Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 62 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no The description of classifiers includes classifiers for male and female, the examples of shape classifiers do not include animates. Allin, 1976: 153-163 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco n/a Galindo, 2002: 99, 101 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no All humans get one classifier, all animals get a different classifier, and other things are classified by shape. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 50 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No classifiers identified. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-38 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 126 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a Does not appear to be a noun classifier system. Mansen & Captain, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Tariana has one classifier for animate forms. Aikhenvald, 2003: 88 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Many classificatory nouns (CN2s) have semantics related to shape. Facundes, 2000:169-175 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:106 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:26 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:253-66 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti no No mention of or examples of animates using shape classifiers. Michael, 2008. p. 332-340 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:201-222 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:9-11 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi no Carson 1992: 55-86 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Aikehnvald:127-128 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Guna no shape is relevant only in numeral classifiers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:22 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Bertoglia 1983:3-13 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes It is distinguished long, rounded and plain things Quesada 2008:91 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: p.130-132 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info size is a relevant category for in/animates size is a relevant category for in/animates Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 35 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.79 Amanda Novak Evidence in -we is a classifier for flat, thin objects.
Kotiria yes only occurs with certain lower-level animates Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15-17 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.50-51 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.54 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:95 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 85 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes many of these classes apply equally to inanimates Ramirez 1994: p.124 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.120 Kelsey Neely but function (seed, tree, plant, liquid, skin) are
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no no classifiers Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes ms4.1.3.ii done 1
Garrwa no 4-5 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 4 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung n/a done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 83 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 446-7 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 29 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal No 307 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung n/a done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija N/A Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 78 Done- 1
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte No 87 0
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra n/a 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 165 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:451 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps