Morphologically marked switch-reference system

Simple Clauses - Other
There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 154 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 370-372 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 150-183 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no No mention in discussion of dependent clauses. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 21-23 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 93 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes There are particles that do switch-reference and also marks the difference between concurrent and sequential clauses. Mansen & Mansen, 1976: p. 166-172, Mansen & Captain 2000: p. 804 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes The same/different subject markers are also differentiated to distinguish between prior and simultaneous clauses. Aikhenvald, 2003: 516 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 560-612 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:54-58 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:189 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no "As there are no other switch-reference markers, the position of the subject os the pragmatic means of marking the change of the subject." Danielsen 2007: p333 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 427-440 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Instead, the classifier of the suejct is used as a reference. No special marker. Seifart - 2005:248-257 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988:349 Melody Ann Ross "There is generally an assumption that the subject of the first verb will be the subject of verbs that have the same person/number agreement in subsequent clauses unless otherwise indicated."
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 72 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012:204-421 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:91-5 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-146 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:390-404 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info more likely not Mortensen 1999:59-88 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1987:27-9 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:1132 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-94 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:165 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:53 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:161 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:734-ss Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p216-311 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 308 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.76 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 157 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 148 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2007:320 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.68 Chris Clack not indicated/expected (order dependent with subject final position)
Koreguaje yes -na marks a change in subject Cook & Criswell 1993, p.90 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The same-subject switch reference morphemes are the animate nominalizers, which show agreement in gender and number with the subject of the main clause. Jones & Jones 1991, p.138 Chris Clack Switch reference of the subject is expressed either by overt markers or by no markers. In the second case, the construction is pragmatically interpreted by the hearer based on the lexical content of the verbs and the general context.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992,p.159-161 Chris Clack
Siona yes Attached to verb of second(ary) clause. Wheeler - 1970:92 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 115, 256-8 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:567-665 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no info done x
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes? 118-21 done 1
Garrwa yes? 87-91 done 1
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 175-183 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes? 236 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 128-9 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 51 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No info 380 Y x
Paakantyi no 214-215 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 218 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 62-64 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 120 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 71 done 0
Martuthunira yes 251-255 done 1
Marrgany No 339 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 567 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 434 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no 110-3 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 135 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 347 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 120 0
Dyirbal yes 77-9 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 102 done 0
Djinang Yes 64 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 189; 193; 204; 221 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no 61-4 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 266-82 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 52 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 108 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 202 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 89 done 0
Katthang no 95-101 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info cf 266, 8.2 done-Dan x
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul No 24-25 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 339 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 18 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 133 done 0
Wakaya yes 235 done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 118 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 157 done 1
Arrernte Yes 358 1
Kokatha No 67 0
Karajarri No 404 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 24 1
Ritharrngu Yes 108 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 71 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 923 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra yes 8.1999999999999992895 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 97 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari Yes 43-5 1
Wajarri Yes 113 1
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps