Kawaiisu

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
xaw
Location
36.05°, -118.68°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tugu-baaya- inheritance ZBM1991 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other mono-jo unique Jane Hill
and y e grammar joo unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body soo-rokwa= unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kuca-py inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location pi, -vi "at, in" inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body howaa-vi inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7ataa- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body sapy-vy inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location -dukwa, rukwa inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7i-vojo unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ky-tymogi “to gnaw” unknown Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tuhu-ki “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pyy-py inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body missing Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ta7a-vi unknown Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body 7oho-vy inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pihi-vy inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body soo-ki inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment higwa-, hugwa- unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kocogo7o- inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human pishy7oo-chi inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion chipii- inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment kyna-vi inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality shitu7i-dy inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion wa-ki (SG) inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kosi, kwasi- inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tyvi-shyvi “it is true” inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental nijany- inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental 7arare- unknown Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ko7o- “as with knife” inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time ta-vi inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state juwe7e-kwee- ju-(w)e7e “be-not” unique Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact horo- inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna tyvi-zhi inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality tocaa-ga-dy “dirty person or thing” inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental no-noshi- inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hivi- inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality tavasy-kwee-py inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality mogowa-a-ty unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment huku-by inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body naga-vi-vi inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment ty-bi, tii-py inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body ka7a- unique Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna nopa-vi inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body pu7i-vi inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwida-py inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wy7i-ku- inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality miho inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body jyhuu-vy inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship muwa= inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental 7ija-vaga- inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna wishi7aa-vy inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment kuna inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pa-gyy-zi inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion nukwi- unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment hyvi-vi inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion jori- SG inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kyna-vi inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body nabi-vi inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora tykypiya= unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality hy7y- inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state nahna- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body toci-va7aa-vy (head) loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mo7o-vi inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar sa-ma- “neutral definite” unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body toci-vy inheritance? Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental naga-, inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pita7a- inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion wazi7a “to peek” (from hiding?) inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact taja-kwee- unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other jawi- inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar ha-ga-ni inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny7y inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -pi, -vi "at, in" inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body hakwichi-vy inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pijagygy- inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact paka- SG OB inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental pucugu- inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pa-vynu-pi, po7o woko-dy inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental kija- inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment naga-vy inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kwii= inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ju7u-vy inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion havi- SG inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment 7aga-zin7o-ry “lightning flash” inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kary SG inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nywy-bi inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality pa7a-togo- inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna 7aci-vi (head) inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body soo-vy inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human ta7ni-pyzi loan direction unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pa7a-vi inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mya-zi inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pija= inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tybi-vy inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human nijaa-vi inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ka-raka= “back of head” inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality chagici “nearness” inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body kura-vi inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7yyvi- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time tugwa-nu inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar juw-aa-ty unique Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mu-vi-to7o-by inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7ii-ty- unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number suu-ju inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other ta7avina- unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kwii= inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body je7e loan Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human nywy inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact coko- inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment 7uwa-ry inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7aga-ki- inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture too-vy, tovo-vy inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tyna= inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality 7ataa-kwee-py loan direction unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment sihwa-by inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental mee- inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact ca-we7e “scratch an itch” unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental py-kee- unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality mogowa-ga-dy (of edge) unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact kukwi- inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality tove7e-pii-chi inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body coo-vy= inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental tukwi-je7e- inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state kary- SG inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body 7asi7a= inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tugu-bajaa-vi-dy inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body 7ypii- SG inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7yyve7e-pii-chi unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kwihi- “to be smokey” inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body 7ugwi- loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body chichii7i- inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact topogoi- “split wood” unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mogoho- “wring out” inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tono- inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wyny- SG inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment puucii-vy inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other 7yija-ni- inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kuko-pi inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment ty-bi, tii-py inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body chohmi- inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body huva-kaa= inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body poho- inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion paa-ge-nukwi- unique Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwasi-vi inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar sa-a-na unknown Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar sa-ma-my unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality mucu-gwi- unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality 7oho-je7e- “bone-suffer” unique Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental muguwa-ry inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 7i-dy, inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar 7imi inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pehe-yu inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body pakwii= (inside??? outside???) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact tavi- inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment taza-no7o-ry unique Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tapichi- inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7egu-by inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tawa-bi inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other mynishi- “turn around” inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number waha-ju inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pitahni- inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion pagi- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment po7o inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nymi inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar tawa inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pa-soozi “to be wet” unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ha-ga inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar ha-na-7oko inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar ha-ga-nu inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour see-gi- “to be white” loan Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar ha-na, hi-ni inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship pihwa= inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment nee-dy inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kaso7o-pi inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human momo7o inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other wi7johwe-dy- unknown Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body 7atawa- inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 7amariju7u loan Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mumi inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tus-soo'-ve taasu'u-vi (see below) ant (Merriam) inheritance *tasi'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 49 (2008;45) Central and Southern Numic only same other complex taasu'u-vi ant-ABS Merriam 59:377 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana wazi antelope inheritance Proto-Numic Note T. Shoshone wanzi same other complex might be wan-zi antelope-ABS??? Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus huna-ci badger inheritance *huLa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59) same other complex huna-ci badger-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pa-wiku bald eagle unique water-buzzard (neologism?) same phrase pa-wiku water-buzzard (probably “water”, not “big” as bald eagle is a fishing bird Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata maka-hoyo-vi pigeon inheritance *ma'kawV-*hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan combines the 2 “dove” words, Stubbs 676 and Stubbs 675 (2008:126) same other complex maka-hoyo-vi dove-dove-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp paacaɁaa-zi bat inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008):56 same other complex paacaɁaa-zi bat-ABSolutive (non-possessed noun) Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor kah'-ze beaver semantic shift *kawa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:242) broader (also woodrat) other complex kawa-zi rat-ABS Merriam 59:363 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp huku-vi-dɨ-zi black stink bug inheritance *hukuC-pɨ- Proto-Numic Stubbs 315 (2008:83; why does he have just SN??) probably from “fart” (or maybe “smell JHH) same other complex huku-vi-dɨ-zi smell-?-Nominalizer-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus seevibɨ Scirpus validus, tule, great bulrush inheritance *sɨyi Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan I think this goes with Takic Stubbs 1735 (shown in reconstruction) which needs to be fixed since Numic is clearly sayi, see T. Shoshone saippüh same other complex see-vi-bɨ bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis pohniya skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275; problematic, may be from “stink” verb) same underived ultimately derived from “smell” -- synchronically??? Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus tɨvi-ži wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335) same other complex tɨvi-ži wolf-ABS Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis nagi bighorn sheep semantic shift *nakV “meat” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1392 (2008:209); “sheep” throughout S. Numic same underived Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wižiki-ži bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include larger songbirds (toko) or large raptors (kwaana)) other complex wižiki-ži bird-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger Ɂoodɨ-ci Black ant inheritance Southern Numic Note Chemehuevi on-tat (Merriam); Press has onto-ka “brown” same other complex Ɂoodɨ-ci ant-DIM Zigmond et al. 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus moɁorii-ži black bear loan Yokutian, perhaps by way of Tumpisa Shoshone Note T. Shoshone mor-itch (Merriam) “black bear”; loan from Utian words for “black, dark” (Callaghan 2001:327); cf. Palewyami Yokuts molaj' “bear” Callaghan 2001:333 (and see Stubbs 134 (2008:59) WW %mol same other complex moɁorii-ži black.bear-ABS Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kamɨ jackrabbit inheritance *kaNmu Proto-Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus pah-hō'-pe Blackberry inheritance *hup/*hu'up Proto-Numic Stubbs 186 (for diverse red berries) (2008:65) same phrase pah-hō'-pe pa-huu-pi big-berry-ABS Merriam 59:381 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? yɨhniɁ-bi grouse unique same other complex yɨhniɁ-bi grouse-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tuku-ci Bobcat inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan WW %tuku same other complex tuku-ci wildcat-ABS Zigmond et al. 287 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera Ɂaasibɨ-zi butterfly inheritance Proto-Numic Note T.Shoshone aasiputungkwi same other complex Ɂaasibɨ-zi butterfly-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus boi-e'-ko; poi'-e-ko (K) pa-wiku condor inheritance Southern Numic see Chemehuevi pawikU “big vulture” same underived Merriam 59:367 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? soi'-e-kiz-ză (K); soi-e-jij-jah (P) California jay unique same other complex soyiki-zi jay-ABS Merriam 59:367 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? taataraage'e-bɨ woodpecker loan Takic see Cupeno toRɛkikim probably from Gabrielino word for 'to break' same other complex taataraa-ge'e-bɨ onomatopoeia-?-ABS Zigmond et al.:274 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pasidabɨ Salvia columbariae inheritance *pasa/i Californian Stubbs 1599 (2008:2333), Cupan, Gab, Sr, Tb; TS probably a loan; this may be cognate, so TS good??) WW %pasv same other complex pasida-bɨ Chia-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. tavaɁa-zi chipmunk inheritance *tapa ... Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2095 (2008:288) same other complex tavaɁa-zi chipmunk-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pah-too-kŭ az'-ze Cliff swallow unique May include Stubbs 124 *pati'a, the “bat” word??? same other complex pah-too-ku-az-ze patukuwa-zi??? X-ABS Merriam 59:369 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana saapɨzi mudhen inheritance *saya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217 (2008:69) same other complex saa-pɨ-zi coot-ABS-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tavu-ci cottontail inheritance *tapuC/*taput Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same other complex tavu-ci cottontail-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. soovipɨ Populus fremonti inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111), only Numic & Hopi same other complex soovi-pɨ cottonwood (-vi?)-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans sɨnaɁa-vi coyote inheritance *sɨnaɁa Proto-Numic Stubbs 554 (2008:113); I think Comanche might be a Ute loan so may just be southern Numic same other complex sɨnaɁa-vi coyote-ABS -vi classifies for humans Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos Ɂataka-zi crow inheritance *ʔata-wɨ-ta Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow” same other complex Ɂataka-zi Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii moopɨ Datura wrightii loan Takic Not cognate with Numic words with mui “drunk”; presumably from Luiseno or Gabrielino *moya “moon” WW %moji ~ %moni same other complex moo-pɨ datura-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tɨhɨya deer inheritance *tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) same underived Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana wohodɨbɨ Pinus sabiniana inheritance *wokoN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1579 (2008:231) same other complex wohodɨ-bɨ pine-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris pugu-zi dog inheritance *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) broader (means “domestic animal”) other complex pugu-zi pet-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hoyo-vi dove inheritance *hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) with problems; take out the /o/ forms and assume the occasional /o/ is by assimilation? The -wi may be from the animal classifier same other complex hoyo-vi dove-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae čiga-zi duck inheritance *cika Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 705 (2008:130) same other complex čiga-zi duck-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kunuguvɨ Sambucus caerulea inheritance *kunuki Proto-Numic Stubbs 180 (2008:64) same other complex kunugu-vɨ elderberry-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus pa-rɨhɨya elk inheritance *pa- *tɨkɨya “big-deer” Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121 (W, S Numic form) same phrase pa-rɨhɨya big-deer Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pa-gɨɨ-zi fish inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same other complex pa-gɨɨ-zi water-fish-ABS (really root is not synchronically complex in Kawaiisu, that's an etymology) Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera at-too'-ă tse'-tah flea unique a unique formation --maybe louse its-??? same underived Merriam 59:377 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. ko-tse'-ah kuz-ze Flicker unique same other complex ko-tse'-ah kuz-ze kotsiakɨ-zi flicker-ABS Merriam 59:367 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera muu-pi-ži fly inheritance *muwi-/*muCpi Proto-Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same other complex muu-pi-ži fly-ABS-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei kwinuurɨbɨ Yucca whipplei unique same other complex kwinuurɨ-bɨ X-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon woziya fox (not kit fox) inheritance *woci'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 557a same underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wogata frog inheritance *wakatta/*wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos muhni eagle inheritance Southern Numic Chemehuevi ˈməŋI same underived Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. kɨzarabɨ Ribes californicum, roezlii unique same other complex kɨzara-bɨ gooseberry-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer kogo gopher snake inheritance *koNwa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009 (this development is Numic) same underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mă-hah'-bah mahabɨ grass inheritance *maha “brush” Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 needs to be corrected (2008:234) broader (includes brush) other complex maha-bɨ grass/brush-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees Merriam 59:387 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera Ɂaataka-piži grasshopper inheritance *attaNkaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1036 (2008:167) same other complex Ɂaataka-piži grasshopper-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. Ɂewu-ci ground squirrel inheritance *iCkwa/*iNkwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2099 (2008:289) same other complex Ɂewu-ci ground. squirrel-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. wogo-davaɁa-zi gray squirrel, tree squirrel inheritance *wokoN-*tapa pine-squirrel Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2095 (2008:288) plus the “pine” PUA word same phrase wogo-tavaɁa-zi “pine-chipmunk-ABS” Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muhu-ci owl (different from “barn owl”) inheritance *muhuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227), seems unproblematic although sound imitative same other complex muhu-ci owl-ABS Zigmond et al. 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis pogwitɨ grizzly bear unique same underived Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae makaca-zi horned toad inheritance *makaCta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1333 (2008:202) same other complex makaca-zi horned.toad-ABS (ma- may be “hand” IP) Zigmond et al. 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus woɁora-vi horse loan Mojave Zigmond et al. p. 293 says is from Mojave 'ahat va'oolve (the latter element from Spanish el burro) same other complex wo'ora-vi horse-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae muutana-pi-zi hummingbird inheritance *muttanaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1181 (2008:185) same other complex muutana-pi-zi hummingbird-ABS-DIM 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. soɁo(n)dɨ Nicotiana bigelovii loan Yokutsan by way of? broader (includes plant, tobacco) underived 1981 Zigmond 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp no-var'-ro ko'-chă; nō-vro-ko'-chă Junco unique snow *nɨpa plus toko-tsi “large bird like mockingbird” same phrase nɨva toko-tsi “snow bird-DIM” Merriam 59:371 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica waɁadabɨ Juniperus californica inheritance *wa'aC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 415 (2008:94) same other complex waɁada-bɨ juniper-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera Ɂaci-vi head louse inheritance *aCtɨ “louse” Proto-Language Stubbs 1357 (2008:205) usually head louse) narrower (head louse only) other complex Ɂaci-vi head.louse-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos kura-sɨni mallard inheritance *kutV- Proto-Numic Note T.Shoshone kutopia, Chemehuevi koora'-sing (Merriam) same other complex kura-sɨni (hyphen is Zigmond et al's -- neck - ? Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kɨɨnarabɨ Arctostaphylos glauca, pringlei inheritance See Cupan *kɨlɨl “manzanita” same other complex kɨɨnara-bɨ manzanita-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa aviboɁogadɨbɨ Aesclepias erosa unique same derived avi-boɁo-gadɨ-bɨ white.rock-water-having-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 chewing gum 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis wɨɁivɨbɨ Aesclepias fascicularis inheritance *wiki or *wisi “string” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1796 (2008:254), or Stubbs 1475 same other complex wɨɁivɨ-bɨ string-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 0 1 1 fiber 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus parasiivɨ Juncus balticus unique looks like “willow” with pa-ta- ??? same other complex parasii-vɨ juncus-ABS (pa-ta-sii???) bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos yah'-bah Mockingbird inheritance *yampa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 216 (2008:68) Numic and Hopi same underived Merriam 59:371 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera muhuvaa-vi mosquito inheritance *mu-pa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 889 (2008:151) same other complex muhuvaa-vi mosquito-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera Ɂɨnɨpi-či moth inheritance *ɨnɨC-pi Southern Numic only, means “spirit, ghost” Stubbs 328 (2008:85), gives as “Numic”, but it isn't. broader (means “ghost” as well as “moth”) other complex Ɂɨnɨpi-či ghost-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tukuu-mɨɨ-ci cougar inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200; Tumpisa Shosne has same compound ( tukkummüüntsi) WW %tuku same other complex tukuu-mɨɨ-ci wild.cat-?-ABS Zigmond et al. 287 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tɨvi-ži-daara mountain quail inheritance same phrase tɨvi-ži- “wolf-ABS taara “(valley) quail” Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. sɨɁnoho mussel unique -noho is "egg" from Stubbs 779 (2008:138) same phrase sɨɁ-noho flower?pink?-egg Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata hii-bɨ money unique note Mojave avii “money” same other complex hii-bɨ shell-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? čoɁiki-ži pinyon jay inheritance Southern Numic co'ingki “bluejay, Arizona jay (longtailed and uncrested) Southern Paiute (from the ca'i word??) same other complex Ɂɨɨnɨ-zi pinyon.jay-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tɨvapɨ P. monophylla inheritance *tɨpat Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1583 (2008:231); Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex tɨva-pɨ pine.nut-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum ɁaniɁa shell unique note Mojave hanye “type of small shell” same underived Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys mɨyɨ-ci gopher inheritance *mɨyɨN Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1009 (2008:164) same other complex mɨyɨ-ci gopher-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum yuwaatɨbɨ Toxicodendron diversilobum unique same other complex yuwaatɨ “nothing, no”-bɨ ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. togowa rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2009 but with this prefix only Numic same phrase to-gowa rock-snake (synchronically???) Zigmond et al. 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp taasuɁu-vi Red ant inheritance *tasi'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 49 (2008;45) Central and Southern Numic only same other complex taasuɁu-vi ant-ABS Zigmond et al. 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus wokoliiɁi-bɨ redwing blackbird unique same other complex wokoliiɁi-bɨ blackbird-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwah-nuz'-ze (K) kwanazi Red-tailed hawk inheritance *kwana Southern Numic Stubbs 717a (2008:131), really looks like *kwi'na, and like other UA *kwa words, but problems same other complex kwana-zi large.bird-ABS Merriam 59:367 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus oi-yu-pe'-te; oo-e-yū'-pe roadrunner loan Yokutsan by way of? WW %uji same underived onomatopoeic in original, I assume Merriam 59:367 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis chă-guj-je (all ducks) čiga-zi duck inheritance *cika Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 705 (2008:130) broader (all ducks) other complex čiga-zi duck-Abs Merriam 59:373 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica pɨɨsivɨ Artemisia dracunculus unique same other complex pɨɨsi-vɨ sage.herb-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 2 1 rheumatism cure; I think this is the functional equiv. to californica, ludoviciana; douglasiana, tugusoovɨ, also medicinal 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? wō-wus'-san-nā'-te/ze Sceloporus unique same other complex wō-wus'-san-nā'-te/ze; last element is -zi ABS Merriam 59:375 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna to-go'-wah inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2009 but with this prefix only Numic unknown Merriam 59:375 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum wɨnižibɨ Chlorogalum pomeridianum inheritance *wɨnVzV Proto-Numic Western Mono word for Soaproot brush is wɨnazU; same other complex wɨniži-bɨ brush-ABS (brush plant) bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata Ɂiičivɨ Rhus trilobata inheritance Numic Kitanemuk hɨč “Rhus trilobata), from forms with *s-; but see BSVS ŭ'-chip, suggesting this is Numic same other complex Ɂiiči-vɨ rhus.trilobata-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco wižiki-ži hunarɨ sparrow hawk inheritance *wi(t)tiki “bird” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205a (2008:67); what is hunarɨ ? Southern Paiute is witsɨ-ungwarats anga “bird-catcher” same phrase wižiki-ži huna-rɨ bird-ABS X-NOMINALIZER (not an adj, which would precede “bird”) Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae hukwa-bi spider inheritance *hukwaN Southern Numic Stubbs 2059 (2008:285) same other complex hukwa-bi spider-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae chuk'-ko-po'-ish-she toad inheritance *sikwo “tadpole” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 942 (2008:156) same other complex chuk'-ko-po'-ish-she segmentation? Last element is -zi ABS -- maybe cɨga-poyo-zi “rough-ish”??? Merriam 59:377 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera cawarabɨ Yucca brevifolia inheritance Southern Numic Chemehuevi tsogwarA “Hersperioyucca arborescens” (Merriam) same other complex cawara-bɨ yucca-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wiku-mahaa-zi buzzard inheritance *wiLhukuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 335 is really problematic, but clearly something -- this has mahaa “brush”??? same other complex wiku-mahaa-zi buzzard-?-ABSɨ Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines Ɂaya turtle (not water turtle) inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) broader (includes tortoises) underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia kwiiyavɨ Quercus kelloggii inheritance *kwiya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507a (2008:224); a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex kwiiya-vɨ oak-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata šiviidɨbɨ Quercus lobata inheritance *sip Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1511; a possible Cora cognate, but look for Yokutsan origin? same other complex šiviidɨ-bɨ oak-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica taara quail inheritance Southern Numic only means “Mountain Quail” in Chemehuevi, may be a loan from tata(ka) out of California same underived Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis Ɂoroko-pi Canada goose unique Metathesis of *koto/*koLo “crane”??? Stubbs 566a (2008:114) same other complex Ɂoroko-pi goose-ABS Zigmond et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos ee'ara Large bird, perhaps a crane, that comes from the ocean unique no info underived Zigmond et al. 188 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica wo'ora-višti-bɨ large wild grape sp. unique narrower (large wild grape sp.) phrase wo'ora-višti-bɨ horse-big-plant ??? bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees Zigmond et al.:293 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) sikweɁevɨ Avena fatua unique same other complex sikweɁe-vɨ wild.oats-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica čiyavipɨ Rosa californica, Rosa woodsii inheritance *ci'aN Proto-Numic Stubbs 190 (2008:65) same other complex čiyavi-pɨ rose.fruit-ABS (plant) bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) paɁakatabɨ Helianthus annuus inheritance *(pa)-'akka(C) Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2191 (2008:299) same other complex paɁakata-bɨ sunflower-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. puhisɨɨvibɨ Salix lasiolepis inheritance *puhi-*sɨhɨ green-willow Proto-Numic S2486 (2008:332); the compound unique in Kawaiisu, I think same phrase puhi-sɨɨvi-bɨ green-willow-ABS bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kaa-zi woodrat inheritance *kawa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:242) broader (also beavers) other complex kawa-zi rat-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) to-hŭ-je; poo-hoo'-je; pŭ-hoo'-je hairy caterpillar unique no info other complex all have final -zi ABS Merriam 59:377 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper piɁaga caterpillar of Pandora moth inheritance *pi'akɨC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2527 (2008:338) narrower (a specific variety, Pandora Moth caterpillar) underived Zigmond et al. 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. waca-vɨ yellowjacket inheritance *wa'wa, etc. Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 162 (2008:62) and see also stubbs 894 (2008:152) same other complex waca-vɨ yellow.jacket-ABS Zigmond et al. 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia sumayamɨ-zi Canary unique broader (probably any bright yellow bird?) other complex sumayamɨ-zi canary-ABS (stem probably complex, no clues) Zigmond et al. 271 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum wupɨgidɨbɨ Eriodictyon californicum unique same other complex wupɨgidɨ-bɨ yerba.santa-ABS (root probably complex) bɨ, pɨ bɨ, pɨ seem to classify for plants, trees 1981 Zigmond 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna no generic Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wizhiki-zhi loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna muu-pi-zhi loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna pugu-zi inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna tyhyja inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna togowa “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna hukwa-bi inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing closest is pui-sa7a-pi 'seed-boiled-ABS' 'pinyon mush' Zigmond et al.1990 Jane Hill
ball game food tawuupa to play shinny unique simplex root, probably complex but can't retrieve structure Zigmond et al.1990 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress mu-taka-vi-by headdress of eagle-down unknown *taka Southern Numic only,, taka 'flat area' as back of head -- what is mu? also toci-ne7e-pii-vi, and ha7makwijy-vy 'large bird, and headdress made of feathers' derived, other complex nose-flat (forehead)-ABS-ABS Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool huwa-zi arrow, bullet inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 what is /w/ doing here? other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other tyvary-ny(m)by arrow straightener, hill where stones for X are found inheritance *pata Uto-Aztecan Hill/Miller pa-32 'to make straight or flat' derived Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material sogoci basket inheritance *soko Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1708 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material nehe-ka-pi small round basket inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 has only as Takic but see T. Shoshone form derived, other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material 7yky-ci basketry hat, little hat unique might have something to do with *yk 'to lie'? (Numic) other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tugu-bi beads, iron inheritance *tukuC-pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2032b, related to (a) "sky" other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology 7o(m)-by red ochre; paint or makeup made from powdered red ochre unknown Southern Numic only; is this same as Gab. 7oyi? other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7edy-(ci) bow, rifle inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool wana-vy web, net inheritance *wa7na Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1521; looks like "rabbit net" word other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation 7ooco-zi bottle inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel paper, letter loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology niyaa-ga-dy chief, braggart inheritance *nija Numic Stubbs 2011 1490 derived, other complex niyaa-'name' Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tapi-nawi-vy breechclout inheritance *nawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 385; Merriam gives as "breechclout" 48:495; I suspect this is woman's apron derived, other complex tie(?)-apron-abs Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
cook food food kosi, kwasi to cook, roast over coals inheritance *kwasi/aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 421 simplex root Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
corpse food juwe7e-kwee-py dead (to be not) unique derived, other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nyka- to dance inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 633 simplex root Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tugu-bajaa-va7a-dy God unique probably neologism on Christian concept derived, other complex sky-in-?-ABS Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool wopogojy-zi ladle, dipper unique aoso -ny(m)by derived, other complex dip-ABS (with p instead of v from redup???) Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nonoši-dy dream inheritance *nosi Numic Stubbs 2011 717 derived, other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kakawuty chicken semantic shift other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
earring other naga-sa7a-py ear ornament unique derived, other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7yny-pi spirit, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool kutunuhi- to make fire with drill inheritance *tunuhi Numic See Mono derived has ku- IP Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool wiidy-ny(m)by fishhook unique related to knife??? derived Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology woyo flute (arch) inheritance *wiLu PNUA Stubbs 912 probably not, not a good correspondence, need to look at Dakin on reflexes of *L simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other no7iši-ny(M)by dice unique the 'dream' word nominalized? Cute derived Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7yny-pi spirit, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 other complex Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool caagu-by glue unique from *tsaka 'to catch, hold (tsa- do with hand)?? other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nywy-no7o-vy graveyard unique compound, other complex person-pregnant???-ABS Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
alcohol food moo-py=roo-ry whiskey, any alcoholic beverage unique Takic has the moo- 'crazy' word like Datura but head-word /too/?? WW %moji ~ %moni derived, other complex jimsonweed=DUB-ABS Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics moo-py jimsonweed, Datura wrightii loan Chumash Ultimately Takic "moon" Hill 2011 WW %moji ~ %moni other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology huvija-ga-dy curing shaman, musician unique from *huvi 'sing'; also poha-ga-dy 'evil shaman', 7uu-poha-ga-dy 'rain shaman' derived, other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food haani-ži-piha=ina honey unique I think other Numic may have same compound w/ diff elements compound bee-sugar=? Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
house other kahni house inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hookwi (sg), tynaha (pl) to hunt inheritance *tynna Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1014 simplex tyna 'pursue' Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wihi-či knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
mat culture-material sypysa7a mat, mattress unknown has the sy- 'willow' word, what is pysa7a? Is this from yppy 'sleep'? Hill/Miller py-06 derived sy 'willow'?? Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool paha mortar inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
necklace other kagi necklace, collar inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool wija-ci awl inheritance *wicaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2296 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool paha-ko7o pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 compound mortar-cut Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing missing Jane Hill
pitch food sana-py pitch, gum inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool pabyhny pot made of pottery inheritance *paM-pi Numic Stubbs 2011 1156 derived paM-pyni Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hugwa7na quiver inheritance *hu-kuna Numic arrow-sack'; see Cupan huki-la forms compound arrow-sack Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology caruu-vi rattle unique caruu-ny(m)by other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology 7o(m)-by red ochre; paint or makeup made from powdered red ochre unknown Southern Numic only; is this same as Gab. 7oyi? other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7owa-vi salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool taniku seedbeater made of twined basketry inheritance *taniku Numic see Tumpisa Shoshone simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology hii-(m)by-zi beads; clothes inheritance *hini Numic Stubbs 2011 2283; see Chemehuevi "bead"; probably a "belongings" word other complex hii-(m)by 'money' Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool hu(n)du-naky to be sinew-backed (e.g. of a bow) unique derived hu(n)du-vy muscle along both sides of backbone, meat on the upper back Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material kwasu(-byzi) skirt, dress inheritance *kwasu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 483 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool hya-py trap inheritance *hy7aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2406 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology huvija-vi song inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 other complex Zigmund et al. 1990 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing with.instrument-move.in.circle-ABS Jane Hill
stirring stick food či-kuri-ny(m)by stirrer inheritance *ci-koLi Uto-Aztecan this is the 'chocolate' word -- cf. Dakin derived Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wy7ivy string, cord inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 other complex with -by "Ascleipias fascicularis" Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kuna-byzi sack, bag inheritance *kuna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 114a other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
string of shell money other hii-by money inheritance *hini Numic Stubbs 2011 2283; see Chemehuevi "bead"; probably a "belongings" word other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation piha-vi sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
sweathouse other ty-vi-kahni sweathouse unique all Numic seems to have X-house derived, other complex earth--house (rock is ty-bi) Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology tugwija- to tell a story inheritance *tykwi Numic Stubbs 2011 1876a simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics so7o(n)-dy tobacco, Nicotiana bigelovii loan Yokuts ko7o-pi N. attenuata WW %sokon other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material jadu-ci winnowing basket inheritance *jata Numic can't find in Stubbs other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress paca(-vi/-vyzi) shoe inheritance *paNcaN Numic Stubbs 2011 1957 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics matasukwi medicine inheritance *sakwa/i Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1162 (maybe) compound Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material kohno-ci cradle, cradleboard inheritance *kono Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 142 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation poro-ga-dy policeman unique poro 'club, nightstick' derived, other complex poro 'to walk with a stick' Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation syna7asi soldier loan Spanish uncertain WW %soldado other complex but note syna7a-vi 'coyote', and syna- MyB Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food jyhyry pinto bean loan Kitanemuk < Spanish WW %frijol simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation naaty7y cat loan Kitanemuk < Spanish WW %gato simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 7edy-(ci) bow, rifle semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 other complex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress 7yky hat unique could be from yk 'to lie'??? simplex Zigmond et al. 1990 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material chikupu-wa=aka kahni-ja unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tu7uru unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture mara-ci inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool poro-ci (? cane?) inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture ty7ni, wy-ty7ni unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture mo7o-ci inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7edy “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool huwa-zi “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
house other kahni inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6-7 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
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