Plural marked on human or animate nouns only

Nominal Categories - Number


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua yes The number and gender depend on animacy, because they can be attached to animate nouns Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Plural marked on all nouns with classifiers, some of which are not animate. Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no There are two different plural suffixes, one used mostly with animates and the other with inanimates. Aikhenvald, 1995: 19 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no No examples of inanimates are given. However, Galindo notes that only the nominals that express mass quantities do not show the plural. Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Marked only on animate nouns. Shauer, 1978: 40 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Examples of plural marking on janíjli 'house,' and síja 'stone.' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Examples of inanimates with plural marking. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Plural is marked on inanimate nouns, although the unmarked form is considered a general or collective sense and plural marking is only obligatory with animate nouns. Aikhenvald, 2003: 164-165 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1983:12; Payne 1981:12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:25 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:26-8 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Example 6.143 shows plural marker with inanimate. Michael, 2008. p. 297 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Green and Green 1972:54-55 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Wise 1986:592 Daniel Smith
Añun no info author doesn't make any claims Patte 1989:54 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005: 56 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no "The plural suffix occurs less often with inanimate nouns" Hall 1988: 307 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: 73-75 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no enclitic can mark animate and inanimate plurals Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 49 Shannon Dardis
Guna no allows a plural, but not preferred Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:29 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:54 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-54 Daniel Valle
Damana no marked on inanimates as well Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:167-174 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124, 195-7 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info more likely not Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no marked on all nouns Levinson 1978:6 Daniel Valle
Matses no The plural marker is optional and tends to appear more frequently with animate nouns but it can also appear with inanimates. Fleck:272-3 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Only animate nouns can get the plural word pu; inanimates are not formally distinguished for number. Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no However, when the colectivizer morpheme is used to mark plurality, it can only refer to human nouns Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes It seems that for plants and animals different collective suffixes are used Montes 2004b:60 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Plural is only distinguished for humans and certain animals (which are not specified) Sánchez and Castro 1977:117 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.34 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes but apparently only a subset of these Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes with exceptions Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 52 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no countable inanimate nouns can be pluralized by a suffix Stenzel 2004, p. 139 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.34 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Inanimate nouns are divided into three classes as the plural formation. Cook & Criswell 1993, p.26 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.20-21 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes There are 3 animate plural markers for numbers; -rã '2', -bãki '2+masc.', -korã 'fem' Strom 1992, p.54-56 Chris Clack Attached to the classifier which procedes the head of the NP.
Siona no Also marked on inanimates. Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 82-84 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no plural can be marked on inanimates also at least using the incorporated number markers Ramirez 1994: 195, and other examples throughout text Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes inanimates marked for plural with partitive/collective suffix Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no example (23b) marks inanimate Vallejos 2010:161 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 25 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes n130 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 60 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny n/a done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes? 113 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 33, 50 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 42-3 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 27 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 17, 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 353 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 59 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 102 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 6 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 39 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 85 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 55 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara N/A 421 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes? 80-1 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 55 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 277-8 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 43 0
Dyirbal No 241 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 41 done 0
Djinang No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no 21 Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana yes 65 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 19 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 71 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 74 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 64 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 19 done 0
Katthang no 42, 48 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 149-150 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 11 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 51-52 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no FO 136 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 507 done 0
Bandjalang No 39 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 29 done 0
Arrernte No 89 0
Kokatha No 54 0
Karajarri No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 93 0
Ritharrngu Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 25 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 47 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no m286 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga No 66 done 0
Tharrkari maybe 23 1
Wajarri Yes 68 1
Warungu no? 230 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no but rare on inanimates; collective -lima, -peda more common w/ inanimates Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps