Definite or specific articles

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes
Cupeño yes
Luiseño yes
Serrano yes
Kitanemuk yes
Kawaiisu yes
Timbisha no
Western Mono yes
Chemehuevi yes
Southern Paiute yes
Southern Ute yes
Shoshone yes
Comanche yes
Idaho Shoshone yes
Northern Paiute yes
Gabrielino yes
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992
Resígaro no No articles, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 183-203
Yukuna yes There is a category of "determiner" but no discussion of it. Shauer & Shauer, 2000; Shauer & Shauer 1978: p. 29
Yavitero no A class of articles is 'inexistent' in Yavitero. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50
Wapishana no Santos 2006
Wayuu yes Not sure whether these are definite or specific. Mansen & Captain, p. 797
Tariana yes Homophonous with third-person free pronouns, but distinguished on distributional criteria. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204-205
Apurinã no Only demonstratives Facundes, 2000: 356
Asheninka Apurucayali no no evidence of article Mihas 2010, Payne 1981, Payne 1983
Maipure no Articles appear to be implied or perceived through context. There are no articles in the language itself. Zamponi 2003:21-35
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:23-68
Kinikinau no info
Baure no "The article does not mark definiteness. It is generally used with proper names and heavenly bodies.." Danielsen 2007: p312
Nanti yes “Specific” articles, use the same form as demonstratives. Michael, 2008. p. 306
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no uses demonstrative pronouns Launey 2003:102
Yine no info Matteson 1965
Añun no Patte 1989
Bora yes Article for definite/indefinite is the same. It can be interpreted as definite or indefinite, depending on the context. Seifart - 2005:125
Makiritare no Hall 1988 No mention in either source of any definite or indefinite articles
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 No reference to articles given in source- consistent w/ other Carib lgs; I know there are no articles in Macushi, but can't find a place where this is explicitely stated.
Eñepa no no articles Payne 2012
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 151
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika no the demonstrative eima "this one" is used as a definiteness marker Frank 1990:33
Kogi no Celedón 1886:7
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:53-54
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-96
Damana no it doesn't appear that articles exist in Damana
Sikuani no apparent that no articles are used Queixalós 1998:68
Macaguan no info ke- is a numeral prefixed to a noun Buenaventura: 1993:51-52 "ketú" means "one"; bound article is "ke-", meaning "one" or "the"
Aguaruna no info
Northern Emberá no info
Waorani no info
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b
Matses no Fleck:231-321
Mapudungun no The author suggets that this category is being grammaticalized in the new genereations of speakers (probably because the influence of Spanish) but this feature does not occur in the traditional language. Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46
Tikuna no info
Urarina no info However, it seems that they do not exist in Urarina since they are not mention anywhere in the source
Waunana no info
Andoke yes same as 3rd person pronouns, repeated before noun as determiners, presumably definite? Landaburu 1979: 155
Puinave no Giron 2008: p161-177
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 72
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang yes no discussion but author glosses /ti/ as a definite masculine article Silva 2011:142
Minica Witoto no no existing articles Minor and Minor 1982. p.31 Many speakers of Huitoto have difficulty using articles in Spanish because they do not exist in their language.
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984
Dâw no Martins 2004
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 21-34, 169 Participants are frequently introduced with yuhu- 'one' which seems to mean 'a certain' to indicate that that referent is a definite person or thing, although probably not known to the listener preciously, and that it is going to be salient in the discour
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 74-95
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15-17
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.4
Tanimuca no There are demonstratives but no definite or indefinite articles. Strom 1992, p.51
Siona no Wheeler 1987
Tukano no there is a specific marker -ta used for emphasis, however (this very one, etc.) Ramirez 1997: 222-223 no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirex 1994 no mention of these
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez
Sanumá no certain person marking on the noun implies specificity but isn't a specific article Borgman 1990: p.144-146
Surui no info
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296-317
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011
Paraguayan Guaraní no However, it seems that the language have began to borrow the articles from Spanish Zarratea 2002:166
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri no 0
Nyulnyul no 0
Warrwa no 0
Worrorra no ms7.3.1 0
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no 0
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no 74 0
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no info 71-75 x
Yidiny no 0
Yanyuwa no 0
Yandruwandha n/a 0
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no 0
Wirangu No 87-90 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 57-8 0
Warumungu No 18 0
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 357 0
Paakantyi no 76? 0
Pitta-Pitta No 193 0
Pintupi no info x
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no 47, 49, 74 0
Ngiyambaa no 128 0
Ngayawang No 3 0
Muruwari yes 50, 80, 204 1
Mayi-Yapi No 51-52 0
Martuthunira yes 105-120 1
Marrgany No 304 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 287 0
Kuku Yalanji no 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 388 0
Kaurna No 9 0
Kalkatungu no info x
Jaru no 61-3 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 72 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 274 0
Gugu-Badhun no 0
Yuwaalaraay No 91 0
Dyirbal No 44-5 0
Duungidjawu yes 58 1
Djinang No 99 0
Diyari no 98 0
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 24-25 0
Bularnu no 0
Biri no 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana n/a 0
Alyawarr yes 110 1
Nyikina no 0
Yulparija No 32 0
Wathawurrung no 84 0
Mathi-Mathi no 92 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 34 0
Thanggati no 30-33 0
Katthang no 50 0
Panyjima yes 161 1
Ngarinyeri No 30 0
Kurrama no 82-100 0
Yingkarta no 0
Githabul No 33 0
Gunya No 304 0
Kunjen No 138 0
WesternTorres no info x
Wakaya no 0
Yindjilindji no 0
Bandjalang No 70 0
Ngaatjatjara No 26 0
Arrernte No 105 0
Kokatha No 49 0
Karajarri No 246 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 104 0
Ritharrngu No 49 0
Warrgamay No 44 0
Warluwarra no 0
Warnman No 41 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 0
Wiradjuri no m286 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 0
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 81 0
Warungu no info X
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:349
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001