Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro n/a No noun classes. Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no The examples are only with animates. Aikhenvald, 1995: 19 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no All examples of inanimates seem to be masculine, unmarked gender. Galindo, 2002: 99-101, 143-145 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no All gender examples are with animates, adjectives don't agree with inanimate nouns. Shauer & Shauer 2000: 519, 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no The masculine gender is default, while feminine gender is assigned only to feminine animates. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36, 49 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no All examples of inanimates get singular, non-masculine marking. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no All inanimates are classified based on their form or function. Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Gender distinction is straightforward for human nouns. However, animate nouns are usually masculine, and inanimate nouns are usually feminine, with many exceptions (including flora, which according to Asheninca legend were human at one time). Payne 1981:13, 2234 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Masculine is unmarked. Zamponi 2003:25-26 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:253-66 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:79 Daniel Valle
Baure yes "Only feminine animates are considered grammatically feminine, and all other nouns are masculine."; "Inanimates are always referred to by unmarker masculine, while animates can also be unmarked for gender." Danielsen 2007: p116-117 Mitz Perez
Nanti no All animates are “feminine.” Michael, 2008. p. 294 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:98-99 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:201-222 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 287 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1992: 77 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 48 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:22 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bertoglia 1983:3-13 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Alphonse 1956:3 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:27 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 75 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-32 Christopher Clack Many names of insects and animals appear to be masculine or feminine but this is only coincidence. Nouns that refer to animals or things generally do not take an ending that indicates gender.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p.21 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 79 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack Most animals are by default masculine, but some are default feminine. A few animals simply lack masculine genders.
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 139 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.34 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.19-21 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:95-96 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: p.142-151 Kelsey Neely no indication of gender distinctions in noun classifier list
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.119-120 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.144-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of sex distinction
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 23 done 1
Garrwa no 4-5 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung n/a done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari n/a Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 83 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 446-7 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 29 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal yes 307 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 60 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung n/a done 0
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija N/A Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 136 done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 78 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 122 done 0
Wakaya yes 145 done 1
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte No 86 0
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 32-3 0
Bilinarra n/a 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari No 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps