Dedicated past marker(s)

Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense
Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 107 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Past-tense markers seem to be second-position clitics, so they are often phonologically attached to the subject marker. There is no indication of how regular they are, but they often show up in examples. Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no there is a marker which implies the perfect aspect and the past tense) Aikhenvald, 1995: 31 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Seems to be fused with a perfective aspect marker. Indicates that the event occurred more than three days in the past. Galindo, 2002: 170-171 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer notes that other in the imperative mood, a verbal suffix marks immediate past tense. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 38, 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:167 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes The tense system is fused with evidentiality. Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Only aspect markers according to Mihas Mihas 2010:128 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:39 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:118 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no "We have to bear in mind that there is no tense marking in Baure."; "Since there is no tense marking in Baure, the interpretation of a situation as past or present depends on the verb's meaning and time adverbs in the clause." Danielsen 2007: p273, 175 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 249 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Palikur no no tense Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no no tense markers Matteson 1965:72-73 Daniel Smith
Añun no only aspect verb markers Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:62-72 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 329 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 116 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Gildea 1993:45 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 110 to 120 Shannon Dardis
Guna no no tense markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Aspect is marked on the verb rather than tense.Ika distinguishes perfective and imperfective aspect. When the verb occurs in its bare form in a sentence, it expresses past tense Frank 1990:56-58 Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Stendal 1976:6 Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes These are verbal suffixes which also trigger an change in the tematic verbal vowel Margery 1985:106-15 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Inmediate past. There are at least two mophological past tense markers Alphonse 1956:29 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani no same affix for past and present;usually inferred from the context of the sentence de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000:218 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes There are six different suffixes marking different past tenses which also encode differences in aspect Overall 2007:334 Daniel Valle There are four past tense markers
Northern Emberá yes There are at least four different past tenses Mortensen 1999:71-4 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:38-9 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:14-5 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:397-9 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes However, verbs may be in past tense even when this suffix does not show up. Further, this suffix also expresses other meanings such as adversative in coordinate sentences and "lack of relevance". Salas 1992, p.140-1 Daniel Valle
Páez no However, Paez has "relative tense" which is not obligatory. The "relative tense" morphemes also encode if the subject is similar or not. For this reason, I think that "relative tense" markers are like switch reference morphemes in Paez Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes It seems that past and future tenses are marked by a combination of the appropiate aspect markes and the "non-present" suffix /-qa/ Parker 1965:28, 50-2 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no There is not formal marking explicitly used for tense (p.481) Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Based on the examples. It also seems to be a sort of continuous/non-continuous aspect distinction (Loewen 1954:42) Mejía 2000:89; Loewen 1954:66 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p277 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galinda1992: 92 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes Goncalves 2011:35 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no The verbs for past and present are generally the same distinguished using a temporal word (adverb) Minor and Minor 1982. p.22 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes post verbal particle, not required Weir 1984:58 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 69 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 40 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no no tense Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.49 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.62-73 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.85 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.73 Chris Clack
Siona no there doesn't seem to be tense Wheeler - 1987:147-149 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 12-13, 50 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 169 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):12 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Karitiana distinguishes between future and non-future tense Everett 2006:265 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:317-9 Daniel Valle
Aché yes There are two past markers: /-re/ and /-we/ Rossler 2008:89 Daniel Valle
Kokama yes marked by enclitic Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 31 done 1
Garrwa yes 51 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes n40 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 84 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 97 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 141 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 126 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 39 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 74 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 115 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 43 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 33 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 34 done 1
Uradhi Yes 363 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 198, 203 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 202 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 168-169; 174-175 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 90-91 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 158 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 15 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 155 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 56 done 1
Martuthunira yes 139 done 1
Marrgany yes 315-316 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 353 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 92 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 407 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 16 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 45b Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 291 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 149 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 70 1
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu yes 70 done 1
Djinang Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 85 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes 55 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 40 done 1
Bularnu yes 71 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 35-6 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 91 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 163 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 49 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 77-79 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 97 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 69 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang yes 75 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 169 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 120 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 325 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 108 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 136-7 done 1
Wakaya yes 209 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 510 done 1
Bandjalang yes 94 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 32 done 1
Arrernte Yes 169 1
Kokatha Yes 29 1
Karajarri Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 8 1
Ritharrngu Yes 65 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 912 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 71-2 1
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri yes 15 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari Yes 38 1
Wajarri Yes 96 1
Warungu yes 260 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:386 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps