Pitta-Pitta

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
pit
Location
-23.87°, 139.68°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngantya semantic shift Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nhura inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar inpa inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar thana inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location yakirli ngalpa unique Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar lhayingurru unique Claire Bowern
all todo todos other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
and y e grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body marti inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kilyikilyi inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental yurrhathimarru unique Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment 3180 loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ina unique Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality thawinya unique Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body kimpa semantic shift Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body tyurnrtu inheritance? Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kawurrhu unique Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality mangkurra inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body paca inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour tyimpa inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body noorkey unique Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body punka unique Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality murnrtu inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body bena inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture pipapurrhu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamanya inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngari inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment yanhthi unique Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human 351 unique Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion kathi inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment parnrtara unique Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality mali inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion pathi unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact watyi inheritance? Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental pinti inheritance Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental tuñci inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact kurri inheritance Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state ityi unique Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact paka_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body thima unique Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality yarlka inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment thurrka inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body ngarrawa inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment mayi inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body thatyi inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna tyikula unique Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body miyi inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kuna inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion kurrha inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality warrhara inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body thuta inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship yapiri inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental thalala inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna thathi unique Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment maka inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna kupi inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion kirra inheritance Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion muki unique Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kutukutu unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body thina inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora yanhthurrhu unique Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality mayarli unique Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body maramara inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body karti inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental nharrawa unique Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality manta inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion 876 unique Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pithi inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other parta inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar withila unique Claire Bowern
if si se grammar thala unique Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location murnuina unique Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body thulytyi unique Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body puluna wanytyi unique Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact pithi inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental wangama semantic shift Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental wiya inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment karrapati unique Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body tharawa unique Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body pirna inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion thumpa unique Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pirlpa unique Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body kalu inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality cuwarrhi unique Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nyirlpa unique Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human palku inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 711 inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment tyangi unique Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngamari inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body parla unique Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human [missing] missing Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body marrhipirna unique Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality mungkatha inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body irlka unique Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time mirtikarra unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar malhu loan Warluwaric Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body milya inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality kupakupa unique Claire Bowern
one uno um number ngururu unique Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other marrha unique Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar nguruirri inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human palku unique Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body wilpa unique Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment 32 unique Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour kurrhi loan Kalkatungu Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture pirrhapampu unique Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora [missing] missing Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality kutya inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment wayirrhi unique Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental tharupali inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact nyinta inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nhatyi inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality marnrtarti unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body paparla unique Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state nhangka inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body nunderry inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment rtikarrha loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body mutyi inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality thuyuyu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body warrhuwa inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment kuthu inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body ngalytya inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact palka inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact nhulhi unique Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kanangka unique Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tharrhka inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment tyinpi loan Mayi Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other nhitha loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment mirrhiwirni unique Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body punhtha inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time warlka inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body wilhtha inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body puwa inheritance Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion yurta unique Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body kurlka inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tharrha(wa) unique Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality tyangka unique Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
three tres tres number barcoola noora unique Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact thawi inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment mungka unique Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact karrha inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body tharli inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body mirlka inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality rtutyarrha unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wangkuma unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number parrhkula inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body kawa inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion pirnapurti unique Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment ngapu inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar minha inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar winku unique Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar winhtha inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour warrhaputha inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar wara inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship [missing] missing Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment thurrhupu inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body kilka inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human parratya unique Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body ngulukurrha unique Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kukarrhi unique Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (9)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna mulka unique Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna thitha loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna paya inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna muki inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna piyawarli unique Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna pukarrha inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna matyumpa inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kunderry loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna kupu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (8)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool kukuru unique Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture rtannga unique Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool wamirra inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool makuwarta unique Claire Bowern
house other kunti inheritance Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. No 187 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] No 187 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes 187 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes 188 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels No 187 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme No 188 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] No 189 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? No 188 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments No 187 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone No 193, 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes 201 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes No 193, 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes 193, 201 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different No 193, 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes 211 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word No 211 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' No 211 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /parri/, /pityiri/ 201 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' No info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) N/A 201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes 196 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes 238 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes 238 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes 238 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? No 200 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes 200 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes POSS /wara/ 200 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities N/A Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco N/A Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes 209 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes 211 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes 224 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes /ka/ 202 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past No 202 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future No 202 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes 202 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes 201 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes /na/ 202 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes 3 /mala/, 1 /kainu/ 203 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something No info 225 Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction No info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking No info Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis No 220 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction No 220 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes 220 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes /kala/ 202 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker No Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) No Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. No Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' No Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse No Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above No Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic N/A Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs N/A Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle N/A Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme N/A Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in transitive clauses No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes 213 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Dem-Noun yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Num-Noun No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Num yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes 216 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes 216 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers yes 196 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite yes 195 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes 206 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes /li/ 207 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency No 204 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes /la/ 205 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes /la/ 205 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes 205 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes 205 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' No 222 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes /kali/ 241 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle No info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology No info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) No info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only No info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position No 223 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes 223 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes 223 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause N/A 216 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes 217 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) No 217 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined No 218 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes 203 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? No 212 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? No 212 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? No 212 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? No 212 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? No 212 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes 217-8 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes 199 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? No 200-201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? No 200-201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes 200-201 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes 200-201 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? No 200-201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? No 200-201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? No 200-201 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? N/A Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes 195 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? N/A Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes initial 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes initial but follows focus 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? yes 221 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? yes through case 194 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) No 223 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes 206 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? N/A Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? yes /kana/ 210 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes /ya/ 201 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? No 204 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? No 204 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? Maybe 204 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? yes through case 218 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? yes 203 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? yes 241 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? No 240-241 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? yes /nangka/ 223 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? yes 204 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? No 235 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? No 200-201 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? No info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? No 215 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column No 187 Done-Amalia 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile yes