Macaguan

Family
Guahiban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mbn
Location
6.35°, -71.27°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Buenaventura V., Edgar 1993. Observaciones preliminares acerca del idioma macaguán: apuntes culturales, fonología, apuntes gramaticales, vocabulario macaguán-español. Bogotá: ILV. Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocaulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto Linguistico de Verano.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ismár ismár unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
at en, a em, a location hót, at, t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
back espalda costas body hepʧí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bad mal mal quality abé inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
belly barriga barriga body pe-kuéter inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
big grande grande quality pekná pekná inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
black negro preto colour tsebí tsebí inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
blood sangre sangue body ján(a) hán(a) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bone hueso osso body -chit -tʃit inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
breast pecho, seno peito body -apú-chipar, mit -apú-tʃipar, mit inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
child niño, niña criança human sútio unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cloud nube nuvem environment mɨ̃tẽ́ doubtful loan, direction unknown Hodɨ bĩʰtu See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cold frío frio quality akén, pi-akáineje akén, pi-akáinehe inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality wɨ́ne unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
day día dia time matkái matkái inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dirty sucio sujo quality ʧɨbí unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dry seco seco quality pʉ́rre pɨ́re unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality bɨr-ahí ('sin filo' - 'not sharp') inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dust polvo poeira environment puwúmpeha ('polvo de tierra' - 'earth dust') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
ear oreja orelha body -m(o)kórat -m(o)kórat inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
earth/soil tierra terra environment as as inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
egg huevo ovo fauna tabʉ́(t) tabɨ́(t) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
eye ojo olho body itpút itpút inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
far lejos longe quality tɨnakua inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fat/grease grasa gordura body penítsa penítsa inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
father padre, papá pai kinship até(i), áit, áti até(i), áit, áti unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
feather pluma pena fauna -korchít -kortʃít inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fire fuego fogo environment -pe-narrútab-ia, -pe-narrúb-ia -pe-narútab-ia, -pe-narúb-ia unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
flower flor flor environment pe-mátan inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment nóp (In Huber and Reed, after this word they had a question mark) inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fruit fruta fruta flora pe-bɨ, pe-pútan unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
good bueno bom quality wʉ́ne wɨ́ne unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mat-nát mat-nát inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hand mano mão body -ko(p) -ko(p) doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Arawak ka:pi See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar punú [he, she] inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
head cabeza cabeça body matbók matbók inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
heavy pesado pesado quality arré inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
how? como como grammar banekía inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
1sg yo eu grammar kan kan inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
if si se grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location at, -t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
intestines intestinos intestinos body pe-kuíti unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lake lago lago environment pemátpep unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
leaf hoja folha environment nópat nópat inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body tsén inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
leg/foot pierna perna body pe-bémɨtɨ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ninínpeha unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
liver hígado figado body pi-apat inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
long largo comprido, longo quality apiá inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna taarát taaɾát inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
man/male hombre homem human pébi pébi inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pe-wít inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
moon luna lua environment jomét homét inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship enána enána inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
mouth boca boca body kíboat kíboat inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
name nombre nome human wɨ́n inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
near/close cerca de perto quality kéwa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
neck cuello pescoço body pe-wú-ʧit inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
new nuevo novo quality pehená inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
night noche noite time merí(o) meɾí(o) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
no/not no não grammar ahí, jahí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
nose nariz nariz body pum pum inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
old viejo velho quality pertʉ́nʉ peɾtɨ́nɨ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
one uno um number ken(ʉ́) ken(ɨ́) inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
other otro outro grammar isá, is-, itsá inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
person/human being persona pessoa human -kui -kui unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
rain lluvia chuva environment em inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
red rojo vermelho colour tsobí tsobí inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
right/right hand derecha direita location/body apiat unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
road/path camino caminho manufacture namút namút inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
root raíz raiz flora petakomét petakomét unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
rotten podrido podre quality tutsép inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sand arena areia environment tetap inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality bɨr-óbinɨ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
short corto curto quality totséko inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
shoulder hombro ombro body pe-bútar unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
skin piel pele body pérʉ pérɨ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sky cielo céu environment máteʧi, máto ʧi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
small pequeño pequeno quality chir tʃir doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Pemon; but likely sound symbolic See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
smoke humo fumaça environment bunámbe bunámbe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
star estrella estrela environment jarwát harwát unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora nehá inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stone piedra pedra environment ibót ibót inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tail cola, rabo rabo body botsót, -ptsót botsót, -ptsót inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
that ese/esa esse grammar hóhe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar isnɨ́ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality íti inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
thin delgado fino quality totobá unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
this este/esta este grammar jo ho, hohe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
2sg xx xx grammar kam inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
throat garganta garganta body kibló kibló unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
three tres tres number jóbeje hóbehe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
thunder truenos trovão environment kɨɨkɨrre, juwáo unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bite morder morder body nikát inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
blow soplar soprar body papápeha ('soplar fogón' - 'blow on coals', pũpṹhẽ 'soplar para comer' - 'blow to eat') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
breathe respirar respirar body piɨ́t inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
burn quemar queimar environment títpa ('quemar' - 'burn') inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body tsatsakó-ja, tsatsakó-pe tsatsakó-ja, tsatsakó-pe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
climb subir subir motion junín hunín unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
come venir vir motion nít unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tset unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cry llorar chorar mental ẽ́jãn ẽ́hãn inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ukápet doubtful loan Carib See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
die/be dead morir morrer state tʉp, tʉpé- tɨp, tɨpé- inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dig cavar cavar impact ukuá inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
drink beber, tomar beber body ap, apí- ap, apí- inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
eat comer comer body kan kan inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fall caer cair motion bókuna inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fear miedo medo mental huná inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fly volar voar motion yapúnra japúnra inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hear oír ouvir mental nakuét, nakuéchi nakuét, nakuétʃi inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hit golpear, pegar bater impact unkuír (imp) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other nét(a) nét(a) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
kill matar matar impact up, upí- up, upí- unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kóp-kua- kóp-kua- unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
laugh reír rir mental kakáp ('laugh loudly, shout') kakáp inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bók inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nar ('live, reside') nar unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
open/uncover abrir abrir other pátarp, yótarb pátarp, yótarb inheritance; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tsakít tsakít unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
say decir dizer mental ʧipép inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
scratch rascar rasgar impact kachín inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
see ver ver mental ten inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact pin- pin- unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sit sentar(se) sentar state ék inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sleep dormir dormir body mítrʉk mítrɨk inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body túk inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact pe-jútpiha unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact isnúpet unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state nuk inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
suck chupar chupar body susbʉ́ susbʉ́ inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
swell hincharse inchar body tsán inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
swim nadar nadar motion niát niát unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
think pensar pensar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact oták unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ya-kap ya-kap inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pirárre pirárre doubtful loan Yukuna; Chocoan? See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
vomit vomitar vomitar body nakáp inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
walk caminar, andar andar motion awiá, awí-ni awiá, awí-ni unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
work trabajar trabalhar other nabʉ́rchit nabʉ́rchit unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
yawn bostezar bocejar body newʉ́sap newʉ́sap unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tongue lengua lingua body -brat -brat inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
tooth diente dente body wan wan inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
two dos dois number yapó japó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
water agua agua environment men inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kemʉkát kemɨkát, wakhan [Queix1993] inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar pakhan [Queix1993] inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wet mojado molhado quality achík atʃík inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
what? que, qué que grammar nekía, nekiája nekía, nekiáha unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
when? cuando quando grammar ipokén inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
where? donde onde grammar ipohát inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
white blanco branco colour pe-pobiha inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
who? quien, quién quem grammar nekén(ʉ) nekén(ɨ) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wife esposa esposa kinship -bárkui -báɾkui unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wind viento vento environment huíp inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
wing ala asa body pe-korʧít inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
woman/female mujer mulher human warapénʉ warapénɨ doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Pemon weri; see also N. Embera wẽra See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tsitsika unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
foot pie body pe-tkut inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ichí itʃí unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
all todo todos other ánɨbe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
ankle tobillo tornozelo body atá atá unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kór(a) kór(a) inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
lung pulmón pulmão body pe-kopi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sweat sudar suor, suar body jainbéjan hainbéhan inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
bark corteza casca environment bokát bokát inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
fingernail uña unha body kuíbat kuíbat inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
heart corazón coração body átbʉtat átbɨtat inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
sun sol sol time ikóti ikóti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tserít tseɾít unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
green verde verde quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
hot caliente quente quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (136)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana jochíja hotʃíha inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bɨn bɨn inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. makíp makíp inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus olít ir loan (into protolanguage?_) Piapoco uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes homoéj loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak, cf. Piapoco umawali missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae inhnít inhnít unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) makút makút doubtful loan Carib: Makiritare, Yabarana mohko Yabarana mohko (appears in Macaguan only) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri bonén bonén unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. mantsaná mantsaná loan Spanish 'manzana banana' manzana 'apple' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. kamíjawat kamíhawat doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Yanomami Yanomami hewǝ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis toniát toniát unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna uʔuto uʔuto unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae jomoéy homoéj unknown formed from 'snake'; but cf. Piapoco umawali from 'snake' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) yakuít; rerbɨ ('calabazo'); sorpá ('totuma', Buenaventura) jakuít; rerbɨ ('gourd', H&R); dere-bɨ (CM72); sorpá ('totuma', Buenaventura) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata títbit títbit unknown uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera kokót kokót unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris homkói homkói inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda jakiárat hakiáɾat unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca kókat kókat doubtful loan Spanish coca uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kuakuárach kuakuáɾatʃ loan Spanish cucaracha uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tsamúl tsamúl loan (into protolanguage?) North Arawak e.g. Baniwa dzamolíto uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) málputat mol-putát inheritance possibly semantic shift uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura jaknít haknít unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. jit hit, pabo unique also pabo, Spanish loan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus owéibi owéibi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris awíl awíl loan (into protolanguage?) Arawak: Achagua/Piapoco Achagua áuli uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family bobóu bobóu doubtful loan North Arawak Baniwa póopoña uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus albín, chílit albín, tʃílit loan Carib: e.g. Wayana alimina uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna bópi bópi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera maník, maníp maník, maníp inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera rin rin inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis bóni bóni inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ponáp ponáp inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakár, jõk wakáɾ, hõk loan - WW %wakara Source Tupi-Guaran or Arawak? See Cocama wakará; Paresi (Arawak) waka'la; Also Macaguan hõk WW %wakar uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti bʉn bɨn missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. malɨ´r malɨ´r loan (into protolg?) - WW North Arawak Piapoco malài; see also Yanomami WW %mare uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi tuípa tuípa loan into protolanguage? direction unknown - WW %tuipa uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae jujúli huhúli unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens nojníja nohníha inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae chíchibʉr tʃítʃibɨɾ inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. matí matí inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca newít, newɨ´to newít, newɨ´to inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. mája máha loan into protolanguage Tukanoan? e.g. Tukano maha; See also Arawak: wakámaaja; Barbacoa: wakamaja uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays jetsá hetsá inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. bunú bunú unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta nejʉ́ja nehɨ́ha inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta báuja báuha inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa kuát-bot kuát-bot doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Guahiban, e.g. Sikuani kuáto; see also Carib kuwai uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. wésap wésap inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis bóni missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes jórto hóɾto inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) opép opép inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. átak, tatalám átak, tatalám unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kekét kekét, ón inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes kuér-bot kuér-bot unknown missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus bochítmʉ, píya botʃítmɨ, píja unique also píja, possibly Spanish loan from piña uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae kuwár kuwáɾ inheritance see also Chocó kʰiɾaɾ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae mʉkáp mɨkáp inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum rʉ́ta ɾɨ́ta unique Broader (potato in general) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae akuéy amúi missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones tʉ́bat tɨ́bat unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. jujúl huhúl unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kíwat kíwat doubtful loan (into protolg?) Carib, cf. Pemon kuuiwa e.g. Pemon kuuiwa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jom hom inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox jatʃit jatʃit inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae jabút habút unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. aimút rerbɨ unknown uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae mátir mátiɾ loan (into protolg?) Cuiva-Sikuani-Macaguan Achagua/Piapoco Piapoco matèri, Yavitero mateti uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. póin póin inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas rʉ́ta rɨta inheritance Broader (potato in general) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris métsa métsa inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera opát opát inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea bóskuet bóskuet unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. ejenáp, jiásap ehenáp, hiásap unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura bus bus inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum kojá kohá inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria jar, jayák haɾ, haják inheritance uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. tìá~y tìá~j inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna nehá, amumú, bibitsá nehá, amumú, bibitsá inheritance also nehá (inheritance) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella itɨnɨ itɨnɨ missing Broader: capuchin uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kékar kékar inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons itɨnɨ itɨnɨ unknown Broader: capuchin uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari atʃip atʃip loan (into protolanguage?) Cuiva-Sikuani-Macaguan Arawak Piapoco apìtʃa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae jetsár hetsáɾ unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. nojá nohá inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola tuípa tuípa See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kupálien, orék kupálien, oɾék inheritance Also: kupalién Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool chipál tʃipál loan - WW Proto-Guahiban %sipara/sapere, via Piapoco in other languages this WW means 'machete WW %sapara Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material lantíka lantíka unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material okúa Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material kot (small basket) basket inheritance Proto-MSC (Macaguan, Sikuani) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material asúlap (necklace) necklace unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material chihiét, jál-ne tʃiʔiét, hál-ne unknown Proto-Guahiban (doubtful) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool chirpú tʃiɾpú loan, direction unknown Proto-MSC (Macaguan, Sikuani) Piapoco Shared Sikuani; could be loan Guahibo > Arawak, but Rivet lists dozens of Arawak lgs with similar words for blowpipe, arrow, and dart. Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bottle botella garrafa acculturation limétbʉ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bow arco arco subsistence tool pitsá-ne pitsá-ne inheritance Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
canoe canoa canoa transport kaná kaná loan - WW %kanawa WW %kanawa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
chicken gallina galinha acculturation takrá takrá loan - WW %takara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool kuérbot kuérbot loan Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
coca narcotics kóka-t Loan Local Maybe Quechua origin, via Arawak? WW %koka See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food tset Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
dance (generic) culture-mythology jawíp Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology márat mythological personage, creator of the world unknown Simplex In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology míts míts inheritance Proto-MSC Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wachít watʃít doubtful loan (into protolg?) Proto-Guahiban cf. Yavitero mahu'ita, Sikuani huata, Kokama wauta But compare Yavitero mahu'ita Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
firewood leña lenha other isó-t isó-t inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food pewánsap pewánsap unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food pérjía pérhía loan (into protolanguage?) Achagua Compare also Arawak Tariana, peːthé; Baniwa, peéthe; Shared Guayabero, Sikuani Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food matsúka matsúka loan - WW %matsuka Prob. Achagua source; see also Baniwa, matsóka; Warekena, matsuka; Mandawaka, matʃúka; Puinave, masuká; Nadeb ma WW %matsuka Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food mábʉrat mábɨɾat unknown Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool yakuít; rerbɨ ('calabazo'); sorpá ('totuma', Buenaventura) jakuít; rerbɨ ('gourd', H&R); dere-bɨ (CM72); sorpá ('totuma', Buenaventura) unknown Also: sorbʉ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool arpát aɾpát doubtful loan Proto-MSC Arawak, cf. Warekena ába; Embera ibhárra Compare Sikuani abalakua; could also be internal loan or loan from Arawak, e.g. Baniwa áada. Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kaníbʉrat kaníbɨɾat unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation brúja doubtful loan Spanish 'witch'? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material hamák loan North Arawak Occurs in Arawak, Macaguan, Kakua (?), Urarina (?), Aguaruna. Taylor 9157 argues that origin is in Arawak 'sleep-NMLZ' WW %amaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
hat sombero chapéu dress sonbré sonbré loan Spanish sombrero Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing Other complex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
honey miel mel food yatsonálit jatsonálit unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
hunt cazar caçar food wétap, wétbi- wétap, wétbi- unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kochípa kotʃípa loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) Spanish origin; Arawak, e.g. Warekena kotsiyo; found Macaguan kotʃípa, Sikuani, Candoshi, Camsa, Jivaroan, etc. WW %kotʃi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress marmʉt missing Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
machete machete facão culture-material matsét matsét loan Spanish Spanish source WW %matset Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool wʉp wɨp inheritance Proto-MSC Compare Sikuani wahubo Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
paper papel papel acculturation papéna papéna loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pemák pemák unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material láto láto loan Spanish Spanish source Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool pelór pelóɾ unknown cf. Arawak puali 'griddle' Maybe via Arawak? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology chichít tʃitʃít doubtful loan (into protolg?) onomatopoeia, but cf. Arawak, Cayapa, Bora, Jivaroan Also shared Macaguan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
salt sal sal food yója jóha loan, direction unknown Proto-MSC Saliba ʤeho Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapát sapát loan Spanish? Maybe via Arawak? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology najuép najuép to sing unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
spear lanza lança subsistence tool lats loan Spanish Maybe via Arawak; See e.g. Yavitero lansa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food petmetá petmetá unknown North Arawak Other complex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation káihia sugarcane unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ja-korchít pe-jakatarabia unknown Complex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food wabát unknown Similar to Guayabero waa; possible loan? Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
tobacco (native) narcotics kohá Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool chirʉn tʃirɨn loan North Arawak (*tsiiru-li) Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kanás, okúa (large basket) kanás, kot loan; inheritance Spanish See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology onsét onsét unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology chópinʉ, kayén tʃópinɨ, kajén unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
paddle/oar remo remo transport témpa témpa loan (into protolg?) Achagua/Piapoco See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tomɨt inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other chirwí tʃirwí (for inhaling yopo snuff) missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture mawán mawán unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
house other mamkɨ mamkɨ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Buenaventura 1993 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no glottalized stop is separate phoneme Buenaventura - 1993:30 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes C1C2VC3 Buenaventura - 1993:28 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Buenaventura - 1993:28 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Buenaventura - 1993:28 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Buenaventura - 1993:27 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no info Buenaventura - 1993:42-43 Daniel Smith only 1S, 2S, 3S, 3Inclusive for person
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes prefixes: pl on verb, object, reflexive, etc.; suffixes: tense, subject Buenaventura - 1993:41-45 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Buenaventura - 1993:51 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Last sentence on the page gives an example of serialization Buenaventura 1993:86 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes author suggests that the language has auxiliaries, but the example he shows does not seem like one Buenaventura - 1993:52 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes example: wi-kán, "meat-eat", "eat meat" Buenaventura - 1993:51 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no doesn't seem likely Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Buenaventura - 1993:43-45 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes -bu, -ne, -ia, -ja -bu, -ne, -ia, -ja not clear what the first two classify, -ia animates, -ja animates Buenaventura - 1993:50 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes ,-iɑ (animate), -jɑ (inanimate) ,-iɑ (animate), -jɑ (inanimate) Buenaventura - 1993:50 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no no distinction in any form Buenaventura - 1993:43 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes animate and inanimate classifiers suffixed to verb derive nouns Buenaventura - 1993:50 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info ke- could be a quantifier instead of a singular marker Buenaventura - 1993:52 Daniel Smith from "ken," meaning "one"
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no info pa- pa- strangely, author never shows example of a plural noun. Pa- marks plural subject on verb Buenaventura 1993:44 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info pɑ- pɑ- Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info ke- (definite) ke- (definite) ke- is a numeral prefixed to a noun Buenaventura: 1993:51-52 Daniel Smith "ketú" means "one"; bound article is "ke-", meaning "one" or "the"
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Buenaventura - 1993:44 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes inclusive only a suffix -ch, exclusive a prefix pa- and a suffix -ᵾ Buenaventura - 1993:43 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no there exists only a reflexive verbal prefix Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Buenaventura - 1993:52 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info author only mentions one locative -t Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes core arguments not marked, at least locative is marked Buenaventura - 1993:52 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info same suffix attached to noun and its possessive pronoun (depending on the noun's class) Buenaventura - 1993:50 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Buenaventura - 1993:50 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes not obligatory, often just use pronouns Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes Buenaventura 1993:50 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -n -n suffix, indicates future Buenaventura - 1993:42 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes ,-ar ,-ar Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no subject-verb-complement Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Buenaventura - 1993:50 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Dem-Noun no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Dem no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Num-Noun yes only example with numeral one Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Num no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes ipojá ("where"), ipokén ("when"), nekénu ("who"), nekía ("what") also attach prefix (ba-) to verbs Buenaventura - 1993:46 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no info Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no info Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no info Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes can occur, can also be marked on verb Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no t- (1st person), n- (2nd person), p- (3rd person) Before consonants: ta- (1st), ne- (2nd), pe- (3rd). Before vowel "a": t- (1st), ni- (2nd), pi- (3rd). Buenaventura - 1993:49 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes ,-u (1s), -me (2s), -che (1p) ,-u (1s), -me (2s), -che (1p) suffixes Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes ,-u (1s), -me (2s), -che (1p) ,-u (1s), -me (2s), -che (1p) suffixes Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes ne- ne- prefix, only for 1s Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Must be marked in object is ø. Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Must be marked in subject is ø. Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes pa- pa- plural prefix pa- for first person Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes nɑ- na- Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes a- (before a vowel), ap- (before consonant) Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes ɑ-V-jí a-V-jí Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes -u ~ -tu -u ~ -tu Buenaventura 1993:46 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes b- ; bɑ- prefix b- (or ba- before consonants) Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Intonation is an indication, just not the only one. Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes question word comes first; subject-verb inversion Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium mobile