taja 'plant sp.' + oba 'green' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yawara jawara semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna çuaçu (generic term) suasu (generic term) unknown See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool takaná, uiwa takaná, uiwa unique; inheritance *uʔɨß Proto-Tupi-Guarani cf. Apalai takɨ Alternate: takaná Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ji ʒi inheritance *jɨ Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pinaputawa pinaputawa inheritance Compound contanis pina 'fish' can refer to worms; more generic See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material bapa (Cruz 2011) bapa (Cruz 2011) unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material balaiu Doubtful loan Portuguese Probably of Port origin, but could it have originated in Tupi-Guarani? Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material balaiu (basket, C11), panakú, waturá (other basket types) cesto de costas entrançado com folhas de bacabeira ou de acai inheritance *panakũ Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material puira puira inheritance? Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material apicáwa apikáwa inheritance from 'sit' See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool çarauatana sarawatana loan Portuguese currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bow arco arco subsistence tool mirapara mirapara inheritance *ɨßɨrapar Proto-Tupi-Guarani Loan TG > Yucuna wiɾaʔapaɾa arco See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
broom escoba vassoura culture-material tapixawa (Casas2000) tapixawa (Casas2000) inheritance cf. Quechua piʃana See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
canoe canoa canoa transport igara (canoe); uba (C11) igara (canoe); uba (C11) inheritance *ɨar Proto-Tupi-Guarani Alternate: uba Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
cat gato gato acculturation pixana (Casas2000) piʃana (Casas2000) loan - WW %pisana Via Nheengatu into: Tariana pisána, Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana; Hup picana; Tukanoan E. family (eg: Wanano pisana) WW %pisana Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
chicken gallina galinha acculturation sapukaya (Casas2000) sapukaja (Casas2000) semantic shift from 'cry, call' (Nordenskiold 1922:28) Similar term 'sapukana' means 'hawk' in Surui do Tocantins (Mello 2000); compare also 'kakara' terms for 'hawk' in another TG language (Auwá?) that resemble other 'chicken' Wanderwörter; nordenskiold 1922, citing rodriguez, says this comes from verb 'call See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tuxawa (Casas2000); kapitão (C11, Port loan) tuʃawa (Casas2000); kapitão (C11, Port loan) WW; loan %tuʃawa; Portuguese Donor: Pemon tusawa, etc.; Alternate: kapitão Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
coca narcotics ipadu Loan Arawak or Tukano Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food memũi Inheritance *mimoin Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology Kurupira (C11) Kurupira (C11) inheritance Also attested Ka'apor malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
dance (generic) culture-mythology purasi Inheritance *poratsej Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex Schleicher 1998 reconstructs See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tupã (old word used to describe spirits causing thunder, but chosen later to describe Christian God.) tupã (old word used to describe spirits causing thunder, but chosen later to describe Christian God.) inheritance *tupã Reconstructs as 'thunder', but has both meanings in many TG languages; donor for Yucuna tupana, Kaingang topẽ; Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ikerpi, kerupi (Casas2000) ikerpi, kerupi (Casas2000) unknown Alternate: kerupi Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tamburina (loan POR) tamburina (loan POR) loan Portuguese Baniwa tamoɻína; Yavitero tam'buru; Akawaio sambura; Pemon sambura; Wai Wai samaΦora; Northern Emberá thãmbura; Jivaro (e.g. Huambisa tampur); Cubeo tɛ̃mulibʉ; Ninam tambor; WW %tamburina Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool tapekwá tapekwá inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology kangatara, akangatara (headdress, headband; Casas2000) kangatara, akangatara (headdress, headband; Casas2000) unknown Also: akangatara See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology puçanga pusanga inheritance *potsaŋ Donor: Portuguese puçanga; Other TG?: Ashuar pusaŋ Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
firewood leña lenha other yepeawa jepeawa inheritance Mello 2000 gives 'japeawa' as reflex of protoform *japeaßa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food timiari (Casas2000) timiari (Casas2000) unique from 'timbo' Also: mukau. Possible donor to Eñepa -tïmï- Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food pinaitika (pina=hook, tika=shake, tremble) pinaitika (pina=hook, tika=shake, tremble) inheritance *pinaetɨk Derived pina=hook, tika=shake, tremble See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool timbu a general term for various plant species used as fish poison Inheritance *timo Proto-Tupi-Guarani Alternate: kunambi. Donor: Portuguese timbó; Other TG?: Candoshi tĩmó; Jivaro family timu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool pina xama (pina=fish, xama=cord) pina ʃama (pina=fish, ʃama=cord) unknown Compound pina=fish, ʃama=cord See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool matapi, kakuri, paitika, piçá (fish net) matapi, kakuri, paitika, pisá (fish net) unknown Local Yavitero ka'kul'i; Baniwa kákoli; Sikuani kakuli; Arawak or Nheengatu source? WW %kakuli Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food meyu (beiju in general); kurada (beiju made from tapioca) meju (beiju in general); kurada (beiju made from tapioca) inheritance *meju possible donor to Portuguese beiju; Resígaɾo maaʔmú; Waimiri Atroari meie; Guayabero meyne Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food uĩ; (also: karuera, farofa [loan from POR]) uĩ, karuera, farofa (loan from POR) inheritance *maniʔok Mello: *uʔi- Also ʔui, shared in . Possible donor for Yucuna uʔuwí; Makushi ùʔwí [Alternate: karuera, farofa] Phrase mani + oka 'white' agriculture See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology membi (Casas2000) membi (Casas2000) inheritance *mimɨ Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food suu (C11) su: (C11) semantic shift Within subgroup? from 'bite' From 'meat' Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
genipap culture-mythology ʒenipá Inheritance *janɨpaß Proto-Tupi-Guarani Portuguese genipapo; Spanish genipapa Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kuya (C11) kuja (C11) inheritance *kuja %kuja donor for Portuguese cuia; Yucuna kujeɾa; Baniwa kóoja Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool iwise (Mello2000) iwise (Mello2000) inheritance *ɨßetsẽ Also ißesẽ (Mello 2000) Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool jurá (M2003), mita (C11) jurá (M2003), mita (C11) inheritance; unknown possible donor for Paresi ma'tjai; Yagua muta Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool yapuna (Casas2000) japuna (Casas2000) inheritance *meju Subgroup? Simplex agriculture? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation muka (C11) muka (C11) WW %mukawa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material makira makira doubtful loan North Arawak Distinct from other TG forms. Occurs in Arawak, Macaguan, Kakua (?), Urarina (?), Aguaruna. Taylor 9157 argues that origin is in Arawak 'sleep-NMLZ' WW %amaka See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pajé; mutawariçawa (mutawar=smoke blower, sawa=nominalizer), puçangaçawa (pusaŋga=remedio, sawa = que tem o habito de) paʒé; mutawaɾasa (mutawar=smoke blower, sawa=nominalizer) pusaŋgasawa (pusaŋga=remedio, sawa = que tem o habito de) inheritance; unique *paje possible donor for Bará bahe'-gɨ́; Alternate: mutawaɾasa, pusaŋgasawa Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics kuxu, kuruata kuʃu, kuruata unknown Alternate: kuruata Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
honey miel mel food ira (Mello2000) ira (Mello2000) inheritance *eir- Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
hunt cazar caçar food kasai (C11) kasai (C11) doubtful loan Portuguese Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kicé; kicemiri (kise = knife, miri = small) kisé, kisemiri (kise = knife, miri = small) inheritance kise' part is inherited Phrase kise=knife; miri=small See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress cuêio kwejo Missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
machete machete facão culture-material kicé kisé semantic shift *kitʃe Proto-Tupi-Guarani knife' Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool induá induá inheritance *ɨnuʔa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fence, palisade cerco cerca other kurara kurara loan Arawak or Spanish/Portuguese Nheengatu as likely donor into Arawak (e.g. Wapishana kʰurara); Baniwa koɻáaɻa; Nheengatu kurara; Northern Emberá korrá WW %kurara Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology pindaiwa pindaiwa unknown See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
paper papel papel acculturation papera (Port loan, C11) papera (Port loan, C11) loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool çukári, çuçuka (possible verb) sukári, susuka (possible? verb) unknown Alternate: susuka (possible? verb) See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material parátu parátu loan Portuguese see also Arawak (e..g Yucuna paɾatú); Carib (e.g. Makushi pɨratu); Jivaro (e.g. Aguaruna parátu); Hup padatu=b'ɔk Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool turuá tuɾuá loan, direction unknown att. Warekena, Waimiri-Atroari Donor: Waimiri Atroari tɨruwa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology maracá maraká loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Carib maraka See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool icika isika inheritance Subgroup or higher Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
salt sal sal food yukira (C11) jukira (C11) inheritance - WW *jukɨr Proto-Tupi-Guarani Donor: Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb RN juki:ɾ; Cubeo jukila, etc. Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
school escuela escola acculturation iskola (Port loan; C11) iskola (Port loan; C11) loan Portuguese also Akawaio skur; Yanomam eskuera Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material çaya saja loan Port/Span saia Port > Nheengatu > others? Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
soldier soldado soldado acculturation surara (C11) surara (C11) loan - WW %surara Port source; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology nheenga (sing, v.; C11; nheenga=language/speech) ñeengari (sing, v.; ñeenga=language/speech) unknown Other complex sing, v.; ñeenga=language/speech See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food tipiaka tipiaka inheritance Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kana (sugar cane; Casas2000) kana (sugar cane; Casas2000) loan Portuguese Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food mingau mingau inheritance? Proto-Tupi-Guarani Simplex agriculture See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material apé, karanã, kawayá apé, karanã, kawayá unknown Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tipiti (de tipi=fundo) tipiti (de tipi=fundo) inheritance *tepiti Donor: Spanish/Portuguese tipiti; Ticuna tipiti; Iquito tipiití Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
tobacco (native) narcotics baruri Unknown Also pitima, inherited from Proto-TG (Mello 2000) See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool çuaçu suasu Calque East Tukanoan? Same form for 'tripod' and 'deer', as found throughout the Vaupes region Simplex agriculture See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool wirari wirari doubtful loan - WW %wirari Also occurs in Kokama; but also in Akawaio (Carib), possibly a loan into TG? Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
wax cera cera other irawaçawa irawaʃawa unique Other complex ira 'honey' + çawa 'emphasis' See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool urupema, urupema ceçá pui, bati (used to strain liquids) kumatá (used for washing manioc meal) uɾupema (used for sifting manioc flour) uɾupema sesá pui, bati (used to strain liquids) kumatá (used for washing manioc meal) strainer used for sifting manioc flour inheritance *urupema possible donor for Baniwa oɻopéma; Alternate: uɾupema sesá pui, bati (used to strain liquids) kumatá (used for washing manioc meal) Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology Yurupari Jurupari evil forest spirit unknown a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material balaiu (basket, C11), panakú, waturá (other basket types) balaiu (basket, C11), panakú, waturá (other basket types) loan; doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW; doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW Arawak walaja; %panaku; %atura See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology pajé; mutawariçawa (mutawar=smoke blower, sawa=nominalizer) paʒé; mutawaɾasa (mutawar=smoke blower, sawa=nominalizer) inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology axirura aʃiɾuɾa inheritance - WW %sarur See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mira angá (mira=forest, anga=spirit); urupari (old expression, redefined to mean Christian devil, "Um mau espirito da mata para os Indios tupi, assimilado mais tarde ao Deus dos Indios tucanos), angá, yurupari (from Christian demon?) mira aŋgá (mira=forest, anga=spirit); urupari (old expression, redefined to mean Christian devil, "Um mau espirito da mata para os Indios tupi, assimilado mais tarde ao Deus dos Indios tucanos) aŋgá (in dictionary, it is listed under both soul and spirit) inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
paddle/oar remo remo transport aputiká aputiká inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture upaçama (cf. xama), tupaçama upasama (cf. ʃama), tupasama inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kaxiri (Cruz: not a Tupi term), kaiçuma (fermented manioc), tikira kaʃiri (Cruz: not a Tupi term); kaisuma (fermented manioc), tikira loan; inheritance?; unknown Carib prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
house other uka uka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Cruz 2011:47 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Cruz 2011:34 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Cruz 2011:34 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Cruz 2011:34 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Cruz 2011:34 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Cruz 2011:62 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes only glides allowed Cruz 2011:62 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Cruz 2011:62 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes found an example on page 378 (itá - rock, ita - PL particle) Cruz 2011:378 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info not many phonological processes described Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no a lot of grammatical information expressed by clitics and particles Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes a lot of grammatical information expressed by clitics and particles Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Cruz 2011:74, 308 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Cruz 2011:308 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Cruz 2011:255-257 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Cruz 2011:429 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Cruz 2011:438 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Cruz 2011: Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no no gender distinction Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no no classifiers Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info very few examples of numbers. There don't seem to be num. class Cruz 2011:165 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Cruz 2011:164 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes ita ita examples indicate that plural can mark inanimates (itá ita - rocks) Cruz 2011:377 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Cruz 2011:147 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Cruz 2011:262 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes yepe yepe Cruz 2011:265 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 aitenhaã - aitekua aitenhaã - aitekua proximal - distal Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Cruz 2011:141 - 145 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no reflexive prefix on verb Cruz 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Cruz 2011:412-420 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 10 postpositions Cruz 2011:197 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no supe - ara supe - ara beneficiaries/recepients marked by posposition Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith two types of dative markers: one for interlocutors and another for intralocutors
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Cruz 2011: Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes irũ irũ Cruz 2011:214 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Cruz 2011:262 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Cruz 2011:262 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Cruz 2011:262 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Cruz 2011:262 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info speakers tend to use the Portuguese loan words Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes perfective particle can be cliticized to noun Cruz 2011:463 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes inalienable possession must have possessive prefix Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no inalienable possession must have possessive prefix Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes inalienable possession must have possessive prefix Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Cruz 2011:194 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -sa(wa) Cruz 2011:247 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes -sa(ra) Cruz 2011:252 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Cruz 2011:382 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Cruz 2011:406-408 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Cruz 2011:406-408 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Cruz 2011:358 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes seraki particle, borrowing from Portuguese Cruz 2011:361 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Cruz 2011:358 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes supi particle Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Cruz 2011:358 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Cruz 2011:358 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes wera particle Cruz 2011:373 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes paa particle Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes SVO is more frequent, but VS and OV also occur Cruz 2011:412 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no SV seems to occur more commonly Cruz 2011:425 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Cruz 2011:417 Daniel Smith
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Cruz 2011:417 Daniel Smith
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Cruz 2011:417 Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Cruz 2011:196 Daniel Smith
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Cruz 2011:259 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Cruz 2011:259 Daniel Smith
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Demonstrative-Noun yes Cruz 2011:259 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Demonstrative no Cruz 2011:259 Daniel Smith
Word Order Num-Noun yes Cruz 2011:266 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Num no Cruz 2011:266 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Cruz 2011:510 Daniel Smith
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Cruz 2011:510 Daniel Smith
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Cruz 2011:510 Daniel Smith
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Cruz 2011:510 Daniel Smith
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Cruz 2011:348 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no no core NP marking Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no no core NP marking Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no no core NP marking Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no no core NP marking Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no no core NP marking Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no pronouns don't mark case Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no pronouns don't mark case Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no pronouns don't mark case Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no pronouns don't mark case Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no pronouns don't mark case Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes supe supe dative particle following beneficiary Cruz 2011:421 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Cruz 2011:421 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes yu- yu- prefix Cruz 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb yes mu- mu- Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes ti= ti= proclitic Cruz 2011:406 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes será será Cruz 2011:343 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Daniel Smith


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
8000 large AG dense sedentary Riverine exclusively the product of language shift