Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound)

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no There seem to be both inclusive and exclusive pronominal roots, but only the inclusive pronominal root is identified as binding to the verb to indicate the subject. Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: 60-62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 159 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Plural pronouns can optionally distinguish gender by using a feminine classifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 380 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Particularly apparent in 1st person. Payne 1983:9195 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:71-5 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:174-5 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes 1st person singular and 1st person plural exclusive take same form, 1st person plural inclusive is distinct. Michael, 2008. p. 267 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Rowan 1978:vii Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:68 Daniel Smith
Yine no Wise 1986:586 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:52-55 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988:282 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Gildea 1989:10 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 110 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989; Frank ? Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no there is no person marking on verbs Quesada 2008:99-146 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes inclusive only a suffix -ch, exclusive a prefix pa- and a suffix -ᵾ Buenaventura - 1993:43 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:362 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Verbs do not show pronominal affixes Mortensen 1999:59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:11-23 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:401 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-94 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:81-7 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes But this just happens in one dialect which seems to be an archaic one. It seems that it is most common not to have this distincion in verbal marking. Montes 2004b:101-120 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:489-90 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Daniel Smith
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 63-87 Chris Clack
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 82 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993 31-33 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.37 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes The forms occur prefixed to the verb root that begins with a consonant. Before a vowel, the last vowel of the prefix may be deleted or assimilated. Strom 1992, p.36 Chris Clack The rules differ somewhat for each morpheme.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:138-168 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 25-26 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 101 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely based on data for "short form PNs"; it's debatable whether these are bound or not
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely based on data for "short form PNs"; it's debatable whether these are bound or not
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):9 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Number is ocasionally marked on the verb when aspect markers occur. This does not frequently happen. Everett 2006:348-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Zarratea 2002:83 Daniel Valle
Aché no Rossler 2008:73-74 Daniel Valle
Kokama no no verbal inflection Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes Appendix 3 done 1
Garrwa n/a done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 83 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 91 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 230 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 74 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 27 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 352 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 104-110; 114-115 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 76 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 123 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang N/A done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 118, 174 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi N/A 55 done 0
Martuthunira no 136-152 done 0
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 87 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 399 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 7-8 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 36 Done-Dan 0
Jaru yes? 68 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr n/a 341 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Maybe 52 1
Dyirbal No 246 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a done 0
Djinang Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 51-52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung maybe 35-6 done 1
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 130 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a 48-9 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 30 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 78 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no 90 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 169 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 23 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen N/A Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya yes 143 done 1
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 52 done 1
Arrernte No 100 0
Kokatha N/A 3 0
Karajarri Yes 236 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 22 0
Ritharrngu Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay N/A 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra yes 1.1000000000000000888 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 62 Y2 0
Narungga No info 73 done x
Tharrkari N/A 16 0
Wajarri Yes 77 1
Warungu n/a 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps