Complex onsets

Phonology - Segmental
Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 14 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976, p. 75 Ana Paula Brandao
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 6 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 62 Ana Paula Brandao
Yukuna no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 4 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi (1987) Ana Paula Brandão
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:69 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Alvarez, 1985: p. 78 Ana Paula Brandão
Tariana no the sequences Cy or Cw can be interpreted as a complex onset or as a syllable of CV structure Aikhenvald 2003: 37 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Mihas 2010:71 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Syllable structure: (C)V(V)(n/ɺ) Zamponi 2003:18 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes This is limited to a maximum of two consonants Fast 1953:193 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:68 Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p61 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 225 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:11 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989:25 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:34-46 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988:257, 265 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 145-147 Melody Ann Ross Note from phonology sheet says CCV occurs in only one grammatical morpheme, however I was not able to locate it in the source cited. Relevant information: "Occasionally long consonants occur. These are indicated by writing two consonants together and they
Eñepa yes Price 1984 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes CCV allowed Pessoa 2005:67 Daniel Smith Tuarepang dialect
Guna no Smith Daniel Smith
Naso yes kl, pl are the only ones I found Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes A (voiced or voiceless) stop plus r Frank 1990:11 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:47 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1)- 1985: 9 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes C1C2VC3 Buenaventura - 1993:28 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:58 Daniel Valle But on a surface level. Syllables have the (C)V(C) structure in a deep level but syllable structure may become rather complex at surface level because of processes of losing vowels
Northern Emberá no Only the complex onset Cr is allowed. Southern Embera does not allow complex onset Cr (Aguirre 1999:16-7) Mortensen 1999:6 Daniel Smith Catío
Waorani no Saint and Pike 1962:14 Daniel Valle No consonant clusters are allowed
Ingá yes Complex onsets are optional; simple onsets preferred Levinson 1976:21 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Only if glides are treated as consonants Fleck:106-7 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.81 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no It only occurs in loans from Spanish Parker 1965:16 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2000:295 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:75-6 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes they only occur in word medial and word final position Loewen 1954:22-24 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979, p.53 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes CCV - first C must be [-voice]; second C must be an approximant /j,w/; vowel following complex onset must be [-high] Giron 2008: p35 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 67 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes Cavalcante 1987:31 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no no consonantal clusters Minor and Minor 1982. p.3-4 Christopher Clack check 'ng'
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004:13-15 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 15 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Chacon 2012:164 Amanda Novak, Daniel Smith
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007:38 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p. 26 Amanda Novak
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.10 Amanda Novak
Barasano no The phonological word may consist of from one to nine syllables. Jones & Jones 1991, p.10 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Neither consonant clusters nor closed syllables are permitted except that a glottal stop may follow a vowel Strom 1992, p.21 Chris Clack
Siona no CV(V) Wheeler - 1970:21 Daniel Valle
Tukano no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami yes CCV - first C is [-cor] Migliazza 1972: p.201 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes very rare, only attested sequences in Goodwin-Gomez are kr and pr Migliazza 1972: p.154; Goodwin-Gomez 1990: 26 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Migliazza 1972: p.205 Kelsey Neely
Surui no Bontkes and Bontkes 2009:3-4 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:15-93 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:62 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no No closed syllable is allowed in the language Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:22 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Rossler 2008:58 Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:112 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes ms2.4.1 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no n78 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 46 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 14 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 36 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 10, 11 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 63-64 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 39 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 7 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 7 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 6 done 1
Uradhi Yes 322 Y 1
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 188 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 40 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no d33 done 0
Nhanta no 18 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 35 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang no info done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 37 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 27 done 0
Martuthunira no 31-34 done 0
Marrgany No 283 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 22 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 378 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 2 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 9 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 44 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 40 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no Done-Amalia 0
Gumbaynggirr no xix done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 82 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 20 0
Dyirbal No 272 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 20 done 0
Djinang Yes 17 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no 25 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 11 done 0
Bularnu no 10 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 12 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 20 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 45 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 68 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 59 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 23 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no done 0
Katthang no 21 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 133 done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no? done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 2 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 283 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 15 Done- 1
WesternTorres no K81 123, 125 done 0
Wakaya no ch 4 done 0
Yindjilindji no 501 done 0
Bandjalang No 26 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 11 done 0
Arrernte Yes 78 1
Kokatha No 16 0
Karajarri No 50 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 24 0
Ritharrngu No 10 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 852 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 20 0
Bilinarra no 2.2.3 done 0
Wiradjuri no done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 38 Y2 1
Narungga No 39 done 0
Tharrkari No 6 0
Wajarri No 30 0
Warungu yes 102-3 1
Adnyamathanha no Y2 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:431 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no but cf. aspiration Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps