Eñepa

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pbh
Location
6.95°, -65.85°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Aikhenvald, Alexandra. 2000. Classifiers: A Typology of Noun Categorization Devices. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Gildea, Spike. 1989. Simple and relative clauses in Panare. Masters thesis, University of Oregon. Gildea, Spike. 1993. The rigid VS order in Panare: a historical explanation. IJAL 59:1, 44-63. Mattei-Muller, Marie-Claude 1994. Diccionario ilustrado panare-español con índice español-panare. Caracas: Armitano. Mattei-Muller, Marie-Claude. 2007. Voir et savoir en Panaré (langue caribe du Vénézuéla). In Zlatka Guentchéva & Jon Landaburu (eds.), l’Énonciation médiatisée II. Le traitement épistémologique de l’information : illustrations amérindiennes et caucasiennes : 153-171. Bibliothèque de l’Information Grammaticale, 63. Paris/ Lovaina : Peeters. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist. Palmegiani, Annamaria. 2002. Las correlaciones de orden en Panare, lengua OVS. In Boletín de Linguístics 17, pp.69-83, Caracas. Payne, Thomas. 1989. Transitivity and Ergativity in Panare. Notes on Linguistics 46, pp.30-48 Payne, Thomas. 1995. Object Incorporation in Panare. IJAL 61:3, pp. 295-311. Price, Jana. 1984. Estudio del sistema de sonios del idioma Panare. Caracas, Universidad Católica Andrés Bello. Price, Jana. 2007. Panare. In Mary R. Key, Intercontinental Dictionary Series. Tosantos, Gonzalo. 1977. Apuntes sobre el idioma panare. Cumaná, Universidad del oriente.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location yapaya; yapayaʔkə (IDS) japaja; japajaʔkə (IDS) inheritance shared Yukpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar t-yako-pe (IDS) t-jako-pe (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
all todo todos other atawən (IDS) atawən (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
and y e grammar -yako; yaʔnən; yaʔkən (IDS) -jako; jaʔnən; jaʔkən (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ankle tobillo tornozelo body -əʔraʔmu- (IDS) -əʔraʔmu- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -y-ata (IDS) -j-ata (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tukəənə (IDS) tukəənə (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
at en, a em, a location po po inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
back espalda costas body -mpae (IDS) -mpae (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
belly barriga barriga body pače (stomach); -pačeik patʃ̌e (stomach); -patʃeik unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
below abajo, debajo abaixo location yeʔɲe; yehkə (IDS) jeʔɲe; jehkə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
big grande grande quality tosen-pe; tosan-pe tosen-pe; tosan-pe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bite morder morder body -ɨnə-n (IDS) -ɨnə-n (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
black negro preto colour tɨ-puru-ke tɨ-puru-ke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blood sangre sangue body meičuʔ meitʃuʔ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blow soplar soprar body ɨpapeiʔma-; -apeʔma- (IDS) ɨpapeiʔma-; -apeʔma- (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body tuke (IDS) tuke (IDS) unknown Yanomami See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bone hueso osso body #NAME? jəhpə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
breast pecho, seno peito body mak mak inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
breathe respirar respirar body -yači- (IDS) -jatʃi- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
burn quemar queimar environment transitive: -uka-; intransitive: aʔ (-tɨ, -ti); yuwaatɨn (IDS) transitive: -uka-; intransitive: aʔ (-tɨ, -ti); juwaatɨn (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body -ompa-n (IDS) -ompa-n (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
child niño, niña criança human #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
climb subir subir motion -osan(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) -osan(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cold frío frio quality t-ɨʔnatə-ke t-ɨʔnatə-ke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
come venir vir motion -uwəpɨn (-ə-, əpɨ-, əpi-) (IDS) -uwəpɨn (-ə-, əpɨ-, əpi-) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cook cocinar cozinhar impact -əʔməh-ka-n (IDS) -əʔməh-ka-n (IDS) unknown Guahiban See Language page Melody Ann Ross
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality t-ah-se ehke (IDS) t-ah-se ehke (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
count contar contar mental yuʔ(-ku) (IDS) juʔ(-ku) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cry llorar chorar mental -tyei(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) -tjei(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -ɨkɨtə- (IDS) -ɨkɨtə- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
day día dia time wataweikasa wataweikasa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
die/be dead morir morrer state y-usuka-n j-usuka-n unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dig cavar cavar impact ano ka-n (IDS) ano ka-n (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dirty sucio sujo quality tɨpuru-ke (IDS) tɨpuru-ke (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dream soñar sonhar mental -učepətɨ-n (IDS) -utʃepətɨ-n (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drink beber, tomar beber body nɨkorooman nɨkorooman inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dry seco seco quality t-ukočike-če t-ukotʃike-tʃe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality t-ɨyɨ-ke ehke (IDS) t-ɨjɨ-ke ehke (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dust polvo poeira environment ano ičik (IDS) ano itʃik (IDS) loan, direction unknown Yanomam: Ninam iʃik See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ear oreja orelha body -pana- -pana- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
earth/soil tierra terra environment ano ano inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
eat comer comer body yu-č-erema-n ju-tʃ-erema-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
egg huevo ovo fauna -po; [kamiča] po; [kamitʃ̌a] inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
eye ojo olho body o; -y-o-n o; -j-o-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body -uwiɲa- (IDS) -uwiɲa- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fall caer cair motion -uwiɲa- (IDS) -uwiɲa- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
far lejos longe quality ɲenča (IDS) ɲentʃa (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fat/grease grasa gordura body dɨ(hi)ɨrɨba dɨ(hi)ɨrɨba doubtful loan Bora: Muinane: dɨ́ɨrɨba; Bora tɯ́ɯ́rɯpa; not clear how this could have happened but the words look very similar indeed and there is nothing like this in the other Carib lgs See Language page Melody Ann Ross
father padre, papá pai kinship yɨm jɨm inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fear miedo medo mental yɨnkasɨ (IDS) jɨnkasɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
feather pluma pena fauna -iʔ-pok -iʔ-pok inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fire fuego fogo environment wahto wahto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish xx xx fauna kariɲa, (MM) kana kariɲa, (MM) kana unique See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion -uwəhtə- (IDS) -uwəhtə- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flower flor flor environment -yipin; ehčipipin (IDS) -jipin; ehtʃipipin (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fly volar voar motion yu-tə-n kawə ju-tə-n kawə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kanoʔ ičik (IDS) kanoʔ itʃik (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
foot pie body pata; y-ihta- pata; j-ihta- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fruit fruta fruta flora -yempan (IDS) -jempan (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
good bueno bom quality ayape ajape unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grow crecer crescer state -uwəhsa- (IDS) -uwəhsa- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -iʔ-pok -iʔ-pok inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hand mano mão body -eɲa- -eɲa- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
head cabeza cabeça body #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hear oír ouvir mental -itya- itja- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
heavy pesado pesado quality taməʔɲe (IDS) taməʔɲe (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hide esconder esconder motion -ɨnan(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) -ɨnan(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -ɨpuʔmo- (IDS) -ɨpuʔmo- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other yapəʔ(-sɨ)(-si) (IDS) japəʔ(-sɨ)(-si) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
how? como como grammar sɨnkae (IDS) sɨnkae (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
if si se grammar -npək; -npan (IDS) -npək; -npan (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location t-ya (IDS) t-ja (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
intestines intestinos intestinos body pače; -pačeik (IDS) patʃe; -patʃeik (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body sɨhsɨh-pe (IDS) sɨhsɨh-pe (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
kill matar matar impact -uwə- -uwə- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lake lago lago environment tɨna yɨm (IDS) tɨna jɨm (IDS) inheritance; unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
laugh reír rir mental -os-onoʔ(-pɨ)(-pi) (IDS) -os-onoʔ(-pɨ)(-pi) (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leaf hoja folha environment ijchan, tyan, -yan (MM) ihtʃan, tjan, -jan (MM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body poe yaka (IDS) poe jaka (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion -uwiɲa- (IDS) -uwiɲa- (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment t-učeɲama-k (IDS) t-utʃeɲama-k (IDS) semantic shift; unknown thunder See Language page Melody Ann Ross
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body onkono; onkono-pe (IDS) onkono; onkono-pe (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
liver hígado figado body -y-inki- j-inki- unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
long largo comprido, longo quality t-ankəča-ke (IDS) t-ankətʃa-ke (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sɨhpən, ayamë (MM) sɨhpən, ajamë (MM) unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lung pulmón pulmão body -kupu-; -y-awaaso- (IDS) -kupu-; -j-awaaso- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
meat/flesh carne carne fauna are, aretyo (MM) are, aretjo (MM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
moon luna lua environment wanə wanə unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship y-anə; -anə j-anə; -anə loan Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mouth boca boca body ta; -ənta- ta; -ənta- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
name nombre nome human #NAME? itʃeik inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body -pɨmɨ- (IDS) -pɨmɨ- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
near/close cerca de perto quality ɲenča ehke (IDS) ɲentʃa ehke (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
neck cuello pescoço body -pɨmɨ- (IDS) -pɨmɨ- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
new nuevo novo quality pik, y-an-se pik, j-an-se unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
night noche noite time sɨpaawə sɨpaawə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
no/not no não grammar čiʔka (IDS) tʃiʔka (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
nose nariz nariz body -əəwa- -əəwa- unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
old viejo velho quality yuwačon-pe juwatʃon-pe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
one uno um number tyityasa tjitjasa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
open/uncover abrir abrir other -ipipu-ka- (IDS) -ipipu-ka- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
other otro outro grammar yako jako inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tosowantë', tïnëpëke tosowantǝʔ, tɨnǝpǝke unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
person/human being persona pessoa human eʔɲapa eʔɲapa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact -ɨpuʔmo- (IDS) -ɨpuʔmo- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rain lluvia chuva environment kanoʔ (IDS) kanoʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
red rojo vermelho colour t-ukin-ke t-ukin-ke unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
right/right hand derecha direita location/body arʸe yaka (IDS) arʸe jaka (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
road/path camino caminho manufacture čɨma tʃɨma inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
root raíz raiz flora iye mi'; yïmun, -mun (tuber) (MM) ije miʔ; jïmun, -mun (tuber) (MM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rotten podrido podre quality y-usuka-sa (IDS) j-usuka-sa (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sand arena areia environment mičin mitʃin unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
scratch rascar rasgar impact rë'ka, ërë'ka rǝʔka, ǝrǝʔka inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
see ver ver mental -iɲei- -iɲei- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality t-ɨyɨh-ke (IDS) t-ɨjɨh-ke (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact -uwə-; -ama- (IDS) -uwə-; -ama- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
short corto curto quality kawə ehke (IDS) kawə ehke (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoulder hombro ombro body -mata- (IDS) -mata- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental te'yapanse, tyupe' teʔʰapanse, ɟupeʔ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sit sentar(se) sentar state -os-amaika- (IDS) -os-amaika- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
skin piel pele body pi-hpə pi-hpə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sky cielo céu environment kaʔ (IDS) kaʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sleep dormir dormir body #NAME? okuetji-n unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
small pequeño pequeno quality pɨɨča; ari-pɨɨča pɨɨtʃ̌a; ari-pɨɨtʃa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
smoke humo fumaça environment wahto ičik wahto itʃik (cf. fire) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body e'muku, e'mu eʔmuku, eʔmu unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spit escupir cuspir body y-ɨtyaku-n yama- (IDS) j-ɨtjaku-n jama- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact -ɨpetyaka- (IDS) -ɨpetjaka- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact -ɨpiʔ(-ku) (IDS) -ɨpiʔ(-ku) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact -uwə- (IDS) -uwə- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state -osan(-mɨ)(-mi) pika (IDS) -osan(-mɨ)(-mi) pika (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
star estrella estrela environment kaʔ yakɨn kaʔ jakɨn unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
steal robar roubar other -imempa- (IDS) -imempa- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora iye (IDS) ije (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stone piedra pedra environment toʔ toʔ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
suck chupar chupar body -ɨkamuhkə- (IDS) -ɨkamuhkə- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sweat sudar suor, suar body -ɨnkamahta- (IDS) -ɨnkamahta- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
swell hincharse inchar body tohpanse (IDS) tohpanse (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
swim nadar nadar motion akueʔ(-pɨ)(-pi) akueʔ(-pɨ)(-pi) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tail cola, rabo rabo body -yɨtɨkɨn jɨtɨkɨn inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
that ese/esa esse grammar ëmë, ëmëkon (plural) (MM) ëmë, ëmëkon (plural) (MM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality asɨɨ-pe (IDS) asɨɨ-pe (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thin delgado fino quality pityaka-sa (IDS) pitjaka-sa (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
think pensar pensar mental -uč-inča-ma- (IDS) -utʃ-intʃa-ma- (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
this este/esta este grammar më' nku (visible object); sï, sïj, ëmë (object near speaker); mëjchanton, ëmëkon, sïkon (plurals) (MM) mëʔ nku (visible object); sï, sïh, ëmë (object near speaker); mëhtʃanton, ëmëkon, sïkon (plurals) (MM) unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
2sg xx xx grammar amən amən inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
three tres tres number asonwa asonwa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
throat garganta garganta body -waaru- (IDS) -waaru- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact -ama- (IDS) -ama- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thunder truenos trovão environment kanoʔ pərən (IDS) kanoʔ pərən (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact -ɨpɨrɨn(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) -ɨpɨrɨn(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tongue lengua lingua body -iɲo- -iɲo- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tooth diente dente body yə- jə- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other turn over: -areɲaka-; turn around: -oponaka-; -os-oponaka- (IDS) turn over: -areɲaka-; turn around: -oponaka-; -os-oponaka- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
two dos dois number asak asak inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
vomit vomitar vomitar body -uwəčiɲompətɨ-n (IDS) -uwətʃiɲompətɨ-n (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
walk caminar, andar andar motion -ataraama- -ataraama- inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
water agua agua environment tɨna tɨna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wet mojado molhado quality t-ərəmə-če t-ərəmə-tʃe unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
what? que, qué que grammar nəhpa nəhpa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
when? cuando quando grammar sɨnkae-ya; sɨnka-ya-wo (IDS) sɨnkae-ja; sɨnka-ja-wo (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
where? donde onde grammar əhtə; əhtə-na; əhtɨ-no (IDS) əhtə; əhtə-na; əhtɨ-no (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white blanco branco colour tamuʔɲe tamuʔɲe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
who? quien, quién quem grammar nək nək inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wife esposa esposa kinship pɨk pɨk unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wind viento vento environment tyapapači (IDS) tjapapatʃi (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wing ala asa body -apə (IDS) -apə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
woman/female mujer mulher human wïnkï, Var. wïnkït, wïnkïï (MM) wïnkï, Var. wïnkït, wïnkïï (MM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
work trabajar trabalhar other -amohkayin-(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) -amohkajin-(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yawn bostezar bocejar body -ɨn-ta-pima (IDS) -ɨn-ta-pima (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yellow amarillo amarelo colour t-ukin-ke t-ukin-ke unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bad mal mal quality arʸɨpɨ-pe arjɨpɨ-pe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar mək; mukuh mək; mukuh inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1sg yo eu grammar yu ju inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leg/foot pierna perna body ëjpëto, yëjpë ǝʰpǝto, jǝʰpǝ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
man/male hombre homem human apok; apo' (MM) apok; apoʔ (MM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kamonton kamonton inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental t-inča t-intʃa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yuto-kon, weʔɲəkon yuto-kon, weʔɲəkon inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ana ana inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
2pl ustedes vocês grammar aɲimonton aɲimonton inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bark corteza casca environment iye pi-hpə ije pi-hpə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fingernail uña unha body -eɲa-n yɨ-pu-n y-o-n -eɲa-n jɨ-pu-n j-o-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
heart corazón coração body iɲə; t-yawa iɲə; t-jawa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sun sol sol time ehčerekun ehtʃerekun unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
green verde verde quality t-akuʔya-ke t-akuʔja-ke inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hot caliente quente quality katapəhtə katapəhtə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana wachiyo' (arbol), wache (fruta) (MM) watʃiyoʔ (arbol), watʃe (fruta) (MM) inheritance Unknown bixa is Carib loan into European languages, origin of scientific name See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Melody Ann Ross
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. moya, mooya (MM) moja, mooja (MM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Melody Ann Ross
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuñ (MM) akuɲ (MM) loan into protolg, direction unknown Northern Carib? Tupi-Guarani Mello (2000) reconstructs for Proto-TG. Occurs widely in Carib; but loan into (?) Piaroa /æk'uri/; Nheengatu /akuti/; Achuar agutí WW %akuti See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. onwe (MM) onwe (MM) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis muuna, ariñu'na muuna, ariɲuʔna loan Attested Eñepa and Yabarana North Arawak (Warekena, Yavitero) Yavitero múna, see also Arawak amana variants? Also ariɲuʔna WW %amana See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Melody Ann Ross
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus tɨnka tɨnka large rat unique Also akuin kaiʔnǝ (especie de rata, lit. parecido al picure) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes wi; uñemakërën (MM) wi; uɲemakǝrǝn (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Mapoyo, Makushi, Eñepa) Also uɲemakërën See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Melody Ann Ross
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora winičI; Var. kunichi', kanochi' konochi' (MM) winitʃɨ; Var. kunitʃiʔ, kanotʃiʔ konotʃiʔ (MM) unique Also kunitʃiʔ, kanotʃiʔ konotʃiʔ See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae anətə (generic ant) anətə (generic ant) unknown See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ancha (palmero), Var. añcha; weinki' (melero) (MM) ancha (palmero), Var. aɲcha; weinkiʔ (melero) (MM) palmero (giant anteater) inheritance N Amazonian subgroup? (shared Mapoyo and Eñepa) Also weinkiʔ (melero, lesser anteater) Narrower (giant anteater) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Melody Ann Ross
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kajkam (MM) kajkam (MM) inheritance N Amazonian subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Eñepa) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum karana mënkae, choowi Var. choowin, wajpa (MM) karana mǝnkae, tʃoowi Var. tʃoowin, wahpa (MM) unknown Also tʃoowi, tʃoowin, wahpa See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Melody Ann Ross
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana apo', Var. apok (MM) apoʔ, Var. apok (MM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Melody Ann Ross
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paaru (MM), kampuure (MM flags as loan) paaru (MM), kampuure (MM flags as loan) inheritance? cambur' also in Venezuelan Spanish, may be Carib source Attributed to African origin See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ɲinke ɲinke doubtful loan, direction unknown Northern Emberá ĩŋká Emberá ĩŋká See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. ehčipen ehtʃipen unknown prob. Vigna sesquipedalis See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis akamo akamo unknown Unknown Similar forms attested Eñepa-Carijona See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tunko (IDS) tunko (IDS) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Melody Ann Ross
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing osae = generic palm? See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) maraʔ; këtëmyo' (MM) maraʔ; kǝtǝmjoʔ (MM) unknown Doubtful loan into Yanomami: maɾaka hi. Also këtëmjoʔ See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Melody Ann Ross
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Melody Ann Ross
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing kuhkuk (generic monkey) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kočapin; Var. kojchapin, kochipipin (MM) kotʃapin; Var. kohtʃapin, kotʃipipin (MM) unique Also kohtʃapin, kotʃipipin See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris chiwiiri, Var. chori, matachori (MM) tʃiwiiri, Var. tʃori, matatʃori (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? Also tʃori, matatʃori See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda tyimeipe; chiriri, timeepe, Var. chimeepe (MM) tʃimeipe; tʃiriri, timeepe, Var. tʃimeepe (MM) unknown Also tʃiriri, timeepe, Var. tʃimeepe See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea wom (MM) wom (MM) unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. ke'ñatë (MM) keʔɲatǝ (MM) unknown See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Melody Ann Ross
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Melody Ann Ross
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kɨrɨsa; para, takanapai'këmënë' (MM) kɨrɨsa; takanapaiʔkǝmǝnǝ' (MM) inheritance Cognate Yukpa, maybe Akawaio and Pemon. Also takanapaiʔkëmënë' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu paiʔka (SM) paiʔka (SM) inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan Carib > Wapishana bakɨɽ; see also Piaroa maquíra, Cofan saquira See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua marichana (MM) maritʃana (MM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) tokëtë (fruta o materia), tokëtiyo' (planta) (MM) tokǝtǝ (fruta o materia), tokǝtijoʔ (planta) (MM) fruit inheritance N Amazonian subgroup (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi, prob. Eñepa) tokëtijoʔ (plant). This word seems to have undergone metathesis (if cognate) See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura onwa' (inedible), ki'kë Var. ke'kë, achïm, Var. apëchïm (edible) (MM) onwaʔ (inedible), kiʔkǝ Var. keʔkǝ, atʃɨm, Var. apǝtʃɨm (edible) (MM) inedible crab unknown Also kiʔkë Var. keʔkë, atʃïm, Var. apëtʃïm (edible) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kïrïsa, Var. krïa, kërësa (MM) kɨrɨsa, Var. krɨa, kǝrǝsa (MM) inheritance Pemongan (Akawaio, Pemon, Mkushi, Eñepa) Also krɨa, kǝrǝsa See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. poiʔ (SM) poiʔ (SM) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus wɨiki wɨiki inheritance Pemongan (attested Makushi, Eñepa, Pemon) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kərənəpən kərənəpən unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ku'mukui, Var. ku'mëkoë (marro'n), apaijkua (turca), tuwu' especie pequeno) (MM) kuʔmukui, Var. kuʔmǝkoǝ (marro'n), apaihkua (turca), tuwuʔ especie pequeno) (MM) unique cf. %motkuku Also kuʔmëkoë (marron), apaihkua (turca), tuwuʔ (small type) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family mičiči mitʃitʃi unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. pe'ya' (MM) peʔjaʔ (MM) larva (in general) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kariña (MM) kariɲa (MM) inheritance N Amazonian subgroup (Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Eñepa) Loan into Hodï: kalina See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kana kana inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kanatïnto, kayen (MM) kanatɨnto, kajen (MM) unknown Also kajen See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera səhpən səhpən inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tyuwinke (IDS) tʃuwinke (IDS) unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana anku' (fruta), anku'cho' (arbol) Var. ankujcho' (MM) ankuʔ (fruta), ankuʔtʃoʔ (arbol) Var. ankuhtʃoʔ (MM) unknown See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Melody Ann Ross
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis saruna (MM) saruna (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Carijona, Yukpa, Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) wanaʔ yɨ-pu-n (IDS) wanaʔ yɨ-pu-n (IDS) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans anamae, Var. anëmae, nanamae, kanamae (MM) anamae, Var. anǝmae, nanamae, kanamae (MM) inheritance Unknown (shared Pemon, Eñepa) Likely loan into Hodi (ka'namE). Also anëmae, nanamae, kanamae See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Melody Ann Ross
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakara (heron), tamu'ñemënë' (MM) wakara (heron), tamuʔɲemǝnǝʔ (MM) loan-WW %wakara See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. poi' kai'në' (MM) poiʔ kaiʔnǝʔ (MM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Melody Ann Ross
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kawae Var. kɔwae, waʔka jaarï, waʔka jaamën kawae Var. kɔwae, waʔka jaarï, waʔka jaamën missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Melody Ann Ross
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae yɨmuk jɨmuk hawk, vulture missing lack of differentiation here may be a mistake in source? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pimi; kusa' (MM) pimi; kusaʔ (MM) inheritance Unknown Also kusaʔ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Melody Ann Ross
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing kuhkuk (generic monkey) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tyukui' (MM) tjukuiʔ (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? Loan Carib > Hodï: tu'kudi See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. yawana (MM) jawana (MM) loan direction unknown - WW %iwana Wanderwort: Similar forms in other Carib languages; Sp. iguana is reported to come from Arawak. Compare Yavitero iwána; see also Hodï uana (probably an Arawak loan), others WW %jiwana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca akërë, akërë tameñkemënë, Var. kërë (MM) akǝrǝ, akǝrǝ tameɲkemǝnǝ, Var. kǝrǝ (MM) inheritance Also akǝrǝ tameɲkemǝnǝ, kǝrǝ See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Melody Ann Ross
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra maka (MM) maka (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Melody Ann Ross
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. wanka (MM) wanka (MM) cará, yam, sweet potato inheritance Northern Carib? broader (cará, yam, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Melody Ann Ross
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae kasakañ, Var. masakai (MM) kasakaɲ, Var. masakai (MM) unknown Also masakai See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. eñarurukun (MM) eɲarurukun (MM) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae ompëkë, yompi (MM) ompǝkǝ, jompi (MM) unknown Also jompi See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ara, kamaya (MM) ara, kamaja (MM) doubtful loan into protolg - WW; loan - WW %arara; %wakamaja See Nheengatu arara. Also kamaja WW %ara See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays keʔɲak; ke'ña', Var. ke'ñat, ke'ñai (MM) keʔɲak; keʔɲaʔ, Var. keʔɲat, keʔɲai (MM) doubtful loan North Arawak e.g. Piapoco: kanái and similar forms in other Arawak lgs. Also keʔɲat, keʔɲai WW %kana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. kejko, taponseñ (MM) kehko, taponseɲ (MM) unknown Also taponseɲ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta uto (general); utoñe (bitter); u'puru', puru'kutya, u'surai (other types of bitter) (MM) uto (general); utoɲe (bitter); u?puru?, puruʔkutʃa, uʔsurai (other tʃpes of bitter) (MM) bitter manioc unknown Also uto (generic manioc); uʔpuruʔ, puruʔkutya, uʔsurai (other types of bitter) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta amaka (sweet) (MM) amaka (sweet) (MM) sweet manioc inheritance Possibly related to source of Pt macaxeira? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa anka, ankayo' (palma), ankayano (fruta) (MM) anka, ankajoʔ (palma), ankajano (fruta) (MM) unknown ankayano (miriti fruit) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. masak (IDS) masak (IDS) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera chewepijpɨ (SM) chewepijpɨ (SM) inheritance Unknown (attested Yukpa, Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) paakaew'chareñ, panako (MM) paakaewʔchareɲ, panako (MM) inheritance Unknown ('pana' shared Pemon, Eñepa) Also paakaewʔchareɲ See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis sanko (MM) sanko (MM) inheritance May be derived from saru form? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae awanke awanke inheritance - WW %jawari See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes mɨrɨkɨ, sowe, karaupunukëtë (MM) mɨrɨkɨ, sowe, karaupunukǝtǝ (MM) loan - WW? %murukutu / kurukutu Bora márúúku. Also sowe, karaupunukëtë See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ayamë (MM) ajamǝ (MM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. anoo, chimiri, këërë (MM) anoo, tʃimiri, kǝǝrǝ (MM) unknown Also tʃimiri, këërë See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Melody Ann Ross
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica naro, Var. noro, marakana (especie pequeña) (MM) naro, Var. noro, marakana (especie pequeña) (MM) doubtful loan Northern Carib? from Span or Arawak? Also ara, noro, marakana (small type) See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Melody Ann Ross
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea ko'me' (fruta), ko'ne'cho' (arbol (MM) koʔmeʔ (fruta), koʔneʔtʃoʔ (arbol (MM) peanut tuber unknown May be cognate with Wai Wai. koʔneʔtʃoʔ (plant) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus onke (fruta), onkiyo' (mata) (MM) onke (fruta), onkijoʔ (mata) (MM) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae piñë (MM) piɲǝ (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? (Eñepa, Carijona, Mapoyo) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Melody Ann Ross
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae ijka, Var. wijka, wi'ka (MM) ihka, Var. wihka, wiʔka (MM) inheritance Unknown (attested Carijona, Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum wanka kaik mən; cho', -chokun (tuber), chojcho' (mata) (MM) wanka kaik mən; tʃoʔ, -tʃokun (tuber), tʃohtʃoʔ (mata) (MM) unique See also tʃoʔ, -tʃokun (tuber) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Melody Ann Ross
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones kayooka kajooka unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua kuruwa (MM) mapoñ- similar to this species, but not identical, scientific name not given kuruwa (MM) mapoɲ- similar to this species, but not identical, scientific name not given species not given; this is something similar inheritance Unknown (attested Pemon, Eñepa) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. waram (MM) waram (MM) inheritance N Amazonian subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Eñepa) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata onkomin, saranapoi'në' (generic lizard), Var. sanara (MM) onkomin, saranapoiʔnǝʔ (generic lizard), Var. sanara (MM) unique sarana likely loan into Nadëb Also saranapoiʔnëʔ (generic lizard), sanara See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda waʔka waʔka unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ake, Var. ajke (MM) ake, Var. ahke (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ake mankowae (MM) ake mankowae (MM) unique Complex snake + ? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Melody Ann Ross
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ankaya ankaja inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. kayama; këtëm (MM) kayama; kǝtǝm (MM) inheritance Attested Makushi, Eñepa North Arawak Wapishana: kʰauwiam See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae karin, (mas grande) kasamaeka (MM) karin, (mas grande) kasamaeka (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? (Pemongan, Yukpa) Likely loan Carib > Hodï kali. Also kasamaeka (large type) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. pankeik; panke' (MM) pankeik; pankeʔ (MM) unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas čok; cho', -chokun (MM) tʃok; tʃoʔ, -tʃokun (MM) cará, yam, sweet potato inheritance Northern Carib? broader (cará, yam, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris warae, Var. wara (MM) warae, Var. wara (MM) inheritance Pemongan? (attested Pemon, Makushi, Yabarana, maybe Makiritare) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera monokoin (MM) monokoin (MM) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea eñkasa, Var. añkësa (black); inkichi'ri, Var. unkiche're, kecheere (red) (MM) eɲkasa, Var. aɲkǝsa (black); inkitʃiʔri, Var. unkitʃeʔre, ketʃeere (red) (MM) unique Also aɲkǝsa (black); inkitʃiʔri, unkitʃeʔre, ketʃeere (red) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. wayu' (MM) wajuʔ (MM) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae kuru (red-faced) warameñ (MM) kuru (red-faced) warameɲ (MM) unique Also kuru (red-faced) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kɨɨwo (frog) kɨɨwo (frog) frog inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum kowae; kawae kawaeyo' (planta) (MM) kowae; kawae kawaejoʔ (planta) (MM) doubtful loan into protolanguage Northern Carib? possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib Likely loan into Hodï: Hodï ʰkawoi. Also tamu See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria yaʔra(turtle), arakaya (aquatic), Var. arkaya, paara (MM) jaʔra(turtle), arakaja (aquatic), Var. arkaja, paara (MM) unique Also arakaja (aquatic), Var. arkaja, paara See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. chipuko Var. chëpoko; (grande) chipukoñe, (pequeno) chipuko ankiima (MM) tʃipuko Var. tʃǝpoko; (grande) tʃipukoɲe, (pequeno) tʃipuko ankiima (MM) inheritance Unknown (attested Eñepa and Carijona) Likely loan into Hodi (chejko). Also (large) chipukoñe; (small) chipuko ankiima See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna -yo; iye jo; ije inheritance Northern Carib? See also -jo (plant/tree classifier?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella amsïrï, Var. amïsïrï, mësërë (MM) amsɨrɨ, Var. amɨsɨrɨ, mǝsǝrǝ (MM) unknown Northern Emberá Northern Embera misurá. Also amɨsɨrɨ, mǝsǝrǝ See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae yïmu, yïmuk (MM) jɨmu, jɨmuk (MM) hawk, vulture unique lack of differentiation here may be a mistake in source? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita akamo; a'kamo (MM) akamo; aʔkamo (MM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing kuhkuk (generic monkey) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus punkoto (MM) punkoto (MM) inheritance shared Yukpa See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari kuchiiña (MM) kutʃiiɲa (MM) loan Spanish cochino 'pig' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae awako, ejporo (campephilus) (MM) awako (MM) unique Also ejporo (campephilus) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. na', -natï- (MM) na', -natï- (MM) cará, yam, sweet potato inheritance Northern Carib? broader (cará, yam, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna kərənəpən kərənəpən semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna wɨiki wɨiki inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology arewae arewae unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kaʔka poin mən; ka'kapoñ (mën) (MM) kaʔka poin mən; kaʔkapoɲ (mǝn) (MM) unique Alternate: kaʔka poin mən hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool čihtyə (generic ax) tʃihtyə (generic ax) unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool kana yok kana jok unknown Phrase kana=fish; together means "meat for the fish" can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material maraʔ; maraʔ-kin; tïnayatoʔ, (de plastico) ijepukun (MM) maraʔ; maraʔ-kin; tɨnayato', (de plastico) iyepukun (MM) unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material mananke general basket Unknown Compare Southern Pastaza Quechua tasa; Iquito táasa. Also: taawa 'deep, tightly woven basket' See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material mananke (en general); wapa (plana, circular) ; ëwei', Var. ëwai', awei' (honda, de tejido semi-abierto) (MM) mananke (en general); wapa (plana, circular); ǝweiʔ, Var. ǝwaiʔ, aweiʔ (honda, de tejido semi-abierto) (MM) flat basket inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material əʔnan əʔnan unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bed cama cama culture-material kaama (MM) kaama (MM) loan Spanish Also in Achagua, Yavitero, Hup, Ninam, Yanomam, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material #NAME? #NAME? inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool wata, wa'ta, wo'ta (MM) wata, waʔta, woʔta (MM) loan Yavitero, Warekena wata- currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kikirin, arijtu (de cristal), arijutr (de litro), masana, mansana. (MM). kikirin, arihtu (de cristal), arihtru (de litro), masana, mansana. (MM). unknown Alternate: arijtu, arijutr, masana, mansana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bow arco arco subsistence tool kaʔka kaʔka unique arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
broom escoba vassoura culture-material y-eimeih-tyo; patayeemejto' (MM) j-eimeih-tjo; patajeemehtoʔ (MM) unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa, iyekasa' kanawa, iyekasa' doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW; unknown %kanawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
cat gato gato acculturation michi apo' (MM); miǩi (IDS) mitʃi apɔʔ (MM); mitʃi (IDS) loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
chicken gallina galinha acculturation paraaru wïnkï' (MM); paraaru (IDS) paraaru wïnkïʔ (MM); paraaru (IDS) unknown Alternate: paraaru wïnkïʔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology iʔyan iʔjan doubtful loan Arawak; cf. Trinitario iyaraʔo See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool iye ije unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food ëʔmehka Unknown Maybe shared Makiritare. Alternate: awa, mëhka, aʔmaka See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
dance (generic) culture-mythology otatʃima Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool waemoʔ, Var. waemotʔ, waemoi (MM) waemo', Var. waemot', waemoi (MM) unknown hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology marʸewaka; ariyo', Var. riyo' (MM) marjewaka; arijoʔ, Var. rijoʔ (MM) unknown Alternate:marʸewaka In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology wïche'pë'në (MM); učepətɨ-n (IDS) wïtʃeʔpëʔnë (MM); utʃepətɨ-n (IDS inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Alternate: utʃepətɨ-n See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool papeik; pape' Var. papei' (MM) papeik; papeʔ Var. papeiʔ (MM) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Also Yukpa? Maybe Proto-Carib? Alternate:papeik esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fireplace hogar lareira other wahto pata-n wahtɔ pata-n unknown Compound wahtɔ=fire; pata= place; n= possessive See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
firewood leña lenha other wahto wahtɔ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food kana -tin, -tïmï- (MM) kana -tin, -tɨmɨ- (MM) doubtful loan; inheritance Tupi-Guarani tin, tɨmɨ possibly Tupi-Guarani loans. Alternate: kana -tïmï- Other complex kana= fish; tin= ?? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wïnëte (MM) wɨnǝte (MM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool kajen Unknown See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wənətə yači wənətə jatʃi unknown Compound wənətə=fishing hook; yači= extension See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool kana yanto kana janto unknown Other complex kana=fish; janto=?? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food #NAME? #NAME? bread doubtful loan (into protolg), direction unknown; loan Arawak; Spanish usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food uta-yeñamun uta-jeñamun inheritance Compound manioc-meal agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology aramataimə; ariʔrik;(nasal) makooya, Var. majkaya, (para inhalar) majkowaya, (traversa) are're (MM) aramataimə; ariʔrik;(nasal) makooja, Var. mahkaja, (para inhalar) mahkowaja, (traversa) areʔre (MM) unknown Alternate: aramataimə, ariʔrik, mahkaja, (para inhalar) mahkɔwaja, (traversa) areʔre multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food watraamanë (MM) watraamanǝ (MM) inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
genipap culture-mythology ankuʔ Unknown See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool pichaara (SM), maraʔ; këtëmyo' (MM) pichaara (SM), maraʔ; kǝtǝmjoʔ (MM) inheritance; unknown Proto-Carib Attested Macushi, Yukpa, Eñepa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool uto-mijto' (MM) uto-mihtoʔ (MM) unique Compound manioc-? esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology mu'nan (MM); t-yaka eʔɲapa munta-tɔʔ (IDS) muʔnan (MM); t-yaka eʔɲapa munta-tɔʔ unknown Alternate: t-yaka eʔɲapa munta-tɔʔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool aʔkapa (SM) aʔkapa (SM) inheritance Not certain about meaning - may be pot support See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool uto kejto, to' uto kejto' utɔ kehtɔʔ, tɔʔ utɔ kejtɔʔ (MM) unknown Alternate: tɔʔ utɔ kejtɔʔ Compound utɔ= manioc; kehtɔʔ=?? agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ko-'kon (percussion gun), kapucha (firearm) (MM); kapuuča (IDS) kɔ-'kɔn (percussion gun), kapuça (firearm) (MM); kapuuctʃa (IDS) firearm unique; loan Spanish 'escopeta' Attested Akawaio, Eñepa, Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material tatë (MM) tatǝ (MM) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan and Guianan branches See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
hat sombero chapéu dress arako Var. arko (MM); yoroko-e (IDS) arakɔ Var. arkɔ (MM); yɔrɔkɔ-e (IDS) semantic shift Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup from 'headdress' Alternate: yɔrɔkɔ-e See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology i'yan, piyan (MM) iʔjan, pijan (MM) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
honey miel mel food wənə (IDS) wənə (IDS) inheritance Proto-Carib only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
hunt cazar caçar food ataraama- ataraama- unknown Likely cognate Pemongan branch See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
knife cuchillo faca culture-material parae parae unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress katya katja unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
machete machete facão culture-material ejpaara ehpaara loan - WW %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ako ako inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fence, palisade cerco cerca other y-ankahtə-toʔ; tyankan, -ankajtë- (MM) j-ankahtë-tɔʔ; tjankan, -ankahtǝ- (MM) unknown Alternate: j-ankahtë-tɔʔ may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology are're (MM) are're (MM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
paper papel papel acculturation kapeere, mapeere kapeere, mapeere (MM) loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ako yan ako jan inheritance Proto-Carib Other complex akɔ= mortar; jan= leaf See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material pɨčaara pɨtʃaara unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
policeman polícia policía acculturation timinchemënë', wariya (on call) (MM); timintʃemënëʔ, warija (on call) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool maraʔ; eñë, Var. iñë, mara', amchiri, yinkin (MM) maraʔ; eɲǝ, Var. iɲǝ, maraʔ, amtʃiri, jinkin (MM) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches. Alternate: həhə See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology maraka maraka loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Tupi-Guarani TG source of Spanish maraca; Portuguese marico See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ayawa, puku (MM) ajawa, puku (MM) unknown Compare Ashuar pũɯ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology ware (cancion) (MM) ware (cancion) (MM) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
salt sal sal food paamë; sayu (MM) paamë; saju (MM) inheritance; loan Proto-Carib? Span/Port Alternate: saju See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
school escuela escola acculturation kapeere yameñkëto' (MM); pirentya-nəto (IDS) kapeere jameɲkëtɔʔ (MM); pirentja-nətɔ (IDS) unique Alternate: pirentja-nətɔ kapeere= paper; jameɲ= drawing/letter; këtɔʔ=?? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pataye pataje unique Compound pata=foot; je= container See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material sɨkɨwi sɨkɨwi unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
soldier soldado soldado acculturation mara'pëtëkën (MM); waaria (IDS) maraʔpëtëkën (MM); waaria (IDS) unknown Alternate: waaria See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ware ware inheritance shared Wai Wai See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ərainčihtyə əraintʃihtjə unknown May be cognate Makiritari See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food eñam (MM) eɲam (MM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material eñë,tye'tye' (piedras del fogón) (MM) eɲǝ,tyeʔtyeʔ (piedras del fogón) (MM) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation karana karana loan Spanish Alternate: karanayeɲamun, paamë kaiʔmën See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material wana'ipun, echipun, Var. I'chipun (MM) wanaʔipun, echipun, Var. iʔchipun (MM) unknown osae= kind of palm; yan= leaf See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food kawae (MM) kawae inheritance? shared Wai Wai Alternate: kɔwae, waʔka jaarï, waʔka jaamën word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
tobacco (native) narcotics kɔwae Inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Likely loan into Hodi ʰkawoi See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool a'kapa, Var. a'kapae (MM) aʔkapa, Var. aʔkapae (MM) missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool mankawae, Var. mankowao (MM); amëjtënto' mankawae, Var. mankowao (MM); amëhtëntɔʔ Var. aməhtənətɔʔ unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
wax cera cera other koropo; wanëpo kɔrɔpɔ; wanëpɔ (MM) unknown; unique Alternate: wanëpɔ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool asuuka-, jasuʔkatɔ asuuka-, jasuʔkatɔ strainer unknown Alternate: -asuuka- agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material mananke (en general) (MM) mananke doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW %panaku See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology i'yan, piyan (MM) iʔjan, pijan (MM) inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology po; [kamiča]; poto, -po, Var. -ipo, kamicha (MM) pɔ; [kamitʃa]; pɔtɔ, Var. -ipɔ, kamitʃa (MM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mahtikiri; tukuəik; kocham (M.M.); koičamun (JP) mahtikiri; tukuəik; kɔtʃam, kɔitʃamun inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
paddle/oar remo remo transport -yɨkɨ; Var. yïkït, yïkïï (MM) -jɨkɨ; Var. jɨkɨt, jɨkɨɨ (MM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture awa; warara (IDS) awa; warara (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology kahkam kahkam unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology anoëtyo, su'kinkanëto (corporeal); -marae, maraetyo (solo para la cara) (MM) anoǝtjo, suʔkinkanǝto (corporeal); -marae, maraetjo (solo para la cara) (MM) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kïchiipï, kïchi'ka (MM) kɨtʃiipɨ, kɨtʃiʔka (MM) inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
house other perʸaka; -yɨwɨk; pereka (MM) perjaka; -jɨwɨk; pereka (MM) unique; doubtful loan into protolanguage Arawak; cf. Piro-Apurinã *poko See Language page Melody Ann Ross


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Prenasalization occurs Price 1984 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no no glottalized consonant as secondary articulation Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes But this only occurs with the alveolar stop. Price 1984 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Payne 2012:42 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Price 1984 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Codas are allowed Price 1984 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Payne 2012:41-66 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes certain verb forms have grammatical stress Payne 2012:46 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no No nasalization Payne 2012:41-66 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no No nasalization Payne 2012:41-66 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes Tense, person, and grammatical function are fused into prefixes Gildea 1989:9 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes e.g. person, tense/aspect, modality, epistemic categories Payne 2012:152 - 153 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no only person is prefixed Payne 2012:152 - 153 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Payne 2012:152 - 153 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Payne 2012:152 - 153 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info only one mention of reduplication Payne 2012:339 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info only one mention of reduplication Payne 2012:339 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no no mention of compounding Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no no mention of verb serialization Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no no mention of verb serialization Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Thomas Payne 1989, 1995, 2012:169-171 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no There is object incorporation into the verb in Panare but the resulting verb remains transitive, it does not become intransitive Thomas Payne 1995:299, 2012:330 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no no true noun classes Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes There are 21 classifiers, only occur in genitive constructions Gildea 1989; Aikhenvald 2000:127; Payne 2012:82 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes But this is only restricted to one classifer for "animates" Aikhenvald 2000:128 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Aikehnvald:127-128 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Aikhenvald 2000:127-128 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes There are four repeater classifiers Aikhenvald 2000:128 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Aikhenvald 2000:128 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no no singular marker Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -chan; -kon, -ton -chan; -kon, -ton collective (only humans); the others are clitics that may appear on PNs, Ns, Dems and Vs Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes =kon, =ton =kon, =ton Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no =kon =kon enclitic can mark animate and inanimate plurals Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes certain pronouns have -ton or -kon endings Payne 2012:88-89 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no no articles Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no no marker of definiteness Payne 2012:272 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no no articles Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes yutakon, ana yutakon, ana Payne 2012:88-89 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Gildea 1989:10 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Tosantos 1977:20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes Visibility vs non-visibility is a contrast only for the distal demonstrative "that" Tosantos 1977:20; Payne 2012:88-89 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Based on examples Thomas Payne 1989:40 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 2 uya dative, goal Payne 2012:295 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Subjects, objects and genitives do not get case. Payne provides a list of postpositions, some of which are marked on the noun Payne 2012:291-292 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Payne 2012:291 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Thomas Payne 1989; Payne 2012: Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic yes Tosantos 1977:25 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Payne 2012:291-302 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Payne 2012:291-302 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Payne 2012:291-302 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Tosantos 1977:25-26 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Payne 2012:145-149 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Payne 2012:145-149 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Payne 2012:145-149 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes Evidence of vigesimal system Payne 2012:145-149 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Tosantos 1977:28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Tosantos 1977:28 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no copula takes tense/aspect Payne 2012:303-306 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no copula takes tense/aspect Payne 2012:303-306 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Gildea 1993:49; Thomas Payne 1989:297 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes n, e, 0 n, e, 0 inalianable possessed nouns take one of three suffix forms Payne 2012:79 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Payne 2012:81 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Gildea 1993:49 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes Aikhenvald 2000:127 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes inalianable possessed nouns take person prefixes and possessive suffixes Payne 2012:74-80 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes alienable possessed nouns take genetive classifiers Panare 2012:81-82 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Payne 2012:74-80 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes It seems that the class of (underived) adjectives in Panare is very restricted in number. Payne 1993:134 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no gender is not a relevant grammatical category Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -n -n Payne 2012:99 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes /-ɲe/ Gildea 1993:48 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -se, se'ña -se, se'ña Payne 2012:107 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes /-ta/ To form intransitive verbs Thomas Payne 1995:304 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes /-jah/ Gildea 1993:45 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes It is distinguished recent past, medial past and distant past with three different morphmes Gildea 1989:8 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no only one future Payne 2012:216 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -séjpa -séjpa Payne 2012:216 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Payne 2012:192,204-205,212-220 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Payne 2012:192,204-205,212-220 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Payne 2012:192,204-205,212-220 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion yes past perfective Payne 2012:192,204-205,212-220 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes -kë, -me, -ta' -kë, -me, -ta' two plain imperatives and one movement imperative Tosantos 1977:29 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Payne 2012:364-371 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes k- -eme negative imperative, different types of negative markers for declaratives Payne 2012:353-361, 368 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes circumfix Payne 2012:103 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes /-seŋ/ This ia a verbal suffix Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no There is an evidential which indicates first-hand information (called "direct" in the source) opposed to inferred information (called "indirect" in the source). There is no a specific evidential for visual information. Evidential distinctions are fused in Mattei-Muller 2002:154-156 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes But this include information obtained by any of the senses including vision Mattei-Muller 2002:154-156 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes -jpë, jpo -jpë, jpo The marking of evidential is fused with the TAM verbal morphology. This inferential/direct evidential distinction only occurs in the past tense. Mattei-Muller 2002:154 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes /-kɨ/ Mattei-Muller 2002:162 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes There are three forms: /-pɨ/ for present tense; /-ma/ for recent past and /nahkɨ/ for remote past Mattei-Muller 2002:163 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Payne 2012:20 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Gildea 1993:45 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Gildea 1993:44 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes But this is mostly restricted to elicited sentences in contrast to texts. Gildea 1993:44 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes But the verb occurs in between them as in OVS. Gildea 1993:44 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes The possessive marker is a prefix which attaches to the noun or noun classifier Gildea 1993:49 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Payne 1993:134 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Palmegiani 2002:80 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Palmegiani 2002:80 Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Dem no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Word Order Num-Noun yes Payne 1993:133 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Gildea 1989:103 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Gildea 1989:63 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Payne 2012:380 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked yes Based on the examples it seems to be better characterized as a neuter system in which any of the grammatical relations receives case marking in the unmarked cases Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no The whole point of this article is to argue that Panare does not show ergativity in NP/pronouns. However, the author says that there is a dative marker on the passive subject which in sister languages is the ergative marker but this is not the case in Pan Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Pronouns follow the same pattern as full NPs, they are not case-marked. This might well be characterized as an neutral system with any of the grammatical relations marked with case. Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes For 2 singular and plural and 1 plural exclusive Gildea 1989:116 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes For 3 singular and plural and 1 plural inclusive Gildea 1989:116 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) yes Payne 1993 :123 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. yes Gildea 1989:116 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes in non-past perfective, only O is referenced on the verb Payne 2012:153 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes in past perfective, A and O are both prefixed to V Payne 2012:153 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Thomas Payne 1989:33; Thomas Payne 1995:295 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Thomas Payne 1989 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Payne 2012 :234-239 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Payne 2012 :234-239 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Payne 2012 :234-239 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Thomas Payne 1995:297 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no gender is not a relevant grammatical category Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Based on examples. Direct objects are not case-marked whereas indirect objects receive the suffix [-uja] Gildea 1989:69 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no only the theme is treated as the object of transtives Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no recipient is marked dative Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Based on examples and part of the discussion. A detransitivizing verbal suffix is used to form a reflexive verb Thomas Payne 1989:40 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Thomas Payne 1989:40 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Thomas Payne 1995:302 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -pa, -ma -pa, -ma Payne 2012:183 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Payne 2012:320 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Payne 2012:341 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Payne 2012:353-362 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Payne 2012:353-362 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -'ka Payne2012:353 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /pɨ/ Thomas Payne 1989:42 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Payne 2012:353-362 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Payne 2012:353-362 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes Thomas Payne 1989:36 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes ka ka It is not clear if the interrogative particle refers to polar or content question though. Palmegiani 2002:80 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Payne 2012:371-388 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Payne 2012:371-388 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Payne 2012:371-388 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Payne 2012:371-388 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes It is possible for first and second (singular and plural) pronouns. Gildea 1993:52 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Payne 2012:424 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Payne 2012:97,424 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes /-tepe/ Tosantos 1977:29 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no not a classic clause-chaining language Payne 2012:403 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Payne 2012:204-421 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Payne 2012:204-421 Daniel Smith


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
3500 medium AG medium sedentary