Chemehuevi

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
ute
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location -va7a-na "on top of" (loc) inheritance Press 1979 unless otherwise noted Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other manO inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar haita “and then”, unknown Press 1979 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body so:vI (same as “lungs”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kuca-p(y) inheritance Press 1979 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -va(a) inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ho(a) inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality yvy-j inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body sap(y) inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location -ruka "under" (loc) inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality hoko/ V unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ky7(i) inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tupa/-ga inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pay-p(), pay/-w(a) inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pukwi/ inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body oho/v(y); hoho/vY inheritance JPH Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pih(i)/(vI) inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body suwa/-ka inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment kuci/ki inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human piso/7oc(i) inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion ma-ruka-n7a “climb on that” unique Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment pagy/nav(y) inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality sy-ja/7i (V), inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion -gi (sg), inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tygu/7uni unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tyvi/samp(a) V inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental nii/nga “count, read” inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental jaga/ inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact cikwy/ inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tava/j(y) inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state ja7i/ (sg) inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hoo/ra inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna tyva/c(i) “wolf” inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality tuca/-ga(i) V inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental nono/siga7i JPH inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hivi/ inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality tava/sy “dry” V”, inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment hukum/p(y) inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nanka/-v(y) inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tyvi/p(y) inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body tyka/ inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna nopa/v(i) inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body pu7i/v(i) “eye, seed” inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwitsa/pY “manure” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wy7i/-ku (sg) fall, drop inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality mijo/ (V) inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juhu/-v(i) inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship mo/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental ija/vaga inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna wisi/a-v(i) inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment kun(a)/ inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pagy/-c(i) inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment sy7i/p(i) inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion wici/-ku “fly off, sg” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing Jane Hill
foot pie body namp(a)/, ta- inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality ha7y/-c(i) V inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state nana/ inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body toci/vy7a-v(y) head hair loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mo7o/v(i) inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar mang(a)/ (vis) inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body to/tsI loan into protolanguage JPH Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental nanka/ inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pyty/ja (V) inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion aa/gapwacy, unique Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kwipa/ “hit, fall, sting” inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other jawi/ni7i inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar haga/niga(i) inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar nyy, nyyni inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -agav inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body sagwi/v(y) “guts” inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pija/gank(y) inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact paka/ (sg obj) inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental putu/cuga inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment paga/ry-r(y) inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental kija/ni7i inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment nanka/-v(a) inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kwii- inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ju7(u)/ inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ha-ha/vi (sg) inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nywy/-ga7i inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nywy/mp(i) inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality pa7a/ntoga (V) inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna atsi/vI “piojo” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body soo/v(i), soo/g(y) inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human taw7a/-ci “man” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tuku/av(i) inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mija/rogopic(i) inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pi/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tyy/mp(a) inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ni/a-vi inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body hojo/kotsogWAi nuca? unique JPH Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality cagi/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body kur(a) inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality ay/-ga inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time tuwa/n(u) “night-time” inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar kac(u)/ inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body muv(i)/ inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality yity-pyw V; unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number suu inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other taty/win7a unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kyy/maanc(i) inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body paka/ngkyrY “the hurting, the pain” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human nyw(y)/ inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ywa/-r(y) (N) inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour anga/-ga (V) inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pyra/-mitu(a) inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture po7(o)/ inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tyryna-v(y) inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality piki/ V “to rot” inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment ota/v(y) inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental mai inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact coo/n7a unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental puu/nii inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kywa/gai (V) inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact kukwi/ “shoot, sting”, inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality tovi/-ci (V) inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body missing Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state kary (sg), inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body asi/7a, asi/v(y) inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tugu/mp(a) inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ypyi/ (sg), inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality mi7au/nci inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kwihi/p(y) inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ugwi/-ka(i), ugwi/ loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body kyci/jon(a) unique Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tapa/ki “split asunder” inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mancu/ inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact topo/siki-nky inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wyny/ (sg), inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment puu/civ(y) inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other yjy/ngi inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kukwa/p(i) inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tymp(i)/ inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body picy (suck, suckle) inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body paka/-ja7aiga7i “to sweat”, lit to sweat-die” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pooca “swell, inflate”, inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion nava/ky inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwas(i)/ inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ma- inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ma-m(y) (vis) inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tunku/ka V inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality ci7au/c(i) inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental mugua/ru, inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar i-ka/, i-c(i)/, i- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ym(i) sg inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pahi inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body pa/kWA loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact tyra/vi inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment missing Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tapic(a) inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body ago/mp(i) inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tawa/mp(i) inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other koto/7o-ngu “turn around, return”, unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number waha/ inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pipi/tan7(a) inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion u-ru/a (sg), unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment paa inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nym(i)/ inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar taw(y), (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality paso:/tsitu7wiga7i “to wet”, unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hani/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hano/k(o) inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar haga/-va (loc) inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tosa/ga- V inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hang(a)/ inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship piw(a)/ inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment nyga/r(y) inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body ka/sA (JPH) inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human mama/7u(u); inheritance JPH Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tyvi/jawi unique Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour owa/sia-ka (V) inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mym(i)/ (pl) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. pú·taravə shell of any kind unique pu:- probably from *powa (see Mono “olivella” powa); taravV <*ta-ta-pɨ same other complex has -pɨ ABS, stem probably complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ɂaŋá·vI ɂaŋá·vI (JPH); Ant inheritance *anɨN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 44 (2008:44) same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 59:537 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana wántsI Antelope (Antilocapra) inheritance *wan-tsi Proto-Numic Note T. Shoshone wanzi same other complex has -ci ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus húnA Badger (Taxidea) inheritance *huLa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59) same underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pah'-wung; pah'-wik; no-no'-nov paˈwəŋI JPH Bald eagle (Halioeetus) inheritance Southern Numic only See Kawaiisu “muhni” “eagle” (Merriam transcription); this is pa-wuhni with lenited /m/ after pa-S (spirantizing transition) same phrase paˈ-wəŋI < pa pa-ˈməŋI water-eagle Merriam 59:525 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata mah-ki'-ŭv, mah-kah'- hi-uv makáhijovI JPH Band-tail pigeon (Columba fasciata) inheritance *ma'kawV-*hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Combines Stubbs 676 *ma'kawV and Stubbs 675 hayowi (2008:126); compound is Southern Numic same underived old compound but maka appears only in this word Merriam 59:527 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pahts'-ats pá·tsaɂatsI JPH Bat (Molossus type) inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008:56) narrower (kind of bat) other complex pá·tsaɂa-tsI bat-ABSolutive (non-possessed noun) Merriam 59:521 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor ɂipí·na Beaver (Castor) loan Mojave Mojave ɂapen; 'Iipay Aa āp-pin'; and note Resemblant C. kpiny same underived Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp we-po'-sat Beetle (13-line) inheritance *pippusi Numic Stubbs 311 (2008:83) same underived etymologically wi = pi, perhaps “backside” IP; CHM's final -t may be -tsI but he usually hears that OK Merriam 59:537 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus sáimpI, sáimpivə voiceless schwa round tule inheritance *sɨyi Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan I think this goes with Takic Stubbs 1735 (shown in reconstruction) which needs to be fixed since Numic is clearly sayi, see T. Shoshone same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis poní^a Big skunk (Mephitis) inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275; problematic, may be from “stink” verb) same underived Merriam 59:521 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus tɨvácI wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:235) same other complex tɨvá-cI wolf-ABS Press 1979 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis nágA Bighorn (Ovis) semantic shift *nakV “meat” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1392 (1008:209) same underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna we-tseets, we-cheets wicíɂicI (Press) A bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include large raptors) other complex wicíɂi-cI bird-ABS (and note related “FLY” verb Merriam 59:533 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger on'-tat' Black ant inheritance Southern Numic only Note Kawaiisu Ɂoodɨ-ci “black ant” same underived note Press 'onto-ka BROWN (V) Merriam 59:537 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus papáwA Bear loan *paha(wa) Proto-Numic unknown Stubbs 135 (2008:59); probably linked to Mono pahabici, Tsh pahamicci, NP padua WW %paha broader (probably any bear) underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kámə (schwa voiceless) Black-tail jackrabbit (Lepus texianus group CHM) inheritance *kaNmu Proto-Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus túkU Bobcat (Lynx californicus CHM) inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan WW %tuku same underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ɂá·sivoɂotsI Butterfly inheritance *asipu- Numic Stubbs 326 (2008:85) Central and Southern Numic same other complex has -tsi DIM; stem probably compound, but elements unidentified Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus pah-wāk we-koo'-puts pawíkU JPH California condor (Gymnogyps) inheritance Southern Numic only also in Kawaiisu same phrase pa-'wikU big-buzzard Merriam 59:525 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ahng ɂá·ŋA JPH California jay (Aphelocoma) inheritance Proto-Numic Stubbs 220 (2008:69); Colorado River Southern Numic; Stubbs 220 (2008:69), but also Yerington anga “Pinyon Jay”! Add to Stubbs. same underived Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? po-pa'-po-wunz; pe-pe'-poo-wants pipípuŋɂŋwatsI JPH California woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi) unique Colorado River Numic; same as Southern Paiute same other complex pipípuŋɂŋ-watsI DUP-knock??-ngwa??-tsi Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pah-sĕCH pasily Chia (Salvia columbariae) loan Cupan Stubbs 1599 (2008:2333), Cupan, Gab, Sr, Tb; TS probably a loan; this may be cognate, so TS good??). But this is clearly the Cupan word WW %pasv same underived Merriam 59:543 1 1 1 Merriam notes “medicine” Merriam 59:543 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. taváɂatsI Chipmunk (Eutamias) inheritance *tapa- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2095 (2008:288) same other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota teví-Kagaivə (final schwa voiceless) golondrina unique same phrase lit. “earth-necklace”, Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana shă'-bits, sah'-put/ts 'saapɨcI Coot (Fulica) inheritance *saya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217 (2008:69) same other complex 'saa-pɨ-cI coot-?-ABS Merriam 59:533 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tavútsI Cottontail rabbit (Lepus auduboni) inheritance *tapuC/*taput Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same other complex has -ci ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. so'-vimp, sah'-vip' só·vimpə (voiceless schwa) JPH Cottonwood (Populus) inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 42a (2008:111), only Numic and Hopi same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:539 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans sin-nav', se-nav' sənáɂavI JPH Coyote (Canis lestes or ochropus) inheritance *sɨnaɁa Proto-Numic Stubbs 554 (2008:113); I think Comanche may be a Ute loan so may just be Southern Numic same other complex *sɨnaɁa-vi coyote-ABS Merriam 59:521 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ă-tăt'-tuts ɂatápɘtsI (JPH) Crow (Corvus americanus) inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta unknown Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow” same other complex ɂatá-pɘ-tsI crow-?-ABS Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii momómpə (Schwa voiceless) Toloache, jimsonweed loan Takic Not cognate with Numic words with mui “drunk”; presumably from Luiseno or Gabrielino *moya “moon” WW %moji ~ %moni same other complex has -pɨ ABS, reduplication in stem Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus təhíjA Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) inheritance *tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) same underived Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana juvímpə (Schwa voiceless) Pine sp. inheritance *yuwiN Southern Numic only Stubbs 1580b (2008:231), perhaps related to Cupan *yuyi-la same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris poon'-goots', pun'-goots puŋkútsI JPH Dog (small, “ears up”) inheritance *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) same other complex puŋkú-tsI dog/peg-ABS Merriam 59:525 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hē'-ŭv' hiijovI Dove (Zenaidura) inheritance *hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) same underived probably sound imitative in origin Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae chŭCH cɨg(A) (Press 1979) All ducks; (note “choog” for “all geese”) inheritance *cika Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 705 (2008:130) same underived Merriam 59:531 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus ko-no'-wip Elder (Sambucus) inheritance *kunuki Proto-Numic Stubbs 180 (2008:64) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:539 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus paˈrə^ia Elk inheritance *pa-*tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121 (W, S Numic form) same phrase big-deer Merriam 59:521 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pah'-gwits, pah-goots' paˈgə·tsI JPH fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same other complex paˈgə·-tsI fish-ABS Merriam 59:535 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera pooɂavI flea, louse inheritance *po'a Southern Numic only Stubbs 1358b (2008:205), possibly related to the pusi'a “louse” forms in other Numic broader (flea, louse) other complex has -pi ABS Press 1979 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. kwan'-o-wats; kwan'-nah-wantz/wints kwanáwɂwantsI JPH Flicker (Colaptes) unique kwana “big bird” Southern Numic only, but wantsi appears to be Numic, cf. Stubbs 1041b (2008:167). For “Flicker” also in S. Paiute (same language -- Colorado River Southern Numic dialect continuum) same phrase kwanáwɂ-wantsI big.bird-gray.hair Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mú·pitsI housefly inheritance *muCpi- Proto-Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same other complex has -tsI Diminutive Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei ɂú·vimpə schwa voiceless Spanish bayonet unique same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon hon-ze, hŏn-tsee' ontsi(A) “kit fox” Press Gray fox (Urocyon) unique same underived Merriam 59:521 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wagátatsI Frog sp. inheritance *wakatta/*wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same other complex wagáta-tsI Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos mung', mung-ā-puts, mung-im'-puts ˈməŋI, məŋímpetsI JPH Golden eagle (Aquila) inheritance Southern Numic only also in Kawaiisu same underived Merriam 59:525 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer kaw' kaawɨ (final voiceless) Gopher or bull snake (Pityo-his) inheritance *kowa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009 *koNwa (2008:279); tis from *kowa-pɨ by regular rule in S. Numic same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) maha Grass inheritance *maha Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 needs to be corrected (2008:234) same underived Merriam 59:545 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ɂá·takapitsI Grasshopper inheritance *attaNkaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1036 (2008:167) same other complex has -pi-tsi ABS-DIM? (In Kawaiisu this counts as a single ABS) Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. sikútsI Gray ground squirrel (Citellus beecheyi group) loan into protolanguage *sika (wV) Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Gabrielino Stubbs 2094a; I think transparently unitable with his S. Numic *sikkuC (2008:288); an old loan WW %sik same other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. ho-un' tă-vats (not here) Gray tree squirrel (Sciurus fossor) unique probably a nonce formation; I don't know what ho-un would be; Kawaiisu has wogo-dava'a-zi “pine.tree-chipmunk” but Merriam would have heard that) same phrase X-chipmunk Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus moo-hoo'-puts, mo-hoom'-buts muhúmpətsI JPH Great horned owl (Bubo) inheritance *muhuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227) same other complex muhúm-pə-tsI owl-?-ABS Merriam 59:525 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae mah-kah'-tsets ma'kacicI Horned toad (Phrynosoma) inheritance *makaCta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1333 (2008:202) same other complex ma'kaci-cI horned.toad-ABS (ma- may be “hand” IP) Merriam 59:535 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus war-ar-av, wahr-rav Horse loan Mojave Zigmond says similar Kawaiisu form is from Mojave 'ahat va'oolve (the latter element from Spanish el burro) same underived Merriam 59:525 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae mo'-too-chuts; moo'-too-nints mú·tutsatsI JPH Humming bird inheritance *muttanaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1181 (2008:185) same other complex mú·tutsa-tsI hummingbird-ABS Merriam 59:531 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ko-ahp”B koɂwápI JPH Wild tobacco (Nicotiana) inheritance *ko'aC Southern Numic only Stubbs 2293 (2008:310); isn't there a similar Hopi word? same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:547 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp nu-vă rah'-ko-puts; to-to'-tse nɨva ra'kopɨcI (?) Junco (Junco) inheritance Southern Numic only Kawaiisu also has “snow” in word for this bird, but bird word is toko- , not tako-with no etymology same phrase nɨva ra'ko-pɨ-cI (?) snow bird.sp (<takoC-?-ABS (pɨ-cI very common in bird words) Merriam 59:527 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica waɂápə guata, applied to the bush inheritance *wa'aC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 415 (2008:94) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:537 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ɂatsívI piojo (headlouse, since po'wavI is body louse) inheritance *aCti Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1357 (2008:205) narrower (head louse only) other complex has -pi ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos koo-rah'-sing ku'rasɨŋA Mallard (Anas boschas) inheritance Proto-Numic Note Northern Paiute kooda (Yerington) “Mallard” same phrase ku'ra-sɨŋA neck-coral.snake (?) Merriam 59:531 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis wəɂívimpə schwa voiceless red milkweed sp. inheritance *wiki or *wisi “string” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Note Kawaiisu wɨɁivɨbɨ; Stubbs 1796 (2008:254), or Stubbs 1475; I don't like the set but this is where Stubbs has these forms same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus sah-wahm'-măhav sawaga mahabɨ Juncus unique both NUA words, probably a neologism same phrase sawa maha-bɨ green grass-ABS Merriam 59:545 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos yahmp' já·mpA JPH Mockingbird (Mimus) inheritance *yampa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 216 (2008:68) Numic & Hopi same underived Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera muhúwavI Mosquito inheritance *mu-pa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 889 (2008:151) same other complex has -pi ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera mugúrutsatsI Moth sp. (CHM says is Sphynx) unique same other complex has -tsi DIM, stem probably compound Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tukúmumuntsI Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes CHM) inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan. Tumpisa Shoshone has same compound ( tukkummüüntsi) WW %tuku same other complex has -ci ABS ; stem is compound Merriam 59:521 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tahr' taarA Mountain quail (Oreortyx) unique probably a loan, forms with tata(ka) very common in California. Means “Valley Quail” in Kawaiisu same underived < taata Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. pú·taratsI oyster, such as used to be in the river down by Blythe unique pu:- probably from *powa (see Mono “olivella” powa); taraci <*ta-ta-ci narrower (probably a fresh-water mussel only) other complex has -ci ABS, stem probably complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? tsi-yahk Pinyon jay (Cyanocephalus) loan into protolanguage *ca'i Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68). Note similar words in Yokutsan. WW %chaj same phrase etymologically complex; ca'i -jagA jay-cry (not a finite clause, verb need more stuff on it for that) Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla toov', tuv' təvápə (last schwa voiceless) JPH pinyon tree; CHM has “nut” Pinyon or nut pine (Pinus monophylla) inheritance *tɨpat Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1583 (2008:231, probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA unknown Merriam 59:537 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum wagátapə voiceless schwa clamshell unique See “frog”; is this a semantic shift of some kind??? Has different ABS same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys ˈməjə (last schwa voiceless) Pocket gopher (Thomomys) inheritance *mɨyɨN Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1009 (2008:164) same other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. kwe-ets; kwijátsI JPH kwiijaatsI (Press) Rattlesnake (Crotalus) unique broader (generic for snake) other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:535 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp wahnts Red ant (stings) unique same as word for “antelope” same other complex has -tsI Diminutive Merriam 59:537 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus ahn'-gus-se-ap; ahn'-kŏ-sap ɂaŋka'sapI Red-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius) unique with Numic elements same phrase ɂaŋka-'sapI red-belly Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwan-ahn'-zits kwanántsitsI JPH Red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis) inheritance *kwana Southern Numic only Stubbs 717a (2008:131), really looks like *kwi'na, and like other UA *kwa words, but problems same other complex kwanán-tsi-tsI big.bird-ABS-DIM Merriam 59:525 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus oo'-itch; oo'-its; oo'ts ʻɂətsA JPH Road runner (Geococcyx) unique Merriam forms look like Yokutsan word, but Harrington form is unique, but note S. Paiute wɨtca WW %uji same underived Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis pah-mur'-ră-uts Ruddy duck (Erismatura) unique same phrase pah-mur'-ră-uts; pah “water”, and last -ts is < tsI ABS Merriam 59:531 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica murúnavə the ordinary sage plant [not sagebrush for which JPH has a different term] unique NOT in Kawaiisu; S. Paiute has this for “Greasewood”?? Stubbs 1640 (2008:235) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? tsang-ah' caŋA Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) inheritance *caŋa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1331 (2008;202), may be arealism, cognates are in Chemehuevi, SP, Serrano unknown Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kwe-ets kwiijaatsi snake (any) unique same other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:535 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata səˈhəvI squawbush plant; “this is what they weave baskets of” inheritance *sɨʔɨvV Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Luiseño $ooval, Hopi sɨɨvi “sumac”'; S. Paiute cɨɨvɨ, Cup. se'evish same underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco pe'-ve-nung'-guts, Sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius) unique Colorado River Southern Numic, note Southern Ute piví-nagá-cI same other complex pe'-ve-nung'-guts, perhaps piivinɨŋgɨ-cI , with final ABS; stem may be complex Merriam 59:525 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae hukʷámpI Spider inheritance *hukwaN Southern Numic only Stubbs 2059 (2008:285) narrower (a species, probably Black Widow) other complex has -pi ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ká·voni^a Little spotted skunk (Spilogale) inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275); ka- probably from kawa- “rat”?? same phrase mountain skunk (I think) Merriam 59:521 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae wah-ah'-tuts; wah-rah-tat, wah-hah-tat Toad (Bufo) inheritance *wata'aci Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 943 (2008:157); Chemehuevi is new cognate for forms otherwise only in south same other complex has -tsI ABS; etymologically wa- is probably from *pa “water” Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) mah-hahv' maháv(I) Press A tree inheritance *maha Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 needs to be corrected (2008:234) same other complex has -pɨ ABS; shows nicely the “individuating” function Merriam 59:547 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera tsogwárA tsogwárA JPH, Yucca; Merriam has Tree yucca (Hesperioyucca arborrescens) inheritance Southern Numic only Kawaiisu cawarabɨ Y. brevifolia (Joshua tree) same underived Merriam 59:543 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura week' wíkU, JPH Turkey buzzard (Cathartes) inheritance *wiLhukuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 335 is really problematic, but clearly something is going on same underived Merriam 59:525 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines i'; pah-i ɂájA (JPH), paɂájA (JPH) Turtle inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) narrower (tortoises only; with pa- prefix is water turtle) underived Merriam 59:535 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia we'-am'-pe Valley live oak (Quercus agrifolia) inheritance *wi'aN, *wiyaN Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:539 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kwijə-va oak (probably Black Oak, Q. kelloggii JHH) inheritance *kwiN/*kwi Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507a (2008:224) probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kah-kah'-rah; kah-kahr' ka'karA Valley quail (Lophortyx) inheritance NUA, but such forms very common in California WW %kaka same underived probably sound imitative in origin Merriam 59:527 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis yel'-lahk; yer-rahk jalá·kI JPH Western Canada Goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) loan Mojave Proto-Yuman jala:k WW %lala ~ %lak same underived Merriam 59:531 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos ɂá·ka pelican unique probably a loan same underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica ɂijá·vimpə (schwa voiceless) Wild grape vine or plant inheritance *(h)iya- Numic Stubbs 187 (2008:65) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) hoo-wēv' Wild oats (Avena sativa) unique broader (Merriam gives this for “grass, any”) other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:545 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sagávə (voiceless schwa) Willow (Salix sp.) inheritance *sakat Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1023 (2008:166) WW %saka narrower (a species of willow) other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:539 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ká·tsI Wood rat, round-tail (Neotoma) inheritance *kawa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:242) same other complex has -ci ABS Merriam 59:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) ɂá·misI fuzzy black caterpillar unique same underived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper paɂávI worm inheritance *pa'a- Southern Numic only Stubbs 2528 (2008:338) same other complex has -pi ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. watsávI Yellow jacket inheritance *wa'wa, etc. Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 162 (2008:62) and see also 894 (2008:152) same other complex has -pi ABS Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia ho-wo'-we-its ɂo'wawitsiɂitsI Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique ɂowa “yellow” is UA same phrase ɂo'wa-witsiɂi-tsI yellow-bird-ABS Merriam 59:527 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna angaa/-v(i) “small red ant” ( inheritance JPH Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wici7ic(i) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna muu/pic(i) “housefly” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna punkuu/-c(i) inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna tysy/v(i) inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna tyhi/j(a) inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kogO snake sp inheritance JPH Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna hukwa/pI black spider JPH inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (116)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food wytapu7wipO shinny game unique is this metathesis form of Ka. Tawuupa??? With wy- IP?? has wy- 'long object' IP Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hll 1969) Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool huH arrow, cartridge, bullet, ammunition; sting of insect inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material saguH a kind of basket unique perhaps related to the "tule mat" words? simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material nyngapivY basket inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 has only as Takic but see T. Shoshone form derived, other complex Press 1979 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material kaitsogO basket hat, hat inheritance *kaCcokoC Numic Stubbs 1151 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material himpY shell beads of size and shape (cheerios JHH) inheritance *hini Numic Stubbs 2011 2283; see Chemehuevi "bead"; probably a "belongings" word other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology 7ompI almagre unknown Southern Numic only; is this same as Gab. 7oyi? other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7atsY Y is voiceless schwa bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool ponA a kind of carrying net which the hunters used to carry meat in. It is like the wanA, but has wider meshes. unique simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation 7otsA basketry jar inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papilivY paper loan Spanish WW %papel other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology togWaintymY chief unique derived, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool tyvO macana unknown could this be the typa 'pestle' word??? simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food tygu7uni cook unique derived maybe X-fire-do?? Not 'food' with /kk/ Press 1979 Jane Hill
corpse food missing Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nykapY wardance, ghost dance (nykapI) inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 633 derived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool 7ago/tsI / stress, I voiceless i pottery dipper inheritance *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717 N other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nonosI dream inheritance *nosi Numic Stubbs 2011 717 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kwarojawI chicken loan Mojave simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
earring other nangkA earring inheritance *nangka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 752a simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7ynypI spirit inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kukwarI wood, palo, leña unknown *kukkwaC Stubbs 2011 2410 S. Numic only other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing tsangkU little rod of iron with hook for hooking chuckwalla out Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food 7atsi/tA wheat loan Mojave simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. C. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food pisava7avI game animal. Deer, cow, sehep, mountain-sheep, etc. unknown Southern Numic only, see Southern Ute other complex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7ynypI spirit (spirit, ghost in Press 1979) inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nyngkupI grave inheritance *ku7way Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 322 compound, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
alcohol food pavikitu7wipI whiskey unique compound, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics momompY toloache, Jimsonweed loan Takic ultimately Takic "moon" WW %moji ~ %moni other complex, reduplicated Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puhWagantY shaman inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other kanI house inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food jahi (sg), tyna (pl) hunt inheritance *tynna Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1014; *yahi is only S. Numic Stubbs 2011 1239 simplex Press 1979 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wihI knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
mat culture-material sam7mapY mat, carpet; tendido unknown see Southern Paiute form that means 'spread out' (UA *ma, actually) other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pahA mortar (of any kind) inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
necklace other kagAI necklace inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool wyjY awl inheritance *wicaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2296 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pahaku7U mano de mortero inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 compound "ku7U cannot be used alone" JPH) Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
pinole food sa7apI atole, mush inheritance *sa7a Uto-Aztecan boil derived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tsumupI pipe inheritance *cu7mi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2222a other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
pitch food sanapI gum, cannot be applied to chewing gum inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 compound Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool pago7otsA olla unique papyn7ni 'black pot for cooking, modern pot for cooking" simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hugun7nA quiver inheritance *hu-kuna Numic arrow-sack; see Cupan huki-la forms simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ha7A gourd of which they make the larger rattles, gourd rattle unknown could this be Stubbs 2140 *sawaLa with loss of /w/?? Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing probably same as 'ochre' Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7owavI rock-salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tywarengI belongings, clothes, furniture, etc. unique derived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material kwasU woman's dress inheritance *kwasu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 483 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool wantyapI, wantyanumpY trap unique other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology huvijavY song inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sigisigI lance, used in fighting inheritance *sik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2318 reduplicated Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
stirring stick food kanU mush stirrer made of 3 sticks tied together side by side unique simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tunapY thread, string (p. 45) unknown Southern Numic only; Stubbs 2011 1841 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kunavY bag inheritance *kuna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 114a other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pihavI sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology tewi:naga7I to tell myths inheritance *tykwi Numic Stubbs 2011 1876a derived Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics ko7wa/pI tobacco unknown Stubbs 2011 2351 S. Numic only; I think prob from 'burn' other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology 7avI, 7avimpytsI white clay inheritance *apiN Numic Stubbs 2011 2544 simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material tako7O a kind of basket. Made with flat bottom, with rim two or three inches high all around -- very limber. Used for separating coarse from fine meal. Also "toasting basket" unknown S. Numic only see S. Paiute simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pagapY moccasins, shoes inheritance *paNcaN Numic Stubbs 2011 1957; patsA 'moccasin' other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
medicine narcotics na-vuaganumpI medicine inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex Press 1979 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material konO cradle inheritance *kono Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 142 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation tapicacI lawman, police unknown same in S. Ute derived, other complex tapic 'tie' Press 1979 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sonta:wI, sunta:wI soldier loan Spanish also su:ljatsI < English WW %soldado simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
corn food hawivI corn (the grain) unique plant is -mpY other complex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
beans food muriH bean loan Mojave unknown probably Mojave WW %mun simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation pu:sI, pu:sitsI domestic cat loan English tukupukutsI also WW %pussy simplex Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 7atsY Y is voiceless schwa bow (gun, bow in Press 1979) semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress kaitsogO basket hat, hat inheritance *kaCcokoC Numic Stubbs 2011 1151 simplex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture uru/mp(i) unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture uru/mp(i) unknown Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material taka/(a) inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture marA “metate”; inheritance JPH Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool porO “crook” inheritance JPH: John Peabody Harrington's Chemehuevi Noun List, Ditto copy in possession of Jane H. Hill Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture mu7U “mano de metate” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing JPH Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool ac(y)/ “gun, bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool huu “arrow”; inheritance Jane Hill
house other kan(i)/ inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low sedentary no