Dâw

Family
Nadahupan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
kwa
Location
-0.12°, -67.29°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Epps, Patience. Fieldnotes (2013). Martins, Silvana Andrade. 2004. Fonologia e Gramática Dâw. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. 98. Utrecht: LOT. (Doctoral disseration). Martins, Valteir. 2005. Reconstrução Fonológica do Protomaku Oriental. University of Leiden. LOT Dissertation Series. 104. Utrecht: LOT. (Doctoral disseration).


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pox pɔx inheritance high' in Hup See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar beèy bæ̂j inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
all todo todos other waáp wǎp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ankle tobillo tornozelo body çʉʉ̀m xʉ̃w cɨ̂m xɨ̃w inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armpit axila, sobaco axila body xũm bʉʉ́t xɨ̃m bɨ̌t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment xu’ xuʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
back espalda costas body mũxaáx mũxǎx unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
belly barriga barriga body to’ tɔʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
below abajo, debajo abaixo location bʉʉ́t bɨ̌t  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
big grande grande quality pêg, pôòg peg (pôg) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bite morder morder body kâs kǝʃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black negro preto colour çaà câ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blood sangre sangue body yʉʉ̀w jɨ̂w inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blow soplar soprar body rũút hũ̌t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body rãáp tʉʉ́p hã̌p tɨ̌p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bone hueso osso body keèg kæ̂g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breast pecho, seno peito body puùn pûn inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breathe respirar respirar body rẽg so’ hæ̃g ʃɔɁ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
burn quemar queimar environment rõò hɔ̃̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body aw’ Ɂaw' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
child niño, niña criança human dâw teè dəw tê semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
climb subir subir motion sak ʃak inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cloud nube nuvem environment bug uù bug ʔû unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cold frío frio quality ba’ baʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
come venir vir motion nẽèd næ̃̂d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cook cocinar cozinhar impact xaà xâ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality xuúp xǔp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
count contar contar mental raán hǎn unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cry llorar chorar mental õót ʔɔ̃̌t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cut/hack cortar cortar impact teés [hack], rõk [saw], xʉʉ́t [cut through/off] těʃ, hɔ̃k, xɨ̌t unknown; inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
day día dia time wâát wə̌t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
die/be dead morir morrer state kasãm kaʃãm unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dig cavar cavar impact kon kɔn inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dingo/wolf fauna ‘lẽs [cachorro-do-mato] l’ẽʃ missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dirty sucio sujo quality tâáw’ [sujeiro], dʉy [person, color shade], çik [things] tǝ̌w' (dirt), dɨj (dirty person, dark color), cik (dirty object) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream soñar sonhar mental xuúp [xuúp-nĩì ‘ter sonho] xǔp unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drink beber, tomar beber body âg ʔǝg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dry seco seco quality xop xɔp  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality nor-ẽr [afiado-NEG] nɔh-æ̃h [afiado-NEG] missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dust polvo poeira environment bexu’, çax bæxuʔ, cax unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ear oreja orelha body xũùy xũ̂j unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
earth/soil tierra terra environment çax cax inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eat comer comer body weèd wæ̂d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
egg huevo ovo fauna tʉʉ́p tɨ̌p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eye ojo olho body tʉm tɨm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body yeé’ jæ̌Ɂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fall caer cair motion nõx nɔ̃x inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
far lejos longe quality rõt hɔ̃t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fat/grease grasa gordura body nẽg næ̃g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔǐp, ʔɛh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fear miedo medo mental ãàm ʔã̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather pluma pena fauna xêè xê  semantic shift wing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fire fuego fogo environment bôrõò, bõrõò bohõ̂, bɔ̃hɔ̃̂ inheritance; unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish xx xx fauna hã:̌p inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion xʉʉ̀ xɨ̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flower flor flor environment çoò cɔ̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fly volar voar motion nãà nã̂ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment bʉg uù bɨg ʔû unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
foot pie body çʉʉ̀m cɨ̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fruit fruta fruta flora eg ʔæg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
good bueno bom quality yẽèw jæ̃̂w inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grow crecer crescer state pêg saák peg ʃǎk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pat pat inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hand mano mão body (dâw) sôòb (mĩnõr ‘arm’) ʃôb semantic shift finger See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
head cabeza cabeça body nũr nũh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hear oír ouvir mental wâá’ wǝ̌ʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heavy pesado pesado quality tâw’ təw’ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hide esconder esconder motion yêèn jên inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ũùm ʔũ̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ray’ [in hand], ton [on back] haj’, tɔn unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
how? como como grammar rĩn’ hĩn’ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
if si se grammar kɔn unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ked kæd  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
intestines intestinos intestinos body yeé’ pĩìn jæ̌ʔ pĩ̂n inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body çuúk, siìd cǔk, ʃîd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kill matar matar impact yũt  jũt unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lake lago lago environment ‘mõr [pequeno], mõò [grande]  m’ɔ̃h (small), mɔ̃̂ (large) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
laugh reír rir mental ôò ʔô unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf hoja folha environment keét kæ̌t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body sôòb sãr ʃôb ʃãh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yet (on ground), ka’ (in hammock) jet, kaʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pẽy  pæ̃j semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nĩì nĩ̂ doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
liver hígado figado body tuút tǔt unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
long largo comprido, longo quality ‘wât, yom [long torso – animate] w'ǝt, jɔm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nẽèm næ̃̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lung pulmón pulmão body ‘woók w’ɔ̌k unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dep dæp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moon luna lua environment xʉtʉʉ̀m, xotʉʉ̀m [lua, sol] xɨtɨ̂m, xɔtɨ̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mɛ̃ʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouth boca boca body nõr nɔ̃h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
name nombre nome human xaát xǎt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body  -- -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
near/close cerca de perto quality tẽr, pej  tæ̃h, pæɟ unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neck cuello pescoço body nũr-rũy  nũh-hũj unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
new nuevo novo quality buy buj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
night noche noite time çêm cem inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
no/not no não grammar mẽr [Neg Exst] mæ̃h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nose nariz nariz body toòj tôɟ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
old viejo velho quality rân, war hǝn, wah inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
one uno um number ‘mẽ’ m'æ̃ʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
open/uncover abrir abrir other pô’ poʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
other otro outro grammar nũ’  nũʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body yʉmẽr jɨmæ̃h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
person/human being persona pessoa human dâw dəw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pam  pam unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rain lluvia chuva environment doj doɟ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
red rojo vermelho colour nôò nô inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
right/right hand derecha direita location/body sôòb-xub ʃôb-xup unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
road/path camino caminho manufacture tʉʉ̀w tɨ̂w inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
root raíz raiz flora tiís [roots in/on ground], xom [roots extending from trunk to ground] tǐʃ, xɔm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rotten podrido podre quality dox dɔx inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sand arena areia environment xeèw xæ̂w unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
say decir dizer mental nãà nã̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scratch rascar rasgar impact xâák [xep – scrape e.g. manioc] xə̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
see ver ver mental wây’ wǝj' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality sâày ʃə̂j semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bux bux inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
short corto curto quality ‘mãn m’æ̃n unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoulder hombro ombro body pa’ paʔ doubtful loan possibly from Nheengatu apa See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental rẽd bʉʉ̀ hẽd bɨ̂  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sit sentar(se) sentar state peèm pæ̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skin piel pele body bʉk bɨk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sky cielo céu environment pox pɔx  inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sleep dormir dormir body ãà ʔã̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small pequeño pequeno quality pis piʃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
smoke humo fumaça environment mẽés mæ̃̌ʃ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ʉ̃ʉ́k ʔɨ̃̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spit escupir cuspir body çoós cɔ̌ʃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact sap, ki’ ʃap, kiʔ semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ‘wôó’ w'ǒʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact soóx ʃɔ̌x inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kâát kǝ̌t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
star estrella estrela environment ‘mẽér m’æ̃̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
steal robar roubar other çâák cǝ̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora beedur bæduh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone piedra pedra environment paás pǎʃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
suck chupar chupar body çũnh’ cũɲ' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sweat sudar suor, suar body rẽd baáx hẽd bǎx inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swell hincharse inchar body ĩík [swell], pux [pot boil over] ʔĩk [swell], pux [pot boil over] unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swim nadar nadar motion çom cɔm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tail cola, rabo rabo body dum dum inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
that ese/esa esse grammar náʔ; ʔáʔ, ʔa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pês peʃ  unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thin delgado fino quality sâáp [for material, e.g. wood, cloth, etc.] ʃǝ̌p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
think pensar pensar mental xaxʉ̃ʉ̀n  xaxɨ̃̂n unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
this este/esta este grammar nã́ʔ~náʔ; ʔáʔ, ʔa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2sg xx xx grammar ʔãm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
three tres tres number mũtwap mũtwáp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throat garganta garganta body õógn’ ʔɔ̃̌ŋ' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact buúx [atirar]  bǔx inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thunder truenos trovão environment pẽy pæ̃j inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kâk kək inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tongue lengua lingua body nõrkeèd nɔ̃hkæ̂d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tooth diente dente body tâg tǝg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other bâd bǝd unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
two dos dois number tʉʉ́m [cf. tʉm ‘eye’] tɨ̌m unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vomit vomitar vomitar body xaàn xân inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
walk caminar, andar andar motion rãm xô’ hãm-xoʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
water agua agua environment nâáx nǝ̌x inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wet mojado molhado quality wêè wê loan Tukanoan (we- roots throughout ET) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
what? que, qué que grammar pay paj unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
when? cuando quando grammar rata’ hataʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
where? donde onde grammar rid hid inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white blanco branco colour rôò hô inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
who? quien, quién quem grammar rʉ̃’ hɨ̃ʔ semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wife esposa esposa kinship ʔã̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wind viento vento environment rôót hǒt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wing ala asa body xêè xê inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woman/female mujer mulher human ãày ʔã̂j inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
work trabajar trabalhar other wĩính' wĩɲ' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yawn bostezar bocejar body nõr kaà nɔ̃h kâ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yellow amarillo amarelo colour mʉ̃ʉ̀ mɨ̃̂ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bad mal mal quality kas kas unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tir tih inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1sg yo eu grammar ãr ʔãh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leg/foot pierna perna body seèj [cotovelo até joelho], wâár [coxa] ʃæ̂ɟ (ankle-knee), wə̌h (thigh) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
man/male hombre homem human xut xut inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar rid hid inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental paár pǎh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar id ʔid inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar --  -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nʉg nɨg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bark corteza casca environment bʉk bɨk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fingernail uña unha body soob bok ʃɔb bɔk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heart corazón coração body rẽg tôòy hæ̃g tôj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sun sol sol time xʉtʉʉ̀m, xotʉʉ̀m xɨtɨ̂m, xotɨ̂m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment paás  pǎʃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green verde verde quality mʉ̃ʉ̀ mɨ̃̂ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot caliente quente quality kʉʉ́’[agua], yuú’ [comida, peesoa, febre] kɨ̌’ [agua], yǔʔ [comida, pessoa, febre] inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana râàw hə̂w inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. mĩìn mĩ̂n doubtful loan into protolanguage Tukanoan mene underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mẽét mæ̃̌t inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. xeét xět inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis mãn [cinza, rosa] mãn loan - WW missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus nuú’ nǔʔ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes wên wen  unique underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ‘mʉ̃’ m’ɨ̃ʔ inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae -- -- missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) yon (Tamandua tridactyla), xuùn (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), mʉg (nickname for M.t.) jon (Tamandua tridactyla), xûn (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), mɨg (nickname for M.t.) inheritance, doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw East Tukanoan e.g. Tukano bɨko underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri yâw (Dasypus novemcinctus), õók (Priodontes maximus) jəw (Dasypus novemcinctus), ʔɔ̃̌k (Priodontes maximus) inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum çâàg cə̂g unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana rũùm hũ̂m inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. seèl’, nãàl’ ʃêl’, nã̂l’ doubtful loan; loan unknown source; Portuguese underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. bʉx bʉx inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. mãàn’, pêjãw mã̂n, pejãw loan - WW %kumana e.g. Kabiyari kumana; or Tukanoan, e.g. Carapana kumana WW %kumana underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis nẽèg õòw næ̃̂g ʔɔ̃̂w inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tâwâát təwə́t inheritance may be 3sg + ? no info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala sʉʉ́p ʃɨ̌p inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba wiìm wîm inheritance also wax wǒh underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae pas pôòg paʃ pôg unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) bo’ dâw (vine), bo’ tâg (tree) bɔʔ dəw, bɔʔ təg inheritance cuia ? compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] kaçãy, xatãy kacãj, xatãj loan Portuguese castanha underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha ôr ʔoh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata wʉʉ̀w wɨ̂w inheritance underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mem mæm inheritance East Tukanoan Tukanoan mumu underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris nâax taáx nəx tǎx calque East Tukanoan missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum  wasap  waʃap unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kâw kəw inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea dây dəj unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. yum yum inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca tu’ tuʔ loan - WW %patu Wanderwort; prob. Nheengatu or Arawak origin; e.g. Kabiyari patu, Yucuna ipatu WW %patu underived See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria naáp nǎp doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown Kakua? Jivaroan? cf. Arawak *taparutu underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tormẽt tɔhmæ̃t inheritance pig-agouti?' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua suù ʃû inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) wuk wuk missing underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura xaàm xâm doubtful loan Tukanoan kami (would be an old loan?) missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae suç ʃuc inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. tuún, yud [tipos?] tǔn unique missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus çôoçaár, çôrçaà (Mazaca gouazoubira), cocǎh (Mazaca gouazoubira), cohcâ (Mazaca americana) unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yãm jãm semantic shift from jaguar from 'jaguar' underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis lẽs lẽʃ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wẽr wæ̃h inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family paát pǎt loan Spanish missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. tõr tɔ̃h inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus but  but inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna rãáp hã̌p inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. duús dǔʃ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera den dæn inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera çop cɔp unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana -- -- missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis ‘yoók [lontra/ariranha] j’ɔ̌k missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) yʉʉ́r yɨ̌h inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans mẽç mæ̃c inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba môr moh unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti kaj  kaɟ missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. yêés jěʃ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi -- -- missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wiír wǐh inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kabal kabal missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens xow xɔw inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] tuùg tûg inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae sug ʃug inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ? -- missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic -- -- missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ‘yamxʉ’ j’amxɨʔ inheritance jaguar-write'? compound See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura wak wak inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra wuk  wuk inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. nãák nã̌k loan North Arawak e.g. Piapoco manakái underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ĩín ʔĩ̌n unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae wasak pis waʃak piʃ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. ruúd, wâk hǔd, wək doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown cf. Jivaro underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae xuúy xǔj doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW %kukuj underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kaál’ kǎl’  doubtful loan Arawak, see Paresi kalo missing See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ‘wat w'at loan Tupi-Guarani e.g. Cocama awati underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. yaàç yâc missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mã’iì mãʔî missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta yaák jǎk inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta yaák yaá’ jǎk jǎʔ unique 'manioc grill' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa çaák cǎk inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. sõò ʃɔ̃̂ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera nuúd nǔd missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) pâm’ pəm’ inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ‘yoók [lontra/ariranha] j’ɔ̌k inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae weèy wæ̂j doubtful loan - WW %yawari e.g. Wapishana jawari WW %jaware underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wêéw’ wěw’ unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) pa’ paʔ loan North Arawak e.g. Tariana da:pa underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. yuùy jûj missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana poòy pɔ̂j unique underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica çoy cɔj inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea puúp pǔp doubtful loan into protolanguage North Arawak e.g. Baniwa poópa underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes çʉʉ̀w cɨ̂w inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea -- -- missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus wãán (joj is a native bromeliad) wã̌n loan - WW %mawino e.g. Kabiyari máwiru; also jɔj (inheritance?) underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae pũm pũm loan possibly Warekena pa:ruma missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae puùg pûg  inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum yo’ jɔʔ unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae kaj doóy’ kaɟ dǒj’ missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. bâár [seringa], taák [sorva] bə̌h, tǎk missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones saày ʃâj inheritance doubtful underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua wax wax inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. pen  pæn missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata buùj bûj doubtful loan Cubeo bʉyoco, Carijona moyoci missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kõj kɔ̃ɟ inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna rẽér hæ̃̌h inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox baàw, tâgrĩì bâw, təghĩ̂ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. poóy pɔ̌j missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yo’ (venenoso em geral), sũúr (não-venenoso em geral) jɔʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. limũù limũ̂ loan Tupi-Guarani missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae waàm wâm inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. çeé’ cæ̌ʔ inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yo’ [potato in general] jɔʔ inheritance same as 'potato' missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris taáx tǎx inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bu’ õòw buʔ ʔɔ̃̂w doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw East Tukanoan e.g. Tukano butu underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea sêèm ʃěm inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. bôòy bôj missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae mõò mɔ̃̂ inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura pâá’  pə̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum rũút hũ̌t inheritance old semantic shift? from puhũt 'blow' underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria mĩís mĩ̌ʃ inheritance missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. çôkwêt cokwet inheritance old derivation or compound compound lexicalized; old See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna tâg, beè təg, bæ̂ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella waás wǎʃ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana pǝ́:d pǝ́:d inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui mʉ̃ʉ̀ mɨ̃̂ inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wa’ waʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ‘yoó’ j’ɔ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons mõòy mɔ̃̂j inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus -- -- missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari tor tɔh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia rur huh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae xôòb xôb inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. -- -- missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola -- -- See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yàm inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna cǝ-c'ǎh (catingueiro), cǝ-hǝ̌w (mateiro) unique See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology kasam nĩ rôót kaʃam nĩ hǒt missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool çâàg (kĩnh ‘flechar’) cə̂g semantic shift from 'sharp' probably from 'sharp'; but see also ninam ʃakao, aguaruna ʃiki:t Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool mãàm mã̂m inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool nĩ’ nĩʔ inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material xeèb [bowl, plate] xæ̂b inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ʃeʔmãc Inheritance Proto-DYH Also ʃeʔbáx (three-sided) Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material -- -- Missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ked rẽè kæd hæ̃̂ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bed cama cama culture-material xãám xã̌m loan Portuguese possibly via Arawak or Nheengatu (e.g. Achagua cáama); see also Eñepa kaama; Siona cama (kama?); Yanomam (Ninam kama) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material bãgn’ bãŋ’ loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool baák bǎk inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kalap kalap loan Portuguese garrafa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bow arco arco subsistence tool çok cɔk inheritance; unknown Proto-DYH Yagua kãnũ; Matses kanti; Cocama kanuti Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
broom escoba vassoura culture-material tapsaàw tapʃâw loan Nheengatu tapiʃawa See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
canoe canoa canoa transport xoò xɔ̂ inheritance Proto-Nadahup Compare Puinave ha:ʔ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cat gato gato acculturation sãàn’ ʃã̂n’ loan - WW %pisana probably from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana). But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chicken gallina galinha acculturation lakaár lakâh loan - WW %karaka Port source? Arawak/Carib kariwina and variants WW %kariwina Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kapitãw, tusaàw kapitãw, tuʃâw loan; loan - WW Portuguese; %tuʃawa, via Nheengatu? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool beebaáx bæbǎx missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
coca narcotics tuʔ Loan Arawak or Tukano Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food xa Unique Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology nũúx nũ̌x unknown Simplex malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dance (generic) culture-mythology jam Inheritance Proto-Nadahup See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool sow ʃɔw missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kegteè kægtæ̂ calque ET 'Bone-Son' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology xuúp xǔp missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tãbuù tãbû loan Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool rêém’ hěm’ inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology tâwâát xêè təwə̌t xê missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology dâw ãày yõór [‘woman medicine’] dəw ʔã̂j jɔ̃̌h missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fireplace hogar lareira other buxeè buxê missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firewood leña lenha other beedur bæduh inheritance Proto-DYH Compare Puinave du; Kakua tʉ̃̂ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food tên ten inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food laay’ laj’ Semantic shift From 'fish hook' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool dǔʃ Inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool laáy’ tit lǎj’ tit missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool sõ’ ʃɔ̃ʔ missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food baá’ bǎʔ doubtful loan Proto-DYH Tukano 'eat' Possibly a loan from Tukanoan 'eat' baʔa Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food suùk ʃûk loan - WW %matsuka e.g. Baniwa matsóka; compare also Puinave masuko, Macaguan matsúka, Daw ʃuk; maybe Yanomami majoko hĩkɨ, Makiritari ssuku:taka WW %matsuka Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lôtôt lotot doubtful loan Arawak japurutu Alternate: séj. e.g. Baniwa japoɺoto Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food rũù hũ̂ inheritance Proto-DYH Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool bo’ bɔʔ inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool rʉ̃ʉ́p hɨ̃̌p inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology dâw nũr dəw nũh missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool yulaà [shelf], wab [smoking grid] julâ, wab loan; inheritance Proto-DYH Tupi-Guarani (prob. Lingua Geral, poss. via Arawak) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool boòd bɔ̂d unique Simplex agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation xaàw’ xâw’ loan - WW %mokawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material yeg jæg inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hat sombero chapéu dress pêèw pêw loan Port chapeu Port source; compare Arawak (e.g. Yucuna hapewa); Pemon sapewa; Tukanoan E. (e.g. Desano sapea) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology sâw ʃəw inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics âág a’ ʔə̌g ʔaʔ missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honey miel mel food nẽèg næ̃̂g inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hunt cazar caçar food suúk ʃǔk unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wãàn pis wã̂n piʃ unique see 'machete' Phrase machete (wãn)-small (píʃ) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress bôb bob Missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
machete machete facão culture-material wãàn wã̂n inheritance Proto-DYH But see Tariana wánaɾi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool sok rẽér ʃɔk hẽ̌h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fence, palisade cerco cerca other saàd ʃâd inheritance may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology sêy ʃej missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paper papel papel acculturation xapêèl’ xapêl’ loan Span/Port 'papel', via Carib (cf. Eñepa)? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool sok rẽér ʃɔk hẽ̌h missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other sĩ̂:m Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material xeèb [bowl, plate] xæ̂b inheritance Proto-DYH Compound clay plate? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
policeman polícia policía acculturation lêgad legad missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool bok bɔk inheritance Proto-DYH Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology --  -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool wʉʉ́k wɨ̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology --  -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
salt sal sal food xiìl’ xîl’ loan - WW %jukira Yucuna jukiɾa; Nadeb juki:ɾ; Daw xí:lʔ; Cubeo jukila WW %jukira Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
school escuela escola acculturation êskol ʔeskɔl missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapat ʃapat missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material saáy’ ʃǎj’ loan Port/Span saia Port source; see Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sulaàl’ ʃulâl’ loan - WW %surara See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology yʉmʉ̃ʉ́r jɨmɨ̃̌h inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tôòw rẽr tôw hẽh unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food nuúr nǔh inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material -- -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation xãán’ (cane), asuk (sugar) xã̌n’, aʃuk Missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food mĩgn’ ôò mĩŋ’ ʔô loan Nheengatu Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material poòy pɔ̂j  unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food lumẽ’ lumæ̃ʔ doubtful loan source unknown Probably shared with Nadeb Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tobacco (native) narcotics hũ̌t Inheritance Proto-Nadahup But may ultimately be derived from 'blow', Hup pũhũt Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool çôò [=deer] cô [=deer] missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool nãám nã̌m doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW? %namo hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wax cera cera other nẽeg saák næ̃g ʃǎk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool tun (cumatá), nôópa’ (sieve) tun, nǒpaʔ unique; doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology mâáç mə̌c unknown Tukanoan? Macuna tɨ̃tɨ (agamн trompeta); Simplex a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material bây [atura] bəj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture -- -- missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology -- -- Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology yuùn jûn inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mâáç mə̌c unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paddle/oar remo remo transport ‘waç w’ac unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tit tit inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology mĩnõdaàd mĩnõdâd missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology -- -- See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other sĩím’ ʃĩ̌m’ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture âág  ʔə̌g semantic shift from 'drink' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottom grinding stone manufacture -- -- missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool --  -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture -- -- missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool -- --  missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spearthrower subsistence tool -- -- missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
house other top tɔp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes there are pre-oralized nasals… Martins 2004:23 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes m, n, ɲ, w, l, j Martins 2004:16 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes Martins 2004:16-23 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes corresponds to tone Martins 2004:55 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no laryngealization of vowels is phonetic Martins 2004:55-58 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Martins 2004:13-15 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Martins 2004:13-15, 68-70 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Martins 2004:13-15, 68-70 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes 2: rising and falling Martins 2004:13-15 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no stress always assigned to the last syll of the prosodic word Martins 2004:13-15 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Martins 2004:16-23 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Martins 2004:66-68 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Martins 2004:102 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no except for a few tonal morphemes Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes Martins 2004:86-88 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes last syll of the word + glottal stop: focus Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Martins 2004:146 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Martins 2004:173 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Martins 2004:180 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños tone as mark of intran- or transitivizer/ to derive weak verbs…? And stative verbs
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Martins 2004:182 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes Martins 2004:240 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 male/female Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes verbs fused with a classifier/ also as evidence for classifiers in earlier stages of the language, but not anymore =lexicalized classifiers in verbs. Attributive verbs Martins 2004:129 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes human vs. other Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no /ɛ̃d/ determinant suffix occuring only on numerals Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no unclear Martins 2004:129 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes with exceptions Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Martins 2004:355-361 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 1 affected non-subject suffix; various postpositions Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes appears to be limited to animates Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no did/huj = comitative; hɛ̃d = instrumental Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes even numbers 4-10: each one has a sibling. Odd numbers 5-9: one does not have a sibling there os however a word for 'three', however this word is etymologically transparent in part. Part of it contains the totalizer marker wap. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes two' resembles 'eye'; 'three' rubber-tree-seed Martins:2005:391. part of the word for 'three' is etymological transparent with the 'totalizador' marker wap Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes count by pairs; even/odd Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes -ɛ̃̀ɟ (suffix) Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no the poss. Marker is a genitive that can also attach to pronouns. -ɛ̃̀ɟ (suffix) Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no little info apparently there is no inalienable/alienable difference Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no no info actually Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes not a morpheme actually, but a tone change: deverbizers. Martins 2005:155 Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes -èʔ/ʔèʔ Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes èj = absolute future; ɛ̃̀j = inmediate future there is also another marker which Martins calls futuro estrategico, but it is also a marker of finalidade. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes actually most are grammatical or grammaticalized morphemes (only Telic aspect is suffixed) but aspects always occur after the verb. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes -ɔh Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes -ɔh = imperative; -'ɛ̃hĩh = neg.imperative Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes me 1pl.pronoun.hortative; wɤʔ 1pl.pronoun.hortative.enphatic form Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes taʔ + de independent morphemes following the verb. Martins 2005:481. The author calls it experimentativo Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes wɯ̀d wɯ̀d Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes mãh Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no syntactic position is flexible. Martins 2005:487 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes Collective Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SVO Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no SV Martins 2005:521 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no SV Martins 2005:521 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes but the position of the object is not actually fixed as long as it doesn't intervene between the SV Martins 2005:521 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no but the position of the object is not actually fixed as long as it doesn't intervene between the SV Martins 2005:521 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Preposition-Noun no applicable no prepositions Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes -ɯ̃́jʔ affected' case suffix (non-subject) Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes -ɛ̃̀ɟ genetive marked only on alienable Nouns. Suffixed Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Martins does not view these as an adjective class, but there is a class of adjective-like modifiers that follow nouns Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Dem no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Num-Noun yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Num no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes -ɯ̃́jʔ ('P') argument gets an 'affected' marker: -ɯ̃́jʔ Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes -ɯ̃́jʔ same 'afected' marker used with full NP Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no -ɛ̃̀ɟ Genitive marker Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes hɯ̃́jˀ ~ -ɯ̃́jˀ 'affected marker' the benefactive gets the 'affected' marker, however, the affected marker can be on either the direct object or the indirect object, depending on the degree of 'affectancy' of the argument. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Martins 2005:199 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes xub reciprocal pronoun. Precedes the verb root, and forms a single phonological word. Reciprocal is a pronoun Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes xup reflexive pronoun. Precedes the verb root, and forms a single phonological word. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes rising tone on the verb The tone on the verb root gets rising tone marking passiveness of the construction. The subject is deleted and the object takes subject position Martins 2005:518 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes Tone zero: deletion of lexical tone of the verb resulting in zero tone, intransitivezes the verb Martins 2005:517 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no doʔ The causative morpheme is a verb-root itself but it is considered a dependent verb that functions as a support to other verbs. The causative verb precedes the main verb of the construction. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes It can be both, in a serial construction or just preceding a verb. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no not dedicated different causative marker, but constructions of the type 'make someone do X' do exist. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes make the tone on the verb root a falling tone to transitivize the verb. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes hɛ̃h postposition, last element of the clause Martins 2005: 326, example 660 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -ɛ̃h derived from the verb mɛ̃h, 'not.exist/not.have' Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes NP mɛ̃h 'not.have/not.exist' Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) yes Verb fronted: VS/VOS Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Q-word+VS Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes But arguably no adjective class; descriptive verbs Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no verbal predicate for descriptive verbs Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Martins 509 Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no is a demonstrative pronoun Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no but a demonstrative and an interrogative PN can function as relativizers Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes taʔ + ʔeh modals desiderative is expressed by two modals in the clause; particles, not verbal morphology Martins 20045:481 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes various post-verbal particles Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
100 small HG low mobile Interfluvial currently live in a single small community