Siona

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
snn
Location
0.32°, -76.02°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Huber, Randall and Reed, Robert. 1992. Vocabulario comparativo. Palabras selectas de lenguas de Colombia. ILV, Santafé de Bogotá. Key, Mary Ritchie. 2007. Siona. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo. Vickers & Plowman. 1984. Useful Plants of the Siona and Secoya Indians of Eastern Ecuador. Botany 15. Wheeler, Alva. 1970. Grammar of the Siona language, Colombia. Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California. Wheeler, Alva. 1987a. El Pueblo Siona del río Putumayo, Colombia, Tomo I. Meta, Editorial Townsend. Wheeler, Alva. 1987b. El pueblo Siona del río Putumayo, Colombia. Tomo II. Meta, Editorial Townsend. Wheeler, Alva and de Wheeler, Margaret A. 1962. Siona phonemics (Western Tucanoan). Studies in Ecuadorean Indian Languages (M.C. Peeke et al., comp.) I. 96-111. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of Oklahoma.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ëmëje'en ɨmɨheʔen inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment yë'të jɨʔtɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body guërëbë gɨrɨbɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality kˀuʔahi kˀuʔahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body kˀɨta; wokopˀɨ kˀɨta; wokopˀɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location yijacua jihakua unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality hai; ai hai; ai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour sˀi; sˀiheihi sˀi; sˀiheihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body sˀie sˀie inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body kˀoʔã; kˀuʔã kˀoʔã; kˀuʔã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body čučupˀɨ; ohepˀɨ; oheyo tʃutʃupˀɨ; ohepˀɨ; ohejo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human mami mami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality sɨsɨ sɨsɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality te'e ruiñe teʔe ruiɲe unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time mõkˀo; u-mukˀu-se mõkˀo; u-mukˀu-se inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality si'si siʔsi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality kʷenahi; hãhuhi kʷenahi; hãhuhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality chunchubë tʃuntʃubɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment pico, ya'o piko, jaʔo See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body kˀãho-tˀo kˀãho-tˀo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment yiha; yaʔo jiha; jaʔo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna sˀia; sˀia-pˀɨ sˀia; sˀia-pˀɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body yãko-ka jãko-ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality so'o, quẽa'huẽa soʔo, kẽaʔwẽa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body wiʔyapˀe; maha wiʔjapˀe; maha inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship taita (Quechua loan), pë'caguë taita, pɨʔkaguɨ loan; inheritance Quechua See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna ma ma unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment toa toa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment chachahua, coro, rojo tʃatʃawa, koro, roho unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pi'ko pi'ko See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora ta'nto taʔnto inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality re'oji (to be good) reʔohi (to be good) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tˀãyã; tˀayapˀa tˀãjã; tˀajapˀa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body ʔɨ̃tɨpˀɨ; kˀã hopˀɨ ʔɨ̃tɨpˀɨ; kˀã hopˀɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar pˀa-kˀɨ; pˀakˀo; pˀakˀu pˀa-kˀɨ; pˀakˀo; pˀakˀu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body sĩho; sĩhopˀɨ; sˀĩ-hõ sĩho; sĩhopˀɨ; sˀĩ-hõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality rëquëji rɨkɨhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar queaca keaka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar yɨʔɨ jɨʔɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location sa'nahuë saʔnawɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body guëta tu'u guɨta tuʔu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment zitara zitara inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment haʔo haʔo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ari ari unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body guënso gɨnso inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment jue'neji (to make lightning) weʔnehi (to make lightning) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body sˀeme-pˀɨ sˀeme-pˀɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality zoaji zoahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna guë'ën gɨʔɨn inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human ɨmɨkˀɨ ɨmɨkˀɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna waʔi waʔi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment yãyãkɨ jãjãkɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama, pë'cago mama, pɨʔkago inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body yiʔo jiʔo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human mami mami loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality kwe'jẽ kwe'jẽ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ñaje, ñaje tëca ɲahe, ɲahe tɨka See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body ñaje ɲahe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality seʔe; ma-me-hi seʔe; ma-me-hi unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time yami jami inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar beo-hi beo-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body ũkʷepˀɨ; sɨowɨ ũkʷepˀɨ; sɨowɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality ahuero awero inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number teʔe; teʔe-kˀɨ teʔe; teʔe-kˀɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar tin, yequë tin, jekɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human waʔkˀɨ; wãĩkˀɨ; wãĩkˀo waʔkˀɨ; wãĩkˀɨ; wãĩkˀo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment oco oko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour ma; mahei-hi ma; mahei-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body jëja hɨha unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture ma'a maʔa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora sita; sita-mo sita; sita-mo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality pũʔka-hi pũʔka-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment mẽhã mẽhã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality së'iji sɨʔihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality bë'jeji bɨʔhehi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body tanta cabë, tantahua tanta kabɨ, tantawa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body kˀãʔni-wɨ kˀãʔni-wɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment guënamëma'tëmë gɨnamɨmaʔtɨmɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality čoa; sˀĩ čoa; sˀĩ doubtful loan, direction unknown Kokama See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment piko piko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment maʔčoko maʔtʃoko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora huanso, tëca wanso, tɨka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment kˀata kˀata inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body ʔĩko-yo ʔĩko-jo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar ja'an haʔan inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pˀakʷa pˀakʷa unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality dɨi-hi dɨi-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality beanji beanhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar ën, ëñe ɨn, ɨɲe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar mɨ̃ʔɨ̃ mɨ̃ʔɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number samute samute unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment mëjo mɨho inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body të'caji, cu'inji tɨʔkahi, kuʔinhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body tutuji, cuisaji tutuhi, kuisahi inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body yi'eji jiʔehi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment ëoji ɨohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body sanquiji sankihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion mëaji mɨahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion raiji raihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact cua'cuji kuaʔkuhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental cuencueji, quëaji kuenkuehi, kɨahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental oiji oihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact te'nteji, tẽ'caji teʔntehi, tẽʔkahi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state huesëji, ju'inji wesɨhi, wʔinhi inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact cua'reji, no'aji kuaʔrehi, noʔahi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental suñaji suɲahi loan Spanish See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body ʔũku-hi ʔũku-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body ʔaĩ-hi; ʔ̃ukʷe-hi ʔaĩ-hi; ʔ̃ukʷe-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion guruji, tainji guruhi, tainhi unknown; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental wa'hɨ jɨ-hi wa'hɨ jɨ-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion kˀãwã-hĩ kˀãwã-hĩ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state iroji irohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental ača; kˀãho atʃa; kˀãho inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion yahueji jawehi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact jë'caji, je'njuji hɨʔkahi, heʔnwhi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other rëonji rɨonhi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact wai-hi; wahi wai-hi; wahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental masiji masihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental choji tʃohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion umeji umehi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ba'iji baʔihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact paonji, quëonji paonhi, kɨonhi See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental ka-hi, 'kɨa-hi ka-hi, 'kɨa-hi doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Carijona? See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental ʔɨ̃yã-hi ʔɨ̃jã-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact juiji wihi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state bëaji bɨahi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body kãĩ-hi kãĩ-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body yi'eji jiʔehi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body tutuji tutuhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact hua'huaji, joiji waʔwahi, hoihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact gueonji, queonji geonhi, keonhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact hua-hi hua-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state nëcaji nɨkahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other jianji hianhi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body zu'nzuji, chuchuji zuʔnzuhi, tʃutʃuhi unknown possible loan? onomatopoeia See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body ja'juji, meji haʔhuhi, mehi unknown; inheritance cognate Macuna? See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion yiʔwa-hi jiʔwa-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental ro'taji roʔtahi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact juiji wihi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact gueonji, queonji geonhi, keonhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other quëhuijeiji kɨwiheihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body sisoji sisohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion sa-i-hi sa-i-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other yo'oji joʔohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body ya'aji jaʔahi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body sˀemeyo sˀemejo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body kˀũhi kˀũhi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number samõ samõ doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment ʔoko ʔoko inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mai mai inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar yɨkɨna jɨkɨna inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality sˀɨo-hi; sˀɨhi; yaki-hi sˀɨo-hi; sˀɨhi; jaki-hi unique; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar hado, 'ke (Spanish loan?) hado, 'ke (Spanish loan?) unknown; doubtful loan Spanish See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar quejeito keheito inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar onde (Spanish loan) onde (Spanish loan) loan Spanish See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour po; pohei-hi po; pohei-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar kˀekˀɨ; ne kˀekˀɨ; ne inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship ënjo ɨnho inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment tutu tutu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body cabë kabɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human tˀomi-kˀo tˀomi-kˀo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour sɨʔyo-heʔi; tapˀa sɨʔjo-heʔi; tapˀa inheritance; loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mɨ̃ʔɨ̃-sa-koʔa; mɨ̃sakʷa mɨ̃ʔɨ̃-sa-koʔa; mɨ̃sakʷa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body kˀɨõ kˀɨõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other beoru, si'a beoru, siʔa inheritance; doubtful loan, direction unknown Ocaina See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body jëo beto hɨo beto inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body co'rera koʔrera inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body sãɨ̃-bɨ sãɨ̃-bɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body ja'su, yajiji haʔsu, jahihi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body huanquiji wankihi See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment kˀaʔni kˀaʔni inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body ko-wɨ ko-wɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body awɨ; tˀekojo awɨ; tˀekoyo inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time ɨ̃sɨ-kˀɨ ɨ̃sɨ-kˀɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment kupˀɨ; ku kupˀɨ; ku unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality sɨ̃ʔ´jo-hei inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality haʔsu-hi haʔsu-hi unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. oyo ojo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bi'an biʔan inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. sui, bëriri sui, bɨriri inheritance See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ñase ɲase doubtful loan into protolanguage North Arawak See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans yahui jahui unknown See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ta'nmo, uje taʔnmo, uhe inheritance See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mimi mimi inheritance See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae que're keʔre unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes gugu, bau gugu, bau doubtful loan into protolg - WW? onomatopoeic? %murukutu / kurukutu See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ma së'nje ma sɨʔnhe inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica hueco hueko inheritance See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae jure hure unique possibly related Arawak hulitu forms See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae huihue huihue inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae bë'beri bɨʔberi inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family bete bete unknown prob. inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba gao gao unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris jo'ya yai hoʔja jai semantic shift/calque domesticated jaguar' See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) mie mie inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri jamu; ʔokó hãmõ (R95) hamu; ʔokó hãmõ (R95) inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. u'u uʔu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. bë'ë bɨʔɨ inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna hua'i waʔi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. pancu panku See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae buñu buɲu inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. po hua'i (po=?; hua'i=fish) po huaʔi (po=?; huaʔi=fish) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura jojo hoho See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. bëehuë bɨehuɨ inheritance See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata to'ro toʔro doubtful loan, direction unknown Bora tsógooróho, Carib/WaiWai šukurwa, Achagua du:ru See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. janame haname inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ca'mi kaʔmi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes uncucui unkukui See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae ã'jã pɨ'kɨ ã'jã pɨ'kɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna aña aɲa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox aña aɲa See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria insi goë insi goɨ inheritance See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis güise gise unique See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) tënti tɨnti unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba toa toa See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa në'ë nɨʔɨ inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨnẽ ɨnẽ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yëi jɨi semantic shift original meaning kapok See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra yëhuiñë jɨwiɲɨ See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bia bia inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea soni (loan?) soni (loan?) See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus insi insi semantic shift? from caraua? See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum gantë gantɨ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. o, noka ( V84) o, noka ( V84) semantic shift? Chacon 2013: markedness shift from sororoca See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. burutu (loan) burutu (loan) loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) taya taja inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays huea wea doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW %bea See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum mëto mɨto inheritance See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna sũki-jɨ̃ sũki-yɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bonsa bonsa inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. bẽnẽ, atá bẽnẽ (sweet inga V84) bẽnẽ, atá bẽnẽ (sweet inga V84) inheritance See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana wɨo sɨ wẽkineo wɨo sɨ wẽkineo See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana we'e we'e inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ëyë ɨjɨ inheritance See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kɨi, ã'só, bo ã'só (white manioc V84) kɨi, ã'só, bo ã'só (white manioc V84) inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ja'nso, quëi haʔnso, kɨi inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum bi're biʔre See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ñajo ɲaho inheritance See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. bo nyaho bo nyaho See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. bo nyaho (V84) jã 'hõ See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) oco ti'in, sansa ('calabaza', Wheeler dict) oko tiʔin, sansa ('kalabaza', Wheeler dikt) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. eo eo inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi yaje jahe loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %jahe See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola ëcomo ɨkomo See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae mẽ'ã mẽ'ã See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. mea mea inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bain o'a bain oʔa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria sari sari unknown cf. Arawak ara- forms? See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mumuro, paura mumuro, paura inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora guibë, ya'ji gibɨ, jaʔhi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones buni buni inheritance from centipede? See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera zi'nga ziʔnga inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mi'a miʔa loan; inheritance Carijona? werewere See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae bu'nsu buʔnsu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mëte (zancudo) mɨte (zankudo) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera yuyu juju inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea co're koʔre inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita uti uti inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda churu tʃuru loan - WW %tʃuru See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae jënkë hɨnkɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca toya yai; ʔaíro yai, hai yai, séw yai (R95) toja jai; ʔaíro jai, hai jai, séw jai (R95) doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Arawak (Chacon reconstructs); cf. TG *jawar See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. siáya wêki (R95) siája wêki (R95) See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha yuwi nasõ, guao (R95) juwi nasõ, wao (R95) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ʔemá (R95) ʔemá (R95) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella tanque tanke inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons po ta'ra, tanque; bo tãké (R95) po taʔra, tanke; bo tãké (R95) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus hua'o; painazo, paí/tãké (R95) huaʔo; painazo, paí/tãké (R95) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ëto së'nsë; sɨʔsi (R95) ɨto sɨʔnsɨ; sɨʔsi (R95) unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis kʷah˜e yaʔo (R95) kʷah˜e jaʔo (R95) See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ya'o güenji, arara jaʔo güenhi, arara inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yaʔwɨ (R95) jaʔwɨ (R95) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari sense sense inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae so'to soʔto inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua cobe; yai kʷehi (males), wea kʷehi (females) (R95) kobe; jai kʷehi (males), wea kʷehi (females) (R95) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. huë huɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris güeso güeso doubtful loan into protolg N. Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti wãʔso (R95) wãʔso (R95) See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) seme seme inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus sɨ̃ʔ'sɨ̃ sɨ̃ʔ'sɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae sësëco sɨsɨko inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris huequë huekɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ñama ɲama inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Aimee Lawrence


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ba'ncabë, jë'e baʔnkabɨ, hɨʔe loan - WW; inheritance %panaku See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material cama (Spanish loan) kama (Spanish loan) loan Spanish See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material jaon haon inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ënte seihuë ɨnte seiwɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport yo, yogu jo, jogu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology huatigu watigu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology yai jai semantic shift from 'jaguar' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material yua sibo jua sibo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology can kan inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other enca, jenca enka, henka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology huati, ahuë wati, awɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology riusu (Spanis loan) riusu (Spanis loan) loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology ba'baro, jetu baʔbaro, hetu unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material hua'ti waʔti inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material hua'ti waʔti semantic shift see knife See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool zu'ubo zuʔubo inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ya'ri jaʔri inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool chao perebë tʃao perebɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool ga'hua gaʔwa inheritance; inheritance arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport yo hua'ti jo waʔti inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
plate plato prato culture-material re'a reʔa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool guënaro, sotoro gɨnaro, sotoro inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool soto të'qui soto tɨʔki inheritance agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool maja maha semantic shift from beeswax (Arawak/Quechua loan?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other mãhã mãhã loan (into protolg?) Quechua/Arawak? See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food baya baja inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture bisi, yëime bisi, jɨime inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology mabë, maro mabɨ, maro See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation uti yeʔyetˀu uti yeʔyetˀu See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation uti uti unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kɨyo kɨjo See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kutˀa kutˀa loan - WW %kara See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tã yiha; tã kˀohe tã yiha; tã kˀohe See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation sˀɨʔsˀɨ sˀɨʔsˀɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress kotˀo kotˀo See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation [sũtˀatˀo] [sũtˀatˀo] loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation miči miči loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation toawɨ toawɨ calque? from 'fire' See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress tuitˀo tuitˀo unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ɨhakˀɨ; ʔɨha pˀaĩ ɨhakˀɨ; ʔɨha pˀaĩ loan Tupi-Guarani pai 'respected man' See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool witome witome See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food ʔõwa ʔõwa inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool jëohuë hɨowɨ inheritance currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool ba'boyo baʔbojo unique esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool oco ti'in, sansa ('calabaza', Wheeler dict) oko tiʔin, sansa ('calabaza', Wheeler) inheritance; unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool tara hua'ti tara waʔti inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jo'cha hoʔtʃa inheritance/sem shift? manioc drink' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food aonga aonga inheritance usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food jo'jo hoʔho inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool eo eo sem shift? (or incorrect meaning?) fish-poison hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool jë'jebë hɨʔhebɨ inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture toabë toabɨ use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other huë'e wɨʔe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Wheeler 1970 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes /p'/ /t'/ /k'/ Consonants consist of two series of stops; fortis (aspirated) and lenis (glottalized) W70. Wheeler - 1970:19 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Wheeler - 1970:19 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Siona template form Daniel Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels yes Laryngealization occurs thoughout the articulation of adjacent vowels Wheeler - 1962:103 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no CV(V) Wheeler - 1970:21 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes The syllable is described phonemically as: CV(V) and CV‘–. Glottal stops never occur in word final position. Wheeler - 1970:21 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no CV(V) Wheeler - 1970:21 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Wheeler - 1970:20-21 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes It is analyzed as phonemic because of the conditioning effect it has on adjacent vowels and the selection of certain allomorphs of stem inflection Wheeler - 1970:20 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Wheeler - 1970:19-22 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Nasalization carries through w, y, h, and glottal stop. Wheeler - 1970:22 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Wheeler - 1970:19-22 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes stress change, which in turn affects a stressed syllable stop Wheeler - 1970:162; Wheeler - 1987:89-95 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no However, there is a similar process that happens as a result of the intricate noun classification system. Wheeler - 1987:101-110 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Wheeler 1987:163 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Wheeler 1987:168-170 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Animate/inanimate, spatial/temporal Wheeler 1987:102-105 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 1 Animate/inanimate, spatial/temporal, masculine/feminine Wheeler - 1970:95-96,140 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes noun classifier system for inanimates Wheeler 1987:106 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes -guë, -go -guë, -go masc, fem respectively Wheeler 1987:106 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Wheeler - 1970:95-96 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes In both class and classification. Wheeler - 1970:95-96 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Wheeler - 1987:135-136 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Wheeler - 1970:95 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Classification. Wheeler - 1970:96 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no The classification system is so intricate and thorough that this is not necessary. Wheeler - 1987:106-110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Wheeler - 1987:118-119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Wheeler - 1987:101-110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes ,-nʲa, -a ,-ña, -a Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Also marked on inanimates. Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Each pronoun, including plurals, has its own form. There are no affixes for plurality for pronouns. Wheeler - 1987:135-136 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Wheeler - 1987:135-136 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no demonstratives mark definiteness Wheeler 1987:119-120 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Wheeler 1987:119-120 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes mai, yequena inclusive, exclusive Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Wheeler - 1987:138-168 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 1 Near, distant definite; indefinite. Wheeler - 1987:134 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Wheeler - 1987:134, 136 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no There is a way to achieve politeness, however, by using the an indicative mood instead of general imperative. Wheeler - 1970:141-142, 157 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Wheeler - 1987:141-142 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes -ba, -re -ba, -re agent, DO Wheeler - 1987:124, 127 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 1 At least 7 apparent cases. Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Both core and non-core can be marked, depending on the case. Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Although animate/inanimate NPs can be treated differently, they both can be marked. Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Instrument is specifically inanimate. Wheeler - 1970:50 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes 10 and under is a finger-counting system that is base-5. Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes 5 = "hand" Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Wheeler - 1987:116-176 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Wheeler - 1987:116-176 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Can also be a preceding free particle (like "my"). Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Wheeler - 1970:78 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Wheeler - 1970:78 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Wheeler - 1970:78 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no There is no difference in the marking of possession between alienable/inalienable nouns. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no There is no difference in the marking of possession between alienable/inalienable nouns. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no If referring to an unpossessed object/noun, it simply has no marking. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Kin terms are treated no differently than other nouns when it comes to possession marking. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Body parts are treated no differently than other nouns when it comes to possession marking. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes While most of the adjectives are derived from verbs, there is a small set of (possibly borrowed?) underived adjectives. Wheeler - 1987:117 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Very limited instances. may agree with gender of the inanimate noun it modifies. Wheeler - 1970:144 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes ,-rën, -ru Wheeler - 1987:114 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes ,-guë (m.), -go (f.), -cua (pl.) Wheeler - 1987:114 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes ,-ye (abstract) ,-ye (abstract) The suffix "-ye" is for abstract objects. Concrete, inanimate objects can be formed be adding the appropriate nominal classifier to the verb. Wheeler - 1987:114 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no there doesn't seem to be tense Wheeler - 1987:147-149 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Distant ("not relevant to present circumstances") and recent past. Wheeler - 1970:107 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no prospective aspect instead Wheeler 1987:149 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Instead, there are individual imperative suffixes for each person/number/gender as well as aspect. Wheeler - 1970:93,104-105; Wheeler - 1987:158 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Wheeler - 1970:93,104-105 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Both use the negative affix. Wheeler - 1987:151, 156 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes ,-na'a, -ñu, -na'ë Further, each form can also carry differing "reasons" for the action to be done, such as moral obligation or urgency out of necessity. Wheeler - 1987:158-159 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes ,-jaí, -ja Wheeler - 1987:149 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Wheeler - 1987:149 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Wheeler - 1987:149 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Does not appear as a dedicated affix. Wheeler - 1987:173-174 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes Requires two sets of suffixes: one very similar to the subjunctive form, and one negation. Wheeler - 1987:173-174 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Wheeler - 1987:173-174 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes ,-hã́mā́ ,-hã́mā́ Wheeler - 1970:93 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes ,-nā́ ,-nā́ Suffix meaning (roughly) "doubt." Wheeler - 1970:93 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes ,-rea ,-rea Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no These elements do exist, but they are nominal classifiers and demonstratives rather than verbal affixes. Wheeler - 1987:134, 136 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes S(O)V Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Wheeler - 1987:140-141 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Wheeler - 1987:140 Amanda Meeks
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Wheeler - 1987:140 Amanda Meeks
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Wheeler - 1987:140-141 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Wheeler - 1987:117, 133 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Wheeler - 1987:117, 133 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Wheeler - 1987:133 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Dem no Wheeler - 1987:133 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Num-Noun yes Wheeler - 1987:133 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Num no Wheeler - 1987:133 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Wheeler - 1987:117 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Wheeler - 1987:117 Amanda Meeks
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Wheeler - 1987:137 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked yes marked subject with -bi Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no info Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no info Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no info Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Wheeler - 1987:124-136 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Wheeler - 1987:124-136 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Wheeler - 1987:124-136 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Wheeler - 1987:124-136 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Wheeler - 1987:124-136 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes In most cases, subjects are unmarked on the verb; objects are always marked. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Wheeler - 1987:141, 170 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no In intransitive cases, only markers of tense, aspect, etc. are apparent. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Subjects are not marked verbally overall. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no There is a systematic, grammatical way of marking 3rd person objects. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes Plural number can be marked seperately. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Wheeler - 1987:124-141 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes Gender of 3rd person has different forms. Animate/inanimate have unique markers. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Wheeler - 1970:49 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Wheeler - 1970:49 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Wheeler - 1970:49 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Wheeler - 1987:138-158 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Wheeler - 1987:138-158 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no There are no morphemes for these verb forms. Wheeler - 1987:138-158 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no The word order and marking systems would make this unnecessary and unproductive. Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Wheeler - 1987:127-130 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Can also add simple recipient, place of reference, or object/person of reference. Wheeler - 1987:127-130 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix yes Stem change. Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' yes Makes use of a detachment suffix "-yã́." This same construction can also convey alienation from a subject or the subject's intent ("She's laughing…but I don't know who she is" or "I don't know where he's gone"). Wheeler - 1970:107 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event yes Can also convey that the speaker identifies with or is related to what is going on. Wheeler - 1970:104 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Wheeler - 1987:151 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes suffix Wheeler - 1987:151 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -mâí -mâí Wheeler - 1987:151 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Wheeler - 1987:151 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Wheeler - 1987:151 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Wheeler - 1987:151 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Wheeler - 1970; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes jën jëëëën Wheeler - 1987:178 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Wheeler - 1987:160 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Wheeler - 1987:160 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Wheeler - 1987:160 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no However, polar questions always have lower tone along with the interrogative particle. Wheeler - 1987:160 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Question word is clause-initial, and the subject & verb invert. Wheeler - 1987:137 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Wheeler - 1970:144; Wheeler - 1987 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Wheeler - 1970:144 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes indicates permanent state Wheeler - 1987:170-171 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Not the only form of a relative clause, but dominant. Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no There is no marking for a relative clause. Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Apparent that only the verb for "want" is used. Wheeler - 1987:138-168 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Wheeler - 1987:138-178 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes ,-nã ,-nã Attached to verb of second(ary) clause. Wheeler - 1970:92 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes ,-ni ("sequential") ,-ni ("sequential") Wheeler - 1970:92 Amanda Meeks