Case: number of cases

Category
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions
Notes
Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla 5 Jane Hill
Cupeño 4 Jane Hill
Luiseño 6-7 Jane Hill
Serrano 5 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 5 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 6-7 Jane Hill
Timbisha 3 Jane Hill
Western Mono 2 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 4 Jane Hill
Southern Paiute 4 Jane Hill
Southern Ute 4 Jane Hill
Shoshone 3 Jane Hill
Comanche 3 Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone 3 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute 2 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 5 Jane Hill
Achagua 24 Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 72 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro 21 dative, purposive, benefactive, instrumental, concomitant: with, without, alone; 2 comparatives, conditional, adjunct marker, 3 directionals, 7 locatives Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Bare 4 Locative, perlative, directional, elative Aikhenvald, 1995: 15 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Warekena 4 Aikhenvald, 1998L 287-293 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco 11 Galindo, 2002: 209-218 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna 4 Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero 0 All relations seem to use prepositions, although these prepositions are prefixed with personal-reference markers. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 53 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana 3 Santos 2006:215 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu 13 Mansen & Captain note that the case suffixes can occur attached to the noun, but in some cases (in relative or passive clauses), they may be detached. Mansen & Captain, 2000: 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana 4 Two core cases, two oblique cases (Locational and instrumental/comitative). Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã 6 Facundes, 2000: 385-390 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali 1 locative Payne 1981:110111 Daniel Smith
Maipure no No case markers Zamponi 2003 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' 4 locative, referential, vocative and genitive Duff-Tripp 1997:35 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure 6 Danielsen 2007: p116, 443-444 Mitz Perez
Nanti 1 Michael, 2008. p. 354-355 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun 0 Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora 8 Seifart - 2005: 68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare 1 "There is no overt morphological marking to signal the genetive relationship beyond the word order itself" Hall 1988: 49 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi 6 Agentive: -ya, dative: -piá, benefactive: -tompé, locative: -po, instrument: -ke Carson 1982: 78-79 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa 2 dative, goal Payne 2012:295 Daniel Valle
Pemon 2 de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis The ergative case is marked with the suffix ya (or it's allomorph da). The absolutive case doesn't seem to have its own morpheme.
Guna 4 no core case markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika 7 Frank 1985:46 Daniel Valle
Kogi 5 It considers nominative, genitive, dative, ablative and accusative from which only accusative is morphologicaly unmarked. Stendal 1976:18 Daniel Valle
Cabecar 5 There are five case which are morphologically marked. These cases do not include nominative and accusa which are not morphologically marked. Bourland 1976:85 Daniel Valle
Guaymí 2 only ergative and dative cases are marked Quesada 2008:82, 155-6 Daniel Valle
Damana yes 5 cases observed Daniel Valle
Sikuani 6 oblique cases marked as suffixes Queixalós 2000:78 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info author only mentions one locative -t Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna 7 Overall 2007:214 Daniel Valle Genitive is not considered as case
Northern Emberá 8 Mortensen 1999:47-57 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá 7 Parks 1990:76 Daniel Valle
Matses 10 Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun 0 There are adpositions to mark oblique cases (non-core ones). In the source, there are only listed 3 adpositions but one of them has many different meanings Zúñiga 2006, p. 194-7 Daniel Valle
Páez 4 Jung:114-28 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano 11 There are 11 suffixes for case, among them an object suffix, a commitative suffix, a benefactive suffix and some other non-core case suffixes Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Tikuna 7 nominative, accusative, locative, genitive and benefactive…it is not clear if there are other cases such as sociative and final which are listed in Montes (2004b:90) Montes 2004b:51-53, 71, 90 Daniel Valle
Urarina 6 Cases mark non-core grammatical relations as location, time, beneficiary, etc. Olawsky:224-5 Daniel Valle
Waunana 6 ergative/instrumental, absolutive, dative/allative, commitative, locative and genitive Mejía 2000:88-89 Daniel Valle
Andoke 15 about 15? Landaburu 1979: 169 Kelsey Neely
Puinave 12 N-case Giron 2008:p194 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara 10 Huayhua Pari 2001: 253 Shannon Dardis
Kakua 1 non subject Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto 5 Minor and Minor 1982. p.36-41 Daniel Smith
Hup 3 Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect 1 dative'; other relations are marked by verbal postpositions Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw 1 affected non-subject suffix; various postpositions Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano 3 The case markers in Desano are the specific object marker -re, the locative marker -ge, and bẽrã 'with, accompaniment, intrument'. Miller 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak Both -ge and -bẽrã may be followed by -re.
Cubeo 5 Cubeo has five case marking suffixes that can be attached to pronouns and nouns. (the subject case is unmarked.) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria 0 Stenzel 2004, p. 166 Amanda Novak
Makuna 2 Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33 Chris Clack
Koreguaje 4 Cook & Criswell 1993, p.47 Chris Clack
Barasano 6 4 morphemes which mark case: -re occurs on NP in the roles of object, experiencer, benefactee, and manner; rãka occurs on noun phrases of accompaniment and instrument; -hu marks locations or times; and ya marks the genitive. Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca 8 Retuarã uses postpositions to mark case using the eight markers; -re/-te 'Term', -rã 'Loc', -reka 'Loc.Spec', -ka-gener/number 'Abl', -pe 'Instr', -ka 'Com', -rʔsi 'Ben', -ri-gender/number 'Poss' Strom 1992, p.37 Chris Clack
Siona 1 At least 7 apparent cases. Wheeler - 1987:124-130 Amanda Meeks
Tukano 2+ locative -ro, referential (oblique) -re Ramirez 1997: 204 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami 2 could be interpreted as 4 cases. suffix -nɨ marks ergative and instrumental (possibly distinct because ins. Can be used with an intrans. Verb), and clitic =e marks 'oblique' and possessive/possessed case (can appear with either head or dependent in Yanom Ramirez 1994: 195-198, 179-180 Kelsey Neely
Ninam 3 agentive, oblique, commitative Goodwin-Gomez, p.76-79 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá 3 ergative and instrumental indicated with the same morpheme Borgman 1990, p. 119-126 Kelsey Neely several suffixes used for several meanings
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana 1 This suffix is attached to non-core arguments Everett 2006:304-8 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu 10 postpositions Cruz 2011:197 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní 2 Not sure about it. Subjects are not marked by case; objects are marked when they are person and animal but they take different postpositions; and indirect objects are all marked. Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama 10 marked by postposition Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra no info done 0
Garrwa yes 4 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 79 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 1, 54 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 13 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 75-105 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 14 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 67 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 47 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 28 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 4, 22 done 1
Uradhi Yes 335 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 54 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 43; 45; 50-62 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 47-58 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 82-84 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 52 Done-Dan 1
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi yes 51 done 1
Martuthunira yes 63-99 done 1
Marrgany yes 302 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 148 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 45 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 389 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 5 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 29 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 47 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr yes 254 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 110 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 38 1
Dyirbal yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 25 done 1
Djinang Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 48-50; 114 done-Hannah 1
Dharuk
Dharawal yes 46-48 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 17, 28 done 1
Bularnu yes Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 14 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 57-70 done-Jessica 1
Batyala Yes 5 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 61 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 69-70 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija Yes 20 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 71 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 75 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 26 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 11, 23 done 1
Katthang yes 30 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 24 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 9 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 302 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 29 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 136 done 1
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji yes done 1
Bandjalang yes 52 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 48 done 1
Arrernte Yes 126 1
Kokatha Yes 52 1
Karajarri Yes 113 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 16 1
Ritharrngu Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 28 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 881 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 14 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 34 1
Bilinarra yes 4.0999999999999996447 done 1
Wiradjuri yes m286 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 51 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 64 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 24-5 1
Wajarri Yes 39 1
Warungu yes 164 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info author talks about obliques, but does not specify how many Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa 5+ Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps