Yawuru

Family
Nyulnyulan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
ywr
Location
-18.20°, 122.57°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar yarrirr yarrirr inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yadiri yadiri inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngayu ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar kurryirr kurryirr inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar juyu juyu inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar -irr -irr inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ginyangga kinyangka inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location kalbu kalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ngurru ngurru unknown Claire Bowern
alive nunja nunja inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other nyangajunu; kangajunyirryjurr XXngl "all of them" nyangajunu; kangajunyirryjurr unique Claire Bowern
and y e grammar -yirr -yirr inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body milgu milku inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body garlnguny karlnguny inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental rdarlmangkal rdarlmangkal inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment bulgaṛ bulkaṛ semantic shift Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -gun ~ -gan -kun ~ -kan inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body niyakan niyakan inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality buka buka unknown Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body nungu nungu inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location jimbin jimbin inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality wirdu wirdu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body -burnda-; -burna- XXgl bite, attack, tease, taste -burnda-; -burna- XXkl bide, addack, dease, dasde inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour ruka; kalurru ruka; kalurru doubtful loan Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body kunbulu kunbulu inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality dumu dumu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body ganji kanji inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture garli; lanyji; warraga; wilyginy; yilybirrin XXngl warraga is a borrowing from Mangala (? - in grmamar) karli; lanyji; warraka; wilykiny; yilybirrin semantic shift Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamarna ngamarna inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment larrp +dyu XXgl burn out (fire) larrb +ju unknown Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body djaŋ jaŋ inheritance Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human baba baba inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion ma-wanjen ma-wanyen inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment jirrbal jirrbal inheritance Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality jarljar; garraly jarljar; karraly unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion bagu! baku! unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact -lurra- (I) -lurra- (I) inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental wanggurr -ju- wangkurr -ju- inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact -bali- (I) -bali- (I) inheritance Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state darlb+; jiwarri+ darlb+; jiwarri+ inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact böl ma-djon, böl ma-nen bol ma-jon, bol ma-nen unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna durirdi XXngl maybe typo for gurirdi? durirdi inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality mirndal mirndal unknown Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental ma-bu""garen ma-buukarren doubtful loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body -bi- (I) -bi- (I) inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality burdarra burdarra inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment dyulbala, dyulbarra julbala, julbarra inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body bidyara bijara loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment buru buru inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body gabu + kabu + inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna dyimbu jimbu loan Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body niminy niminy inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body burda burda inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion -jalkujalku- XXgl fall down repeatedly -jalkujalku- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality kajarri kajarri loan Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body lida lida inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship kuku kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental -jarik- [madjaregan] -jarrik- [majarrekan] inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna jalbarn; lulumba jalbarn; lulumba unique Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment jalalu; junggu jalalu; jungku inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna warli warli inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment bubu bubu inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion dumbarr + XXgl flap (wings); fly away dumbarr + inheritance Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment djabor jabor inheritance Claire Bowern
foot pie body niwal XXngl also `footprint'. niwal inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mayi mayi inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality mabu(dyunu) mabu(junu) inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state ma-baŋgan ma-baŋkan semantic shift Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kungkulu kungkulu loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body nimarrangka nimarrangka inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body marru marru inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental bidyara +ni bijara +ni loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality minkurr minkurr unique Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion -barnda- -barnda- inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact dudyul + dujul + unknown Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact -bilka(m)bilka- -bilka(m)bilka- inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other -bad- [ma-baden] -bad- [ma-baden] inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar dyalanyurdany jalanyurdany unique Claire Bowern
if si se grammar -dyarri -jarri inheritance Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location dyimbin jimbin inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body djilbidi jilbidi inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact -balu- -balu- inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental nila + nila + inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment barlara barlara unique Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental -gami- -kami- inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment wirrkin wirrkin inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body nimirdi nimirdi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ma-djalgen ma-jalken inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment binjmag binymak inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body warnba XXngl loan from Karajarri warnba loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality wiriman wiriman loan Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna balul balul inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body waŋal waŋal waŋal waŋal inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human wamba wamba inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna nilany nilany inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment girridin kirridin inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship bibi bibi inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body nilirr, niliyirr XXngl second form careful speech. nilirr, niliyirr XXngl second form careful sbich. inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human nilawal nilawal inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body gaṇdi kaṇdi unique Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality lani lani unique Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body buda buda inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality jany jany unique Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ngurra ngurra loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar marlu marlu inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body ngunijina, nimalul ngunijina, nimalul inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality mirdanya mirdanya unique Claire Bowern
one uno um number waranyjarri waranyjarri inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other ngalal + ngalal + unique Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar warang warang inheritance Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body binbal binbal inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human ngarrungkarra ngarrungkarra unique Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body jarra jarra inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment wula wula inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour bilyurrbilyurr bilyurrbilyurr inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body djoron_g jorrongk inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture magurr makurr inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora biṛ biṛ unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality bininy bininy inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment mulgurr mulkurr inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ma-djon ma-jon inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact dyaddyad + jajad + inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental -bura- (-baa-) -bura- (-baa-) inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality djiri jiri loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bany +ma bany +ma semantic shift Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality nurda nurda inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body kurndijina kurndijina inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state mijala ingarn XXgl sit mijala ingarn inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body naladja nalaja inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment gorwal korwal inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ma-molgan, ma-molgen, ma-molgon ma-molkan, ma-molken, ma-molkon inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality wubajubaju wubajubaju inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body ma-bandjon ma-banjon inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment ngurun ngurun inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body djibel jibel inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact rdirdirdi + rdirdirdi + semantic shift Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact rdirdirdi +ma XXgl squeeze it rdirdirdi +ma semantic shift Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact m-aran m-arran inheritance Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yalku +ni yalku +ni inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment wiriny wiriny semantic shift Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other malkin + malkin + inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment wanangarri wanangarri inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body djonj jony inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time rumarra rumarra unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body (rurrgu; girri) (rurrku; kirri) unique Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body rabrab + rabrab + unique Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion durrdyawkadya +ni durrjawkaja +ni unique Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body makarra makarra doubtful loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar kamba kamba inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ngut ngud unique Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality yabaly yabaly semantic shift Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barrebarren] inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nyamba nyamba inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number gurdirdi kurdirdi unknown Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body nimanya nimanya inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact layity + layij + inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment djidama jidama inheritance Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kirdirdi + kirdirdi + inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jalany jalany loan into protolanguage Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body (rirra) (rirra) loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality narlimarda narlimarda unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other -mirdurdu- XXngl transitive (turn it around) -mirdurdu- unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number kujarra kujarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body gany (n) kany (n) inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion kadatykadya + XXgl walk about kadajkaja + unique Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment wula wula inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality ngarli +ma ngarli +ma unique Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar kamba warany kamba warany inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar bana-gara bana-karra inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar dyana, dyanakun jana, janakun inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour dub7 dub7 inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar yanggarru yangkarru inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship jando XXngl = woman jandu inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wangal wangal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body dyalban jalban loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human jarndu jarndu inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other mulkula + mulkula + inheritance Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body ngaramana +dyu ngaramana +ju unique Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour bundulbundul bundulbundul unique Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis barrydyanyin XXgl wallaby barrydyanyin XXgl wallaby loan direction unknown Mangala underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae banbaldyi banbaldyi unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus dyalinymarr, birlari dyalinymarr, birlari inheritance underived? 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii nganarr? nganarr? unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora binka, birnka binka, birnka unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia nalko nalko loan into protolanguage 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing wiraj unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer missing missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp lanbalanba XXgl northern bat lanbalanba unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna barndalmarda bandalmada loan Marrngu WW %bandalmarda compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus banimburu banimburu inheritance underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri kardku kardku inheritance underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae bikidyadu bikidyadu unknown complex? 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species bilirri; mubarra; ngalyag; rlunggurda bilirri; mubarra; ngalyag; rlunggurda loan Karajarri WW %pilirri underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii dyalbinykal XXgl bird species (species unknwon) dyalbinykal unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus iŋalwa iŋalwa loan direction unknown WW %ingalwa underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda gurdurlwarany kurdurlwarany inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus debo debo unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula langgurr langgurr inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) mirbulul missing loan direction unknown Karajarri missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius windigo windiko loan into protolanguage WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis yondo yondo unique underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis jarrgi; barlgara jarrki; barlkara inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera bindabinda XXgl also butterfly shell bindabinda XXgl also butterfly shell inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota baninyboro inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera wurdurrkarang wurdurrkarang unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) birnkaman birnkaman inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda kanbarr kanbarr loan Karajarri WW %kanparr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species wardi wardi unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus dyundangu dyundangu loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo durirdi XXngl maybe typo for gurirdi? durirdi XXngl maybe typo for gurirdi? inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris yila yila inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae dyibalkuru XXgl sp of bird (species not known) dyibalkuru XXgl sp of bird (species not known) loan direction unknown WW WW %tyipily compound 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong jugan; nganarr? jugan; nganarr? loan direction unknown underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta rumala rumala unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae bijarda bijarda loan direction unknown Karajarri underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yalwarr, dyanadya yalwarr, dyanadya unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) bubu bubu loan direction unknown WW WW %pupu underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera guburru; rawal; winy; biyarrambin guburru; rawal; winy; biyarrambin unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) nimanburu nimanbur inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni gwaniya gwaniya loan Marrngu WW %kuwaniya underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii dyilki, dyarramba dyilki, dyarramba loan direction unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii kulamana kulamana inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) walag walag inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla pilatypilaty; piyurrpiyurr inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) minydyinyngurru XXgl 'big head turtle' minydyinyngurru XXgl 'big head turtle' unique derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp barni (= dyalangardi) barni (= dyalangardi) loan direction unknown WW WW %paarni underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) kurldyu kurldyu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dyinybarlka jinybarlka inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis guljiwan guljiwan inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas gulebil gulebil inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata kaldyuri kaldyuri inheritance underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic dyurru dyurru inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus tyapir unique 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet kabayabardar kabayabardar unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae bardjaniṇ bardjaniṇ inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda nyin nyin unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata kurrulyu XXgl black swan kurrulyu XXgl black swan inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. bambida bambida unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera ngiikarang ngiikarang loan Karajarri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) rurdururdu rurdururdu loan direction unknown WW %rurru reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) biyarrambin biyarrambin unique compound? 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus barrdyida /Kerr barrdyida /Kerr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus nalgo nalgo loan direction unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius darlab darlab unique underived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia lamindalŋoro lamindalŋoro inheritance derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis bakamburru bakamburru unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis wangiri wangiri unique underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya karnburr karnburr inheritance underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida djogo djogo djogo djogo inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp kuwan XXgl big pearlshell kuwan XXgl big pearlshell inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca jindigirrigirr jindigirrigirr unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis gomarboro gomarboro loan direction unknown derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus djoga djoga inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea yinydyiyinydyi yinydyiyinydyi loan direction unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis wiliny XXgl k o small tree wiliny XXgl k o small tree inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species burndaru burndaru loan direction unknown WW %puntaru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis bilawal bilawal loan Marrngu underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi darriyal darriyal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum kundurung kundurung unique underived 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda lakurru lakurru semantic shift egg; cf also Mangarla larrkaru underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta kalkaruru (?) kalkaruru (?) unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus linygurra linygurra inheritance underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae bunyman bunyman inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata biyalbiyal XXgl mangrove biyalbiyal XXgl mangrove inheritance reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones bidinya bidinya loan direction unknown Karajarri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha wangoman wangoman unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna dyidya dyidya unique underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djinboga djinboga loan Karajarri compound 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jurru jurru inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae wangkaraangkara wangkaraangkara inheritance derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species maraŋoro maraŋoro loan with meaning change underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia balybalynilirr balybalynilirr unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae bindanj bindanj unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura kaldyari kaldyari unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna karral karral unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ngamakarri ngamakarri unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale nigalbadan nigalbadan inheritance derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea djindjol djindjol inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides dyuli dyuli loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera jilkarr jilkarr inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) dyurru dyurru semantic shift underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata mirda mirda unique underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina bula bula unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier bilkirrin bilkirrin loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru dyawarri dyawarri unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) baalu baalu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis balmangul balmangul unique underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax walakurr walakurr loan direction unknown WW %walakurru underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys dyindikirrikirri dyindikirrikirri loan into protolanguage WW WW %tyintipirri reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) bina bina loan Karajarri underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna balu balu inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna banbaldyi banbalji semantic shift Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna barndalmarda barndalmarda inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna biyarrambin biyarrambin inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yila yila inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna kurlju kurlju inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna balingga balingka inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jurru jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna wangkaraangkara wangkaraangkara inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress kondelji loan direction unknown Nimanburu Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool waraŋkaja inheritance Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool jamiyan inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material kurdarn loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yunu unique Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli; lanyji; warraka; wilykiny; yilybirrin loan WW %karli Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material warndal inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport karrwa unique Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology mukudal inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology kanbak loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool na:wulu inheritance Claire Bowern
cook food food -lurralurra- inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food mayi semantic shift Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology burrb inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool ganany loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology bukarrikarra loan into protolanguage Pama-Nyungan WW %bukarri Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology bukarri loan into protolanguage Pama-Nyungan WW %bukarri Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology bambu loan English WW %pampu Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool yarnutany loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
fire-saw other mara; yarnudany; nimilkarr unique Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other jora unique Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other jungku; nimilkarr; rikarri inheritance Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool banyjuda inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wirliŋarn loan Kriol WW %wilwili Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wirliwirli loan Kriol WW %wilwili Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool korjoŋ loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food yurndura loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food warli inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology bilyorr inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food kari loan WW %kari Claire Bowern
hair belt dress nyimba unique Claire Bowern
headband dress warndangu doubtful loan Worrorran Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology jankangurru loan areal WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food kirrbaju loan Karajarri Claire Bowern
house (European) other maya loan WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food benjan unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology tiri unique Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology laja semantic shift? ‘fat’ Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material jajad unique Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress naka unique also lulja, which is sahred with Karajarri Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology koroŋara loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport kalbaia inheritance Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology derbjono balo unique Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other kardimba unique Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology dokol inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology -burr- [ma-borran] inheritance Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other baib loan English WW pipe Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology nurlu unique Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology bilyurrbilyurr inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool kome inheritance Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food kari loan Ngumpin-Yapa WW %kari Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology jirrmu inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jinal loan WW WW %jinal Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool miliny, mangul unique Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool binyjara unique Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ngabalin inheritance Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool jimbala loan Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material bururu inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation kula loan direction unknown Marrngu Claire Bowern
tea food barlkarlang (?karang) semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics jubaki loan English Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics ŋamari inheritance Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology rayi inheritance Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other karral loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology kalyji unknown Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material yarrbiji unique Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool wangkara:ngkara semantic shift ‘spider web’ Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation barel loan English Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation milimili loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food karrikan loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation purnturaparri semantic shift Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress jinaburd loan Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food dambal ? loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation linju semantic shift Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation kurirdi minyaw semantic shift Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation jileman loan Kriol Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress marrkirdi unique Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mirrilyi mirrilyi inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool ganany kanany inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture nginarran + nginarran + unique Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yangal yankal inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
house other maya maya inheritance Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Y-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Y-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Y-Claire
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Y-Claire
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Y-Claire
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Y-Claire
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Y-Claire
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Y-Claire
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Y-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Y-Claire
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Y-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Y-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Y-Claire
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Y-Claire
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone Y-Claire
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word Y-Claire
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes Y-Claire
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes Y-Claire
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different Y-Claire
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated Y-Claire
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated Y-Claire
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Y-Claire
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Y-Claire
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Y-Claire
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes Y-Claire 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no Y-Claire 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Y-Claire
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Y-Claire
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Y-Claire
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order Y-Claire
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject Y-Claire
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Y-Claire
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Y-Claire
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Y-Claire
Word Order Preposition-Noun Y-Claire
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix Y-Claire
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) Y-Claire
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') Y-Claire
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun Y-Claire
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Y-Claire
Word Order Dem-Noun Y-Claire
Word Order Noun-Dem Y-Claire
Word Order Num-Noun Y-Claire
Word Order Noun-Num Y-Claire
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies Y-Claire
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies Y-Claire
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') Y-Claire
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' Y-Claire
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Y-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? Y-Claire
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no Y-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? Y-Claire
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no Y-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? Y-Claire
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? Y-Claire
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? Y-Claire
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? Y-Claire
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? Y-Claire
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. Y-Claire
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no Y-Claire 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium sedentary yes