Jaru

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
ddj
Location
-19.15°, 127.88°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nganimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ngaliwa inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngaju inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nyundu inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nyilandi inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nyandu inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location gan.gula inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar mayarra inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
and y e grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body luju unique Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body garrwiya, inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental minyirri inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gawun loan Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location ngka,la inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body jarda unique Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality marnany unique Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanji inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body munda inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location gani- inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality bili semantic shift Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body baya- inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour guruguru inheritance? Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body giyawali loan Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bu- inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality dabu loan Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body guji 'bone, wrist' inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture gurrubardu, loan Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngawulu inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngayirr inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment gamba- inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human jingga unique Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion badayi loan Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment maarn loan Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality gilygily semantic shift Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion ward ya- inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kampa- inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental lu-ng- inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact guma-rn inheritance Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state nag loan Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact bangi- inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna marrany inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality bundiyani unique Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental guni loan Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body driyaj [sic], ngaluli unique Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality bulbarra inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment jurdu inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body man.ga inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment janyja inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body nga- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna gambiny inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body milba, milwa inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body gura inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion wandi- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality yun.gu doubtful semantic shift Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body guri doubtful loan Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship ngawi inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental riwa loan Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna bin.girr inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment warlu inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna yagu loan Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment yuru unique Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion bard ga- unique Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment buyu loan Claire Bowern
foot pie body jamana loan Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mangarri loan Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality yura inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state yambi waya- unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body nyambi unique Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body marla inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body langga semantic shift Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental burda inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality marrga semantic shift Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion buru doubtful loan Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bu- inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact dug ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other gurd unique Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar nyarrwa inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar nyanggan unique Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location dagurr inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body dumba unique Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact nag la- loan Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ngarra ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment walgirr unique Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental jinggiri loan Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment jalyirr inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wilgirr loan Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body yubarn inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion manyan inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment malngirri unique Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body miligi loan Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality juwal inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna jumbu unique Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body rawungu unique Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human mabun doubtful semantic shift Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna guyu inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment jagiliny loan Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngama inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body lirra inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human yirdi inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body jabi inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality yardi semantic shift Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body gulala unique Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality girda semantic shift Claire Bowern
night noche noite time munganja inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar wagurra inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body jirrji inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality ngamunyu unique Claire Bowern
one uno um number yangi unique Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other banggaj inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar yirraja inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human mabun semantic shift Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body murrgu semantic shift Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment ngaba inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour girrgirr unique Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body judu inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture warndarri inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora wanamindi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality buga inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment walyarra inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact bangi- inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jalbin inheritance? Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact luwa- inheritance Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality gurda inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body bambila unique Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body warran loan Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state garri- semantic shift Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body jalyja, unique Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment birrinyi loan Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body manyan inheritance? Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality yambagina inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body bandi- inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment wan.gi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body juwawaj ma- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact darlag unknown Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact jany bu- loan Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact jud bu- unique Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state baru nyina- loan Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment warda loan Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other ngurru ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment bili inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time walurra semantic shift Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body junbarr inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion julug ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body ngirndi loan Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar nyila inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality giirriliny inheritance? Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental burabura nya- semantic shift Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar nyawa inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number murrgun inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body garndarrgarndarr unique Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact waj ba- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment naya unique Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wayi- inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jalany inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body munju loan Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality judu 'straight' daardu inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other gunag wand- loan Claire Bowern
two dos dois number kujarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body gurlba ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion wurna ya- unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment ngaba inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality gi loan Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nyarra inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyangulala inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanyjila inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour labawu inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship gandamirri inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment walyba inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body bin.girr inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human ngaringga, unique Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other warrag loan Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour gandawarra, gundul inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis wanyjirri wanyjirri inheritance wanytyirri Ngumpin kurrungka, kururrungku - nailtail wallaby uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pingi pingi inheritance pingi Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus dabaruŋa dabaruŋa loan Jarragan migi 'large black ant' WW %taparu uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia nyarlku inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba gurrgurr gurrgurr loan Jarragan mixed up with Tawny Frogmouth WW %kurrkurr uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer barlka barlka loan Bunuba also in Kija WW %palka uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp binjirrmi pintyirrmi loan Kajirrabeng Kaj. pinytyirripiny WW %pinytyirrminy uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris baga baga inheritance paka Ngumpin-Yapa also in Kija, Gooniyandi; Marrngu: Kar. Mang 'tree' Nyang 'cliff' related? WW %paka uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jiriga badyar loan Jarragan WW %tyiriki uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus muntut muntut unknown probably final -ty cf Gur. Murntuty cf Jaru alt muntiny >ty by Nasal Coda dissimilation uncoded 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis bawuwurda cf papirta? bawuwurda cf papirta? unknown WW %papirta uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri gandiri gandiri unique uncoded 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae wily wily wily wily unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lunggurda lunggurda inheritance lungkurta Ngumpin-Yapa WW %lungkurta uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurrkali gurgali inheritance kurrkali Ngumpin-Yapa Warlpiri wurrkali uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus karrkany karrkany loan Jarragan WW %karrkiny uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula giri giri unique also jang inheritance NGY uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) kumpulaŋiny kumpulaŋiny inheritance kumpulangi Ngumpin-Yapa WW %kumpurla compound urine+ 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis janyungu janyungu inheritance also nguntyu, yilkany uncoded 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis jantura jantura inheritance tyantura Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata bawuwurda bawuwurda inheritance papirta uncoded 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera malimali malimali loan Jingulu fom Wardaman WW %malimali uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota kultyany kultyany loan Jaminjung 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera pupukarra pupukarra unique uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) pintyawintya pintyawintya unique WW %pinytyawinytya uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda ganbarr ganbarr loan Walmajarri from Marrngu WW %kanparr uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae yarrawalwal unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes yarrawalwal yarrawalwal inheritance tyarralaparlparl Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species karran karran karran karran loan Jarragan uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo marrany marrany inheritance marrany Ngumpin-Yapa WW %marrany uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris gunyarr gunyarr inheritance kunyarr Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae nyiman nyiman inheritance nyiman Ngumpin-Yapa tyipilyuku 'black duck' uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae karnanganja karnanganja loan unknown WW as far as Queensland WW %karnanganytya uncoded 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yagu yagu loan Western Mirndi WW %yaku uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) yurru yurru loan Jaminjung Jing. Yurrku WW %yurrku uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ngurriny ngurriny inheritance ngurriny Ngumpin-Yapa WW %ngurriny uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) pan.kal pan.kal loan Jarragan WW %parnkal uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni dirrmird dirrmird loan Miriwung uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni tyakulu tyakulu loan Worrorran mussel, shell, pearlshell - tyakuli WW %tyakuli uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii jarlij jarlij loan Wardaman WW %tyality uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii wawulu wawulu inheritance wawulu Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) balngawan balngawan inheritance palngawurn Ngumpin-Yapa Walm. 'green tree frog' uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kiliny kiliny kiliny kiliny loan direction unknown WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) barlaan barlaan inheritance parlawan Ngumpin uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) yampi malan yampi malan loan W.Mirndi malan is loan uncoded 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp jarrambayi jarrambayi inheritance tyarrampayi Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yuka yuka inheritance yuka Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera bilbildyi pilpiltyi loan Jarragan WW %pilpiltyi uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis dalajguna dalajguna unique uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus tyumpu tyumpu unique uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawada yawada loan Marrngu WW from SW WW %yawarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic pirniny pirniny unknown also in Walmajarri WW %pirniny uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus kampirri unknown 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae dyadyi dyadyi inheritance tyatyi Ngumpin-Yapa related to tyiya? uncoded 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda yilkan yilkan loan Jaminjung also leech WW %yilkiya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata payilwara payilwara unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera giwili giwili loan Bunuban pre-Bun kuwiliny buf cf kwili in WD WW %kiwiliny uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) burumimi burumimi unknown this word not in dictionary uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) nama nama semantic shift nama Ngumpin-Yapa nama = ant in Warlpiri uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus parrtyarta parrtyarta inheritance parrtyarta NGY-Marrngu-Wati Bilby in Walmajarri; Pintupi/Warlpiri nyalurtinya 'crest-taled mulgara' uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus nyarlku nyarlku inheritance nyarlku Ngumpin-Yapa uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia yirriyarri yirriyarri unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis tyaŋara tyaŋara loan into protolanguage tyarrangarra Ngumpin-Yapa Western Mirndi Gur jangawa cf. Jaru tyangara Mudb tyarrangarra loan from W.Mirndi? uncoded 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya gurrumba gurrumba loan Warluwarra Warluw. Kurrupa, could be retention >Goon. Jaru also pantawi<pantapi Walm. Polysemous with 'bark' uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kalawirri kalawirri loan Jaminjung Ja. Galawadbad Gur karlawarr 'spinifex pigenn' uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp tyakuli tyakuli loan Worrorra WW %tyakuli uncoded 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca kulirrit kulirrit inheritance kulirrit Ngumpin Gur. Mudb. uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kumalawurra kumalawurra inheritance kumulawurru Ngumpin WW %kumulawurr uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus lantyi lantyi loan with meaning change Nyulnyulan missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis murrulyumpu murrulyumpu inheritance murrulyumpu Ngumpin uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis pilin pilin doubtful loan Arandic Ar. Apere - doubtful WW %pilirna uncoded 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi tirran tirran loan Jarragan WW %tirra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda ŋilimirri ŋilimirri unknown uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta luwun luwun inheritance luwurn NGY-Marrngu-Wati WW %liwun uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus warrapi warrapi unknown resemblance to warrity uncoded 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones yirrintyi yirrintyi inheritance yirriny Ngumpin-Yapa perhaps also Marrngu tyirrinyi uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus ginandyi ginandyi loan loan Jarragan WW %kinanytyi uncoded 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna muntiny muntiny semantic shift muntiny Ngumpin black-headed python > muntuty by Nasal Cluster Dissimilation. Doublet? uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia luntya luntya loan Jaminjung nunytya>llunytya sound change unexplained WW %nunytya/lunytya uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae yumpu yumpu inheritance yumpu Ngumpin WW %yumpu uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species yuga unique 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura jungun jungun unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna ŋunyurlity ŋunyurlity unknown also ngunyuwarlity uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita paŋarra paŋarra loan Worrorran WW %palngarra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea dyilan dyilan loan Kija Kija tyirlany poss Jarragan uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides kurrkurr kurrkurr loan Jarragan WW %kurrkurr uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera lawari lawari unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) ŋururr ŋururr unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata tyani tyani unknown uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina gambe-yon gambe-yon unknown uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wan.gura wan.gura loan Jarragan also waakwaak WW %wangkurri uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) burnu burnu inheritance purnu Ngumpin Warlp. big coolamon uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma karrtya karrtya loan Jarragan uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis kurlata kurlata loan Wati WW 'spear' uncoded 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax warlawurru warlawurru loan into protolanguage warlawurr Ngumpin-Yapa WW %walakurru uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys tyikirityik tyikirityik loan Jaminjung WW %tyirrikity uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) laju laju loan Jarragan WW %latyu uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna garndi inheritance? Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna bingi inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jiyiga loan Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ngurriny inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna gunyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yuga inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna jiya inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lingga semantic shift Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna yumbu inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
armband dress missing Patrick McConvell
awl subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool tawurtawu inheritance reduplication of dawu - noise derived Patrick McConvell
bag (string) culture-material wukurtini unique Patrick McConvell
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material lawarl unknown bowl for carrying sugarbag (dict) Patrick McConvell
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli inheritance Patrick McConvell
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool wilki loan direction unknown possibly source is Jaru because of wirlkirr crooked Patrick McConvell
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bowl (coolamon) culture-material lapi Patrick McConvell
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
canoe canoa canoa transport missing alt kalwaya Patrick McConvell
cicatrice culture-mythology mutu unknown Patrick McConvell
clapsticks culture-mythology kuntalnga unknown Patrick McConvell
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool kuturu inheritance bondai or similar not in dict Patrick McConvell
cook food food wumpum- inheritance tyangul not in dict Patrick McConvell
cook in earth oven food missing Patrick McConvell
damper food kantirri loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
dance (generic) culture-mythology ngarl- inheritance verb Patrick McConvell
digging stick subsistence tool kapila unknown also kiyari Patrick McConvell
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool makura unknown digging coolamon Patrick McConvell
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology pankatya inheritance cf. Jam, pankiyaty Patrick McConvell
dreaming culture-mythology wumangku unknown Patrick McConvell
drone pipe culture-mythology pampu loan English <bamboo Patrick McConvell
fire drill subsistence tool mirntiyityilmi unknown tyimpila blade Patrick McConvell
fire-saw other missing kungkala - firedrill; tyiman firesaw E. Walm , possibly Jaru? Patrick McConvell
fireplace hogar lareira other missing kurrku+having? Earth oven - kurrku cf. Walm kurrku 'big hole' Patrick McConvell
firewood leña lenha other yityartkarru semantic shift <fire Patrick McConvell
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing only mawuya poison Patrick McConvell
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with spear) food missing Patrick McConvell
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool warrurrku unknown Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
flour (European) food lawa loan English WW flour Patrick McConvell
flour (bush) food purnku loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food nganga inheritance Patrick McConvell
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology warrityki inheritance Patrick McConvell
glue subsistence tool ngiunyurlity unknown ??spelling odd beeswax Patrick McConvell
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
grog food lungkarru semantic shift also poison; Wam.lungkarra < water, inheritance; tyulupiny flagon, wine in flagon Patrick McConvell
hair belt dress tyartukurru inheritance Wam. Tyarlartu Patrick McConvell
headband dress nawaya inheritance also pakuri cf. puntuwali subincised penis Patrick McConvell
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology mikanykutyi derived <mikany 'snake' +? derived Patrick McConvell
honey miel mel food turta inheritance also wangkurra also kirranga? Gur. Kirrang looking for honey Patrick McConvell
house (European) other maya; mayaru loan WW %mayaru Patrick McConvell
hunt cazar caçar food ngirriki inheritance Patrick McConvell
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology mangarntiwa inheritance might be source of marntiwa WW with ngs lost WW %marntiwa Patrick McConvell
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology tyurlu unknown Patrick McConvell
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pinymala loan direction unknown also kiyirru stone implement, circumcision knife, age mate Patrick McConvell
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress pulyawulya loan direction unknown WW %pinymala jura not in dict Patrick McConvell
love song culture-mythology tyarrarta loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
mangrove raft transport missing WW %tyarrata Patrick McConvell
message stick culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool lartaranga unknown stone-big stone Patrick McConvell
nosepeg other kiyala unknown Patrick McConvell
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Patrick McConvell
ochre culture-mythology kitpu inheritance also kalnga; Jam. Kitpi not in dict; kantawarra yellow Patrick McConvell
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology wirrk pila- unknown palipi pu- 'dance' Patrick McConvell
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pirli tyuŋarri stone muller Patrick McConvell
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Patrick McConvell
public song cycle culture-mythology missing song/dance from Wadeye Patrick McConvell
red paint culture-mythology murtu inheritance Patrick McConvell
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool watyan inheritance Patrick McConvell
salt sal sal food lungkarru inheritance listed as 'grey' in dict of hair Patrick McConvell
shelter (native) other wukuni unknown wind break Patrick McConvell
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyunba loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology kutyika loan direction unknown WW %kutyika Patrick McConvell
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karnarrinymi loan Ngumpin WW %karna lan is verb; many names for types Patrick McConvell
spear (fighting) subsistence tool munmurrinymi unknown or tyalwiny Patrick McConvell
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
spearthrower subsistence tool tyalykatyi loan Mudburra long; short -ngarlika; tyaly hook up -INST Patrick McConvell
speartip subsistence tool tyimpila loan direction unknown wipilirri? Not in dict Patrick McConvell
string (from hair) culture-material jartukurru inheritance hairbelt Patrick McConvell
string (from vine) culture-material yupungu semantic shift <stringy bark only sinew';string' listed Patrick McConvell
sugar acculturation turta semantic shift <honey Patrick McConvell
tea food nalitya loan Mudburra Patrick McConvell
tobacco (European) narcotics kilirrmi loan direction unknown Patrick McConvell
tobacco (native) narcotics wanampurrngu unknown Patrick McConvell
spirit child culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
wax cera cera other watyan inheritance Patrick McConvell
white paint culture-mythology makirra inheritance in Wambaya Patrick McConvell
windbreak other tumuru unknown Patrick McConvell
yandy (n) culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
school escuela escola acculturation missing also poison Patrick McConvell
net subsistence tool wananga loan direction unknown also mulurtu; 'bag' in some lgs WW %wananga Patrick McConvell
bottle botella garrafa acculturation murrupala unknown Patrick McConvell
paper papel papel acculturation milimili loan Mantharda Manth mirli paperbark, via intermediate lgs WW %milimili Patrick McConvell
corpse food kimurti unknown also warritypala Patrick McConvell
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
tree coffin culture-mythology tyanpara unknown also tyuwuru Patrick McConvell
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
shoes zapatos sapatos dress yunku semantic shift <foot Patrick McConvell
medicine narcotics lungkarru semantic shift also poison Patrick McConvell
earth oven food putypu unknown Patrick McConvell
policeman polícia policía acculturation ngarrampalyaka unknown Patrick McConvell
cat gato gato acculturation semantic shift Patrick McConvell
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
hat sombero chapéu dress makarta loan direction unknown WW %makarta Patrick McConvell
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wirriji inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture birli bamarr semantic shift Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool gana inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture jungari inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool bigirri loan Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool garna inheritance Claire Bowern
house other marru loan Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no 23 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no 23 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no 23 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no 44 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no 37, 44 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no 37, 44 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no 47 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no 47 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no 44-9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Done-Amalia x
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes 82-90 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no 1 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes 1 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no 1 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes 234 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes 235 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes 95 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no 221 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no 2 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no 221 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no 221 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes 55-6 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" n/a Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no 233, 234 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no 234 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes 234 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no 61-3 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no 61-3 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes 64-5 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes? 68 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 61, 75 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no 61, 75 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no 215 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no 55, 226-7 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no 52 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no 52 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no 52 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no 52 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes 52 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes 52 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? n/a Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? n/a Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes 194-6 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no 194-6 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no 194-6 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes 194-6 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no 196-200 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes n/a 51 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco n/a 51 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes 230 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes 92, 113 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no 77 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no 77 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no 77 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no 77 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes 79 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no 88 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes 79 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes 204 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes 204 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes /rdaar/ 205 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no 77 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes 204 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes 208 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic n/a Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs n/a Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle n/a Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme n/a Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes 215 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Preposition-Noun n/a Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no 93 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes 93 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes 93 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Dem no 93 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Num-Noun yes? 93 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Num yes? 93 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes? 168-9 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no 168-9 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no 168-9 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes? 168-9 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no 57 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes 57 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no 56 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no 57, 96-7 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes 64-5 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes? 68-9 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no? 68-9 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no? 68-9 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no? 68-9 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no? 68-9 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no info 211-2 Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no 124 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes 124 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes? 124 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes? 124 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes? 124 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no 68-71 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes n/a Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no 68-71 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes 144-5 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no 144-5 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no 144-5 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no 152-9 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no 152-9 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes /-ɲunu/ 152-9 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no 155 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes? 204 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no? 204 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes /-muluŋu/ 225 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /wagura/ 204 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes /walima/, 'How is it?', 'any' 207 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no? 123 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes? 123 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes 123 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? yes 234 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no info Done-Amalia x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no 55 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no 92 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes 92 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes 233 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes 233, 234 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes 2 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes 64-5, 124 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no 64-5, 124 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no 64-5, 124 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes 63, 67 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes 65 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes 65 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no 65 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes 69 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes 69, 126 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? yes Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? no 131 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes? sentence-initial 212 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes /wagura/ 204 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes? 204 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) yes 119-24 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes 152 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes 78-9 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? yes 124 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? yes /jajin-/ 76 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes 76-7 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no 76-7 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? yes 208 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes 94 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? no 93 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no info Done-Amalia x
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no 36 Done-Amalia 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile unknown