Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible

Simple Clauses - Predication
Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 19 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Examples of predicate nominals do not have a copula. Allin, 1976: 286 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 43 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 263 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Examples show no copula. Shauer & Schaer, 2000: 520, 524 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Examples in Mosonyi (1987) do not have copulas. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 88 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Possible, not always grammatical, and usually used under circumstances where a subject is being described with an adjective or a location. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803
Tariana no All types of copula clauses take a copula verb. Aikhenvald, 2003: 488 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 504-505 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:1738 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:42 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:193 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Not indication of this among discussion of copular verb. Michael, 2008. p. 292, 312-313 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Rowan and Burgues 1979:37 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:4 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:63-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks
Makushi yes Carson 1982:87-124 Amanda Meeks
Eñepa yes It is possible for first and second (singular and plural) pronouns. Gildea 1993:52 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:178 Daniel Valle
Guna yes zero copula is preferred Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Ortiz 1994:383 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:139 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Williams 1993:42-3 Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:237-42 Daniel Valle more likely not
Northern Emberá yes Aguirre 1999:54-6, Mortensen 1999:25 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes It is the regular pattern Zúñiga 2006, p. 225-7 Daniel Valle
Páez yes However, they take verbal morphology (mood) Jung:120 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Zero copula is allowed for locative phrases as in "I am in X". However, based on the examples of Montes (2004b:78) it seems possible to have predicate nominals with zero copula Montes 2004:167 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:391-9 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p145-150 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes author does not describe non-verbal predicates, but examples show no copula Minor and Minor 1982. Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Predicate nominals consist minimally of a predicate noun phrase followed by an affirmative or negative form of the verb ár̃ĩ/ãʔr̃̃ĩ- 'be' Miller 1999, p.125 Chris Clack
Cubeo no Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 263 Amanda Novak
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.34-42 Chris Clack
Barasano no A descriptive noun phrase is formed by a stative verb. Jones & Jones 1991, p.63 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Predicate nominals can also be formed using a deictic pronoun or a personal pronoun when the copula is omitted. Strom 1992, p.129 Chris Clack The copula in Retuarã is the verb ibã.
Siona yes indicates permanent state Wheeler - 1987:170-171 Daniel Smith
Tukano no copula: verb "to be, to say" obligatory [dĩî] Ramirez 1997: 116 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: ch.4 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely from examples throughout the grammar
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 20-21 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes It seems that the language does not have a copular verb. Ayala 1996:34-5 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:423 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms17 done 1
Garrwa yes 74 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes LG26 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 105 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes cf text 1, sentence 1 (201) done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 70 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 60 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung yes 72 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 137-8 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 26 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 40 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 40 done 1
Uradhi No 371 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 163-165 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 223 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info 214 done-Hannah x
Nyungar yes d42 done 1
Nhanta yes 62 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 234 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 24 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 217 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 66 done 1
Martuthunira yes 205 done 1
Marrgany yes 348 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 466 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 137 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 418 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes cf 107 (6.3) Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 123 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 115 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 337 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 143 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 69 1
Dyirbal yes 71 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 91-93 done 1
Djinang No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 101-104 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 54-5 done 1
Bularnu yes 91 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 56 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 29 done-Jessica 1
Batyala Yes 4 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 288-90 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 122 done 1
Nyikina no info done-Claire x
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 42 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 77 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 72 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 92 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 85-6 done 1
Katthang yes 108 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 183-185 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 36 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 182-186 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 348 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 68 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes K85b 66 done 1
Wakaya yes 99 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 502 done 1
Bandjalang No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 28 done 1
Arrernte Yes 332 1
Kokatha Yes 65 1
Karajarri No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 10 1
Ritharrngu Yes 97 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 63 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 864 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 17 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 103-4 1
Bilinarra yes 7.2.1 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 82 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 57 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 24 1
Wajarri Yes 36 1
Warungu yes 186 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps