Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference

Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense
e.g. imminent vs. distant future


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 109 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Only one future marker Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes A serial verb construction is used for near future and intention while an enclitic is used for general future. Aikhenvald, 1995: 31 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 161-172 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 42-43 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No regular future tense Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-64 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no There are multiple future markers, but their use is conditioned by the person performing the action and the "definiteness" of the event. Aikhenvald, 2003: 320 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 513 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:1113, Payne 1983:12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:39 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes But this is done only by the use of auxiliaries and/or clitics but not a dedicated affix Duff-Tripp 1997:117 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no "We have to bear in mind that there is no tense marking in Baure."; "Since there is no tense marking in Baure, the interpretation of a situation as past or present depends on the verb's meaning and time adverbs in the clause." Danielsen 2007: p273, 175 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 249 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:38-40 Daniel Valle
Palikur no no tense Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965:72-73 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:61 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 329 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 116 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no only one future Payne 2012:216 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 130 to 133 Shannon Dardis Pemon has various suffixes that show that that an accion is imminent or intended, but my source says that this is not quite a verb form for indicating future
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes There are at least two future tense markers: /-ngua/ for future simple and /-iwa/ for inmediate future Frank 1990:61 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Apart from the morphological future tense, there is a preiprhastic future tense (Margery 1985:123-4) Margery 1985:116-7 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Guaymi distinguishes between inmediate and remote future Quesada 2008:100-8 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:17; Queixalós - 2000:218 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:347-57 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:75 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no Peeke 1973:39 Daniel Valle There is only one future tense marker
Ingá yes /-/ mark inmediate future but this verbal suffix is optional Levinson 1978:14-5, Levinson 1974:67 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:435-43 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:93-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Marked by the combination of the non-present suffix plus other aspect suffixes Parker 1965:28, 50-2 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Sánchez and Castro 1977:57 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p179 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 132 Shannon Dardis Because you can't see it, that is to say it is not experienced, the future is thought to be behind you, whereas the past is in front of you.
Kakua yes not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no author only describes one future Goncalves 2011:73 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes 3 classes; immediate, imminent, and distant future. Minor and Minor 1982. p.24 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes there is also another marker which Martins calls futuro estrategico, but it is also a marker of finalidade. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 70 Chris Clack 3-way system of marking for future tense; 'might', 'probably will', and 'future'
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 38 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007:255-263 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.54 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53-63 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Third person imperatives are divided into near-future and distant-future tenses. Jones & Jones 1991, p.78-82 Chris Clack Proximate and nonproximate markers are only found in first- and third-person imperatives.
Tanimuca no Unlike the past tenses, there are no distinctions that depend on the proximity of the projected event to the moment of speaking. Strom 1992, p.75 Chris Clack Future tense is indicated by the suffix -rãyu.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no future tense markers have various aspectual and other distinctions, but not distance in time West and Welch 2004: 111-115; Ramirez 1997: 166-168 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Ninam n/a Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:265-74 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no according to author, no TAM markers in Nheengatu (footnote pg. 36) Cruz 2011:36 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:317-9 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes immediate and remote futures Vallejos 2010:478-481 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 60 done 0
Garrwa no 51-2 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no n40 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 84 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 130-2 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no 74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 113, 119 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 42 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 33 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes? r13-14 done 1
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no 175, 198 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 202 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 158 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 59 done 0
Martuthunira no 136-164 done 0
Marrgany No 317 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 353 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 93 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 407 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 291 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 74 1
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 70 done 0
Djinang No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 91 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no 55 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung maybe 42 done 1
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 36-7 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 183 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 79 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 97 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 72-73 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 44-5 done 0
Katthang no 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 169-176 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 125, 128 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 327 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 108 Done- 0
WesternTorres no K85c 93 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 510 done 0
Bandjalang No 94 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 32 done 0
Arrernte No 169 0
Kokatha No 27 0
Karajarri No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri yes? m289 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari No 39 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 259-276 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no no dedicated future; irrealis instead Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps