Definite or specific articles

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No articles, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 183-203 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes There is a category of "determiner" but no discussion of it. Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer 1978: p. 29 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no A class of articles is 'inexistent' in Yavitero. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Not sure whether these are definite or specific. Mansen & Captain, p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Homophonous with third-person free pronouns, but distinguished on distributional criteria. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204-205 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Only demonstratives Facundes, 2000: 356 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no no evidence of article Mihas 2010, Payne 1981, Payne 1983 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Articles appear to be implied or perceived through context. There are no articles in the language itself. Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:23-68 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no "The article does not mark definiteness. It is generally used with proper names and heavenly bodies.." Danielsen 2007: p312 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes “Specific” articles, use the same form as demonstratives. Michael, 2008. p. 306 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no uses demonstrative pronouns Launey 2003:102 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Article for definite/indefinite is the same. It can be interpreted as definite or indefinite, depending on the context. Seifart - 2005:125 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross No mention in either source of any definite or indefinite articles
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross No reference to articles given in source- consistent w/ other Carib lgs; I know there are no articles in Macushi, but can't find a place where this is explicitely stated.
Eñepa no no articles Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 151 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no the demonstrative eima "this one" is used as a definiteness marker Frank 1990:33 Daniel Valle
Kogi no Celedón 1886:7 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:53-54 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-96 Daniel Valle
Damana no it doesn't appear that articles exist in Damana Daniel Valle
Sikuani no apparent that no articles are used Queixalós 1998:68 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info ke- is a numeral prefixed to a noun Buenaventura: 1993:51-52 Daniel Smith "ketú" means "one"; bound article is "ke-", meaning "one" or "the"
Aguaruna no info Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no The author suggets that this category is being grammaticalized in the new genereations of speakers (probably because the influence of Spanish) but this feature does not occur in the traditional language. Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info However, it seems that they do not exist in Urarina since they are not mention anywhere in the source Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes same as 3rd person pronouns, repeated before noun as determiners, presumably definite? Landaburu 1979: 155 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p161-177 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 72 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes no discussion but author glosses /ti/ as a definite masculine article Silva 2011:142 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no no existing articles Minor and Minor 1982. p.31 Christopher Clack Many speakers of Huitoto have difficulty using articles in Spanish because they do not exist in their language.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 21-34, 169 Chris Clack Participants are frequently introduced with yuhu- 'one' which seems to mean 'a certain' to indicate that that referent is a definite person or thing, although probably not known to the listener preciously, and that it is going to be salient in the discour
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 74-95 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15-17 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.4 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no There are demonstratives but no definite or indefinite articles. Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no there is a specific marker -ta used for emphasis, however (this very one, etc.) Ramirez 1997: 222-223 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirex 1994 Kelsey Neely no mention of these
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no certain person marking on the noun implies specificity but isn't a specific article Borgman 1990: p.144-146 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296-317 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no However, it seems that the language have began to borrow the articles from Spanish Zarratea 2002:166 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms7.3.1 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 74 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info 71-75 done-Dan x
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha n/a Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 87-90 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 57-8 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 18 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 357 Y 0
Paakantyi no 76? Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 47, 49, 74 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 128 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 3 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 50, 80, 204 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 51-52 done 0
Martuthunira yes 105-120 done 1
Marrgany No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 287 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 388 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 9 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no 61-3 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 72 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 274 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 91 0
Dyirbal No 44-5 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu yes 58 done 1
Djinang No 99 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 98 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 24-25 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes 110 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 32 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 84 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 92 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 34 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 30-33 done 0
Katthang no 50 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 161 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 30 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 82-100 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 138 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 26 done 0
Arrernte No 105 0
Kokatha No 49 0
Karajarri No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 104 0
Ritharrngu No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 41 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no m286 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 81 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:349 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps