Puinave

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pui
Location
3.93°, -67.69°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Girón Higuita, Jesus Mario. 2008. Una gramática del wãnsöjöt (Puinave). LOT, Utrecht. Huber, R. and Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Richardson, Larry. 2007. Puinave. In Mary R. Key, Intercontinental Dictionary Series. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location sənə- sənə- unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment də-pɨp də-pɨp (pl.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
at en, a em, a location See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
back espalda costas body [-tum] tum unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bad mal mal quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
belly barriga barriga body stomach: -pup-yau; -nam-de stomach: -pup-jau; -nam-de See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
below abajo, debajo abaixo location [-nom] nom unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
big grande grande quality #NAME? #NAME? doubtful loan Nadahup See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
black negro preto colour #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
blood sangre sangue body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ot ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bone hueso osso body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
breast pecho, seno peito body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
child niño, niña criança human tɨi-wãi tɨi-wãi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cloud nube nuvem environment yõpawan yõpawan unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cold frío frio quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality oi-bɨ-tep oi-bɨ-tep unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
day día dia time wə-yu wə-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dirty sucio sujo quality [-'ha-pi + bak] ha-pi + bak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dry seco seco quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality [-de + ɨi] de + ɨi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dust polvo poeira environment də-pɨp (also "ash") də-pɨp See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
ear oreja orelha body -but; -butuk -but; -butuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
earth/soil tierra terra environment niti u niti u unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
egg huevo ovo fauna #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
eye ojo olho body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
far lejos longe quality [-yau] jau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fat/grease grasa gordura body -ye; -i + yek je; -i + jek unknown possible cognate or loan Kakua-Nukak See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
father padre, papá pai kinship i i unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
feather pluma pena fauna #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fire fuego fogo environment unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
flower flor flor environment suksu suksu unique cf. Pume See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ebu-ai ebu-ai See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fruit fruta fruta flora [-kam] kam doubtful loan, direction unknown Maku ku:mu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
good bueno bom quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hand mano mão body #NAME? #NAME? doubtful loan Hup See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar na'a; o'o naʔa; oʔo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
head cabeza cabeça body #NAME? hujak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
heavy pesado pesado quality [-mə̃m] mə̃m unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
how? como como grammar bə-he bə-he unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
1sg yo eu grammar am am unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
if si se grammar [-u] (used as a suffix w/ verbs) u See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location [-te] te unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
intestines intestinos intestinos body [-win-yo-ot] win-jo-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
lake lago lago environment wək suwai wək suwai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
leaf hoja folha environment -wan; soyõn wan; sojõn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body [-sã] sã unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
leg/foot pierna perna body [-pep] pep unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wadi-yu wadi-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
liver hígado figado body -nam-'ot namʔot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
long largo comprido, longo quality [-pat] pat unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
man/male hombre homem human bon bon unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
meat/flesh carne carne fauna #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
moon luna lua environment həbət həbət unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship in in loan, direction unknown Nadahup, Kakua-Nukak See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mouth boca boca body -ye; -ko-de je; -ko-de unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
name nombre nome human #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
near/close cerca de perto quality [-nak] nak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body [-yə-tat] jə-tat See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
neck cuello pescoço body [-yə] unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
new nuevo novo quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
night noche noite time sai sai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
no/not no não grammar bəi-dut (nothing) bəi-dut unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
nose nariz nariz body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
old viejo velho quality kepa; bən-win kepa; bən-win unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
one uno um number #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body [-ep] ep unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
person/human being persona pessoa human epin epin unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
rain lluvia chuva environment wau wau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
red rojo vermelho colour #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
right/right hand derecha direita location/body [-wide] wide unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
road/path camino caminho manufacture dɨk; -hɨi-dɨ dɨk; -hɨi-dɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
root raíz raiz flora #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
rotten podrido podre quality [-kai] (high tone) kai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sand arena areia environment mãi mãi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality [-de + yak] de + jak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
short corto curto quality [-pom] pom unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
shoulder hombro ombro body [-pèm] pèm unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental -u + yik (n.) -u + yik (n.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
skin piel pele body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sky cielo céu environment sənə sənə unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
small pequeño pequeno quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
smoke humo fumaça environment ai; də-ai ai; də-ai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
star estrella estrela environment kət kət unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora [-pun] pun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
stone piedra pedra environment ha ha unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tail cola, rabo rabo body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
that ese/esa esse grammar jede iete unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ot ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality [-dɨn] dɨn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
thin delgado fino quality [-sə̃m] sə̃m unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
this este/esta este grammar náa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
2sg xx xx grammar mam mam unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
throat garganta garganta body [-yə-duk] jə-duk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
three tres tres number pəi pəi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
thunder truenos trovão environment kudu-kudu i-mo-yu kudu-kudu i-mo-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bite morder morder body [-sak] sak unknown see Kakua-Nukak See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
blow soplar soprar body [-pɨk] pɨk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
breathe respirar respirar body [-hĩ-yək] hĩ-jək unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
burn quemar queimar environment [-tai] (tr.); [-i-yək; -bɨt] (intr.) tai; i-jək; -bɨt unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [-hɨi + uk] hɨi + uk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
climb subir subir motion [-hõn] hõn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
come venir vir motion [-yuk] juk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cook cocinar cozinhar impact [-kak] kak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
count contar contar mental [-kak] (same as "cook"; has high tone) kak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cry llorar chorar mental [-kik] kik unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cut/hack cortar cortar impact [-pan] (general term); [-ei] (~ down) pan; ei unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
die/be dead morir morrer state -ɨi -ɨi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dig cavar cavar impact [-wat] wat unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dream soñar sonhar mental [-yək-ɨi dik] jək-ɨi dik unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
drink beber, tomar beber body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
eat comer comer body -ye + wãi; -wõk je + wãi; -wõk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fall caer cair motion [-dək] dək unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fear miedo medo mental mo-õm-yu mo-õm-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
flow fluir fluir motion [-tau] tau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fly volar voar motion #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
grow crecer crescer state [-min] min unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hear oír ouvir mental #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hide esconder esconder motion hãn hãn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hit golpear, pegar bater impact [-pãi] pãi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other [-wau] wau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
kill matar matar impact -ɨi-ək -ɨi-ək unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
laugh reír rir mental [-yoi] joi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion [-yek-sok] jek-sok unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body [-huk] huk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
open/uncover abrir abrir other [-hui + yik] hui + yik unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact [-pou] (strike); [-tãu] (~ with fist pou; tãu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
scratch rascar rasgar impact [-het] (scrape) het unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
see ver ver mental #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [-pãi-ək] pãi-ək unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sit sentar(se) sentar state [-tek] tek unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sleep dormir dormir body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body [-'ha-si + hik] ha-si + hik unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
spit escupir cuspir body [-ko-pok-sɨ-tuk] ko-pok-sɨ-tuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact [-yau-nok] (int.); [-yau-dei] (tr.) jau-nok; -jau-dei unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact [-piu] piu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [-ok] ok unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state [-sok] sok unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
steal robar roubar other [-sek] sek doubtful loan Nadahup See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
suck chupar chupar body [-sɨk] sɨk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
swell hincharse inchar body [-tɨ-yu] tɨ-ju unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
swim nadar nadar motion #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
think pensar pensar mental [-bik + sãk] (be of the opinion of); [-i + sãk] (reflect) bik + sãk; i + sãk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact [-nam] nam unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact -hip -hip unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other [-he-wuk] (~ around) he-wuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
vomit vomitar vomitar body [-pak] pak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
walk caminar, andar andar motion #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
work trabajar trabalhar other [-bep] bep doubtful loan, direction unknown Pumé See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
yawn bostezar bocejar body [-sai-bik-hak] sai-bik-hak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tongue lengua lingua body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tooth diente dente body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
two dos dois number kau kau unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
water agua agua environment ɨt ɨt unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar bitu bitu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
wet mojado molhado quality -tɨu -tɨu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
what? que, qué que grammar bə-i-dik bə-i-dik unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
when? cuando quando grammar bəi-dik bat bəi-dik bat unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
where? donde onde grammar bən bən unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
white blanco branco colour #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
who? quien, quién quem grammar bəə bəə unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
wife esposa esposa kinship u u unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
wind viento vento environment hi̡m hi̡m unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
wing ala asa body [-hõ] unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
woman/female mujer mulher human den den unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
yellow amarillo amarelo colour #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yam jam unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
foot pie body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar sɨi sɨi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
all todo todos other -to-hani; wəi-hin -to-hani; wəi-hin unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
ankle tobillo tornozelo body [-tat-hamadak] (lit. "base of foot") tat-hamadak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body [-yek] (vb., to defecate) yek unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
lung pulmón pulmão body [-sabak-ot] (pl.) sabak-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body [-'ha-koi-yu] ha-koi-ju See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bark corteza casca environment pun-pik; pun-ta pun-pik; pun-ta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fingernail uña unha body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
heart corazón coração body #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sun sol sol time yãmat jãmat unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment wen wen unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
green verde verde quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hot caliente quente quality #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. tin tin unique cf. Aymara tʃiɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wip wip unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. hompi (H&R) unique See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. wãn (H&R) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pƜi puj (H&G) unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae ian ian unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wu wu unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica səm səm unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae iti iti unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae hu hu unique cf. Kakua haw See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae winik winik unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family patu patu loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae iãp ɲãp unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yot jot semantic shift from jaguar (markedness shift?) See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis iot pik (iot=perro; pik=black); shúku (R95) iot pík See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) jãn (H&R) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tuʔ; yuu (R95) tuʔ unique cf. TG tatu, Kakua ju See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. iãn ɲãn See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hamna; wou hamna; wou doubtful loan/inheritance? loan/inheritance Kakua-Nukak See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yəi jəi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae sarapata, i (H&R) loan maybe Arawak; cf. Paumari sinapati See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura frog: kim frog: kim See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. namãnã damana (H&R) loan - WW %tʃamana, from Arawak See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata generic lizard: wisan generic lizard: wisan unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. iwin iwin doubtful loan Panoan *iwi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes pĩn (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna generic snake: sə̃p generic snake: sə̃p unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox generic snake: sə̃p generic snake: sə̃p See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria turtle: yuk turtle: juk unknown cf. Nukak ɲãkoʔ4 See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis moya moja loan Arawak: Piapoco/Achagua múja See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa tui tui loan North Arawak, e.g. Yavitero téwi See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hipa (Giron: loan ipatu Arawak) loan - WW %patu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) sauãn sawan (H&R) loan Arawak: Piapoco sáawali See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kok kok unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ioi ioi doubtful loan Nadahup joj See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. tree: tə tree: tə, tə pat (H&R) unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumana kumana loan - WW %kumana See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ye je, bib (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kãn kãn loan North Arawak See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum həp-yõn həp-jõn doubtful loan Kakua-Nukak hu/ʉp See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna pun pun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana suamka swamka doubtful loan unusual form See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ioikam ɟoikam See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta generic manioc: tim; wõk-də generic manioc: tim; wõk-də unique See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta uõk-nɤʔ uõgnɤʔ unknown cf. TG See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum iám iám See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas iám iám doubtful loan E. Tukanoan jãbõ [ŋamo] 'taioba' See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. generic yam: yãmi generic yam: jãmi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kõmya kõmja; pǝk ju ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. uyamá (Sp. loan) ujamá loan Spanish (origin Carib) See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae generic ant: hui generic ant: hui See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis am am, dəm (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria yutadak jutadak unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kŭi kŭi loan - WW %kukuj See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera habi habi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora sõm sõm unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones sək (=snail) sək (=snail) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera dɨk dɨk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tõn tõn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae hiu hiu unknown cf. Achagua hiidu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae nõieʔ nõieʔ See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. yum jum unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ton jɨ:m (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita dəm dəm unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda sək (=scorpion) sək (=scorpion) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae yun; watduk jun; watduk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca iotnan; yana, yót dan (R95) jot dãn (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha soikak; kap (R95) soikak; kap (R95) unique; loan - WW %kaparu; North Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] caa, tzoigar (R95) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella generic monkey: bu generic monkey: bu missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons suʔ suʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus uatnuk; chaira (R95) uatnuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae wan-si-han wan-si-han unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis yéu, yeó (R95) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis yeu ieu loan Arawak jé:wi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tsom (R95) de pi (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari de, múa, deepi (R95) de hut (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua shi (R95) doubtful loan TG/Carib kwaʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bo´; bop (R95) poʔ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris itoé, utdé, yi-dé (R95) ɨt de (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti nái (R95) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) deet (R95) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mat mat tɨj (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae tzscho, bicu (R95) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris iap jap (H&R) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus som som unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus [kawayu] [kawayu] See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material generic basket: kam generic basket: kam loan Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaáme See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material generic basket: kam generic basket: kam See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material yĩk-ot yĩk-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material haa mo-ou; hepe haa mo-ou; hepe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kãn kãn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material -tek-ot -tek-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport ha-pidik ha-pidik unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology physician: -hei-kon-o; -wɨn-ɨ physician: -hei-kon-o; -wɨn-ɨ unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material kɨ-yu-ot kɨ-yu-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology yui-ot yui-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other wai wai unique may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
firewood leña lenha other du du unique cf. Nadahup See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mo-wei-hin mo-wei-hin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology dio dio loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wiu-yu-tɨi wiu-yu-tɨi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool bop bop unique hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool yukon jukon doubtful loan Saliva dokono 'arrow' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool hə́k hə́k unique arco See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport hãwãt hãwãt unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material [palatu] [palatu] loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool wãm wãm doubtful loan, direction unknown Kakua/Nukak waam See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tasa, suwai tasa, suwai loan; unknown Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool pun-um (tree sap) pun-um unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
wax cera cera other am yak-ot (am=bee) am yak-ot (am=bee) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
honey miel mel food am-pok am-pok unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture dɨt-ot dɨt-ot unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material soyõn sojõn unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology bon bon a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation mo-hui-dipən mo-hui-dipən See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation [papeda] [papeda] loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology -yək; -yək-ɨi dik -yək; -yək-ɨi dik See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kawa kawa doubtful loan Arawak, e.g. Achagua kawáamai See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wat-yek wat-yek See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tee mo-həp tee mo-həp See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation [asuka], susim 'sugar cane' [asuka], susim 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress -sim-yak; [sapatu] -sim-yak; [sapatu] See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation [sotdawa] [sotdawa] loan - WW %surara See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation [misi] [misi] loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tãt tãt unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress -hui-pe; -hui-wop -hui-pe; -hui-wop unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology -hɨi-wãi-dɨk -hɨi-wãi-dɨk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pon pon See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool dɨt-ot dɨt-ot See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
salt sal sal food sa-yu sa-yu loan Span/Port See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology -au (vb.) -au (vb.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool jun iun unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pam pam unknown cf. Carib pepe- forms esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food -bo-dɨk -bo-dɨk See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kõmya kõmja; pǝk ju ('gourd', H&R) doubtful loan - WW %kuja See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tou tou doubtful loan cf. Tukanoan, Pume, Hoti See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tou-yu tou-ju See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture fermented drink: pai fermented drink: pai loan - WW %pajaru, Giron: loan Kurripako pairrauda prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food masuká masuká loan - WW %matsuka agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ʔãn ʔãn unknown usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food anpɤnkak (an-=casabe; pɤn-=resultative; -kak=to cook anpɤnkak unique agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool #NAME? #NAME? doubtful loan N. Arawak *tsiiru-li agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool -hɨn -hɨn can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool wabak; mĩm wabak; mĩm See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
digging stick subsistence tool iuk ɟuk See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ha ha use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
house other mõ; -'ot mõ; -ʔot doubtful loan, direction unknown Kakua-Nukak See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Girón Higuita 2008: 44 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Giron 2008: p22 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Giron 2008: p22 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Giron 2008: p23 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Giron 2008: p23 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes CCV - first C must be [-voice]; second C must be an approximant /j,w/; vowel following complex onset must be [-high] Giron 2008: p35 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Giron 2008: p20 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Giron 2008: p20 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes (4 types: low, high, ascendent and descendent) Giron 2008: p104 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no nasalization is contrastive Giron 2008: p76 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Giron 2008: p104 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Giron 2008: p104 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Giron 2008: p276-292 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Giron 2008: p276-292 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Giron 2008: p218 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes yes Giron 2008: p442 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Giron 2008: p442 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Giron 2008: p442 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Giron 2008: p180-181 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Giron 2008: p220 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes "It´s possible but it´s not clear if it´s productive" Dvalle Giron 2008: p220 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Giron 2008: p244 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info "However, there seems to be a possible incorporation but it has a ridig structure and seems to be the product of grammaticalization." Giron 2008: p221 (Table 23; ex. 417a-f) Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes masculine/feminine classifiers : -di/-da respectively; feminine marked on nominal roots; seems to be limited to animates Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes These are mainly related mass things, liquid state, recipient, ect.There are 8 nouns classifiers Giron 2008: p183 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes author states that this is restricted to human/human-like beings, however, the examples contradict this. (broadens to other animates as well) Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Giron 2008: p186 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info size is a relevant category for in/animates size is a relevant category for in/animates Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Giron 2008: p183, 245 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes "Only for derived, agentive nouns" D Valle singular only marked on agent (-m) [plural marker for agent (-t)] Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -ot' -at, -it, -ut' irregular markers used to achieve vowel harmony with vowel in root, however the stem may undergo an addition to the syllable in order to avoid double Vs Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Giron 2008: p192 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Giron 2008: p170, 191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Giron 2008: p161-177 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Giron 2008: p174 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Giron 2008: p170 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Table 12; Table 13 Giron 2008: p175 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes distance contrast also includes visibility Giron 2008: p175 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Giron 2008: p186 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Giron 2008: p186 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Giron 2008: p186 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no double person marker preceding the definite verb Giron 2008: p231 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Giron 2008: p194-208 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 12 N-case Giron 2008:p194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no "agent in transitive (ERG) [is marked]" Giron 2008: p195 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Giron 2008: p194-208 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Giron 2008: p194-208 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes N-case; up to two can be combined and affixed to a stem Giron 2008: p194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Giron 2008: p194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Giron 2008: p194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Giron 2008: p194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Giron 2008: p194-208 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes -jet Giron 2008: p203 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no However, "The word formed by a noun plus a case may at the same time take marker of tense and modality." Giron 2008: p196 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Giron 2008: p177-216 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Giron 2008: p236 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Giron 2008: p236 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Giron 2008: p236 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Giron 2008: p236 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Giron 2008: 182-185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Marking of alienable/inalienable nouns is marked with the samse set of prefixes Giron 2008: 206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Giron 2008: 206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Giron 2008: p176 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Giron 2008: p176 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Giron 2008: p296 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no However, the "qualificative" word agrees in number with the NP head Giron 2008: p296-303 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes Giron 2008: p246 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Giron 2008: p245-6 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Giron 2008: p245-6 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no The author states that "there is no morphology to produce verbs out of names" Giron 2008: p186 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Giron 2008: p277 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes -di/-ni past/recent past (respectively) Giron 2008: p277 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Giron 2008: p179 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -ya: after verb; si- placed before verb when the "speaker assumes that the event will occur with certain imminence even without external control of fortuitous conditions." Giron 2008: p279 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Giron 2008: p217 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Giron 2008: p217 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Giron 2008: p277-279 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Giron 2008: p277-279 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Giron 2008: p271 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes ku- kú-, kō- Giron 2008: p395 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes "Actually, there is a negative imperative prefix" D Valle Giron 2008: p395/273 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes ku- kú-, kō- "same suffix as exhortative" D Valle Giron 2008: p395 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes tipa- see #118 Giron 2008: p286 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Giron 2008: p286 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes -wɣn marked before time and aspect; expresses if potential events will occur/have occurred Giron 2008: p276 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes teté- (pa) Giron 2008: p287 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Giron 2008: p287 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes tipa- speculative marker on verb Giron 2008: p286 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -kuk- person marker-FRUS-Verb Giron 2008: p271 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -pak directly proceding verb Giron 2008: p267 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes The imperative negative prefix has this function too Giron 2008: p273 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes Giron 2008: p270-275 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative yes The author call these morphemes as: "compulsive", "seriousness" and "pathetic" Giron 2008: p289 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Giron 2008: p175 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes (-)kṍm/kõm- expresses visual evidence with surprise; can be used as a free morpheme; can appear bound to pronouns, nouns, and verbs Giron 2008: p281 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes Giron 2008: p286-287 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -ma after lexical base (i.e. In Puinave after pronoun, verb, interrogative); used also as a "way of presenting the state of affairs not caused by any opinion of the speaker"; most frequently used in citation(see below) Giron 2008: p284 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Giron 2008: p281-293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Giron 2008: p281 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Giron 2008: p281 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Giron 2008: p281-293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Giron 2008: p281-293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Number is marked by the person agreement prefixes Giron 2008: 228-229 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Word order is quite variable in the language since grammatical functions are marked on the NP and the verb Giron 2008: p335 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Giron 2008: 336 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Giron 2008: 336 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Giron 2008: 336 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes O A V Giron 2008: 318 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Giron 2008: 194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Giron 2008: 194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Giron 2008: p386 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Giron 2008: p386 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Giron 2008: p296 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Giron 2008: p297 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Giron 2008: p174 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no Giron 2008: p174 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Giron 2008: p408 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Giron 2008: p408 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Giron 2008: p394 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes There is a split system based on wheter the intransitive verb is active/stative Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes The same prefixes appear in the verb but subject prefixes appear before the object prefixes and are obligatory while obeject prefixes are not Giron 2008: p229 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Giron 2008: p229 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no info But it seems that verbal person-marking is not active-inactive Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Giron 2008: p229 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Giron 2008: p169 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Giron 2008: p169 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no The reciprocal construction follows the same strategy as the reflexive but it needs to be added an directional suffix Giron 2008: p366-367 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Reflexive is marked by adding an extra person agreement affix in the verb. Giron 2008: p366 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Giron 2008: p366-367 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Girón:222, 360 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes Girón:222, 360 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Girón:222, 360 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no There is a distinct negative marker for NPs Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes This construction is usually for focalized information Giron 2008: 391 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes This construction is usually for asking about the verb Giron 2008: p392 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Giron 2008: p335, 391-392 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Giron 2008: p391-392 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Giron 2008: p335, 391-392 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Giron 2008: p145-150 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Giron 2008: p407-9 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Giron 2008: p232 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Giron 2008: p232, 245 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -súk Giron 2008: p275 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Giron 2008: p411-413 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Giron 2008: p216-311 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Giron 2008: p411-413 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle