Comanche

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
com
Location
34.57°, -98.42°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location -pa7a "over, above, on" inheritance Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar tyasy inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other ojo-, ojY inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar tyasy unknown Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body miihtsI unknown Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ahnatukate, ahna unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment etysipy unique Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -ka, -ky "in, at, on" inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body kwahi inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality aity inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body kohI, kohhi7 “small intestine, waist, abdomen” inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location -tuhka "under" inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality pia inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body kyhka7ary (etc.) inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tu-, tuh-, tuhupI inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body paaj “vein” (no “blood”! which would have classifying suffix) inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puuhkity “blow to cure” inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body y7a “sore” inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body tsuhni7 inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pitsii7, pItsamU inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body suahkety inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment we7hary inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kytsYkwetY unique Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tye7ty, tyehpy7ry, tyrye, inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion soho ro7ity “climb up” inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment tomo-, tomoba7atY, tomoobI semantic shift Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality ytsy7ity inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kimary inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kwasyty inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tokwetY “exact, proper, just right” loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
count contar contar mental tyrytsyry, tytsyry unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental jakety (singular) inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tykyry (with teeth or sharp edge) inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tabe- inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state kooity (sg) inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact mahorary,tyhorary, etc. inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna ky7tseena, pia tseena7, tuhtseena7 unique Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality nasysya7eety :dirty” unique Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental nabUsi7aipY, nabUsi7aitY inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hibitY inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality pasakyry, pasary inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality kymakwa7i “dull knife” inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment huhkupY, huukupY inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nakI inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment sokoobI inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body tyhkary, tyky jaarY inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna noojO inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body pui inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwitapy inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion typyhery “fall off, away from” unique Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality manakwy “far away” inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juhhu “lard, grease, fat” inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship ahpy7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental nanakuya7ary “fearful” unique Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna sia inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment kohtoopY inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pekwi “general term” inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion okweety inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment totsiyaa7 inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion jysyry (sg), jorimi7ary (pl) “fly up, rise up” inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment paky7nyapy inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body naapE inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora pokopI inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality tsaa, tsaaty inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state naanaary “grow in height and health” inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tso7jaa7 unique Jane Hill
hand mano mão body mo7o, mo7e inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ma7 inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body paapI, papI semantic shift Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental nakary inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pyhty inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion watsitykity, wasI habiity inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tohpa7ity, tohtsi7ary “hit with fist” inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other matsary “grasp” inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hakani inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny7 inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -kuhpa "inside, within" inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body tuhkohhI “intestine” inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pihnakety inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact nabehkakyru, pehkarY inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental masuabetaitY “know”, supana7ity “knowledgeable” inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment ymahpaa7 unique Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental na7jYnety; inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment puhi, puhipY semantic shift Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ohinibetutY inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body omo-, oomO (lower) semantic shift Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion habiity, kwabity inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ekakwitse7e inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kahtY inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nyymY inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality pa7a-, pa7atY inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna pusI7a “louse” inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body soomo inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human tenahpy7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tuhkU “body, flesh” inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mya inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pia inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body type “mouth, lips” inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human nihakyry inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality miitUtsi inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body toyo, tooyO, toyopY unique Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality yky loan direction unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time tukaanI inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ke- inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body muubI inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality tsukuhpy7 “old object” inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number symy inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other matuhwary, tohtywary unique Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar ata- inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ho7yopiY, ho7yopI unique Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human nymy inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact naraajaakypY, tyhraniity unique Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ymaary, ymapy inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour ekapI inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing; probably “good” missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pu7E inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tyrana inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality papYsipY inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment pasi waapI inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ty7awe inheritance Charney 1993 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact tsakwo7nery “scratch an itch” unique Jane Hill
see ver ver mental punity inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kymapy “sharp edge” inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact tsatUkary “to shoot bullet or arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality pa7Ityhtsi7, pa7itsi7wynyry unique Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body tso7apY inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental nasu7aity “ashamed” inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state kahtY inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body hynypo7a7; mapo/7a7 “human skin” inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tomoba7atY, tomoobI unique Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body yhpyity inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality tytaaty inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kwipY inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ykwihkaty, ykwIsy7ninity loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tusity loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tabakoity inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kwabary, ma7okwery unique Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tonary inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wyny7ity inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment tatsinuupI inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other tyryhkary inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora huupI inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tyypI inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body mubI tsoo7nitY loan Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body takUsito7ity, takwysipy inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body paro7ikity “swell” inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pahabity inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwasI inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ma- inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ma- + plural inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pohotatY unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality tahi inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental suatyty inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar isy, ity (ii-, o- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar yny inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pahitY inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body kuitsI inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wihiry inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment tomojakety inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact nyytsYkynarY “tied up” unique Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body eekO inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body taamA inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other koonity inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number waha-, wahatI inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body oo7ity inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nahnymiity “walk around” (root -mi7ary) inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment paa, pai inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nykwY (dyal), nyny (plural) inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar tahY, takwY (du), tany (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pa7Isokety, patso7itY inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hina, hini inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hipe inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hakaapu, hakuse7, hakY inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tosa-, tosapI inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hakary inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship kwyhy7 inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment nyena, nyetY inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kasA inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human hybi “middle-aged”, hybi tsiitsi7 “elderly” inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tyry7aipy7, tyry7aity inheritance Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body yhtamaky7aty unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour oha-, ohapI inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yny (sg), myhy, mykwy (dl), myny (pl) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae anikuura?; Charney 41 a/niku/ta ant inheritance *anɨN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 44 (2008:44) same underived etymologically, ant-maker.of.caches Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana cuajaré kwahaten ram (carnero) unique also in W. Shoshone, no etymology in Stubbs; note Mojave ɂaqwaq karawii, “antelope, story word”??? same underived Rejon 1995:40 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus huuna? groundhog, woodchuck inheritance *huLa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59) same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata ku?e wóo; dove, pigeon; unique broader (includes pigeons and doves) finite clause? on.top moans (as per R&A, but they give only woo?etɨ “howl” Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp hɨnɨbi pokaa? bat inheritance *ho'napi Numic Stubbs 126 (2008;58), Western & Central Numic; what is pokaa? narrower (a kind of bat) phrase bat X Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor pamouetz beaver inheritance *pa?wVN Numic Stubbs 156 (2008:61). This Rejon form is very interesting because it has been re-etymologized in modern Comanche as pa' - wyhtyma “water-blocks.off” (dam builder) same other complex has -tsi ABS; pa may be “water” Rejon 1995:19 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp tuɨnɨɨ? Junebug, black beetle unique narrower (stinkbug) phrase tu-ɨnɨɨ? black-bug Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus pamoe tule y tambien quiote semantic shift comes from the verb for “smoke tobacco” and refers to use of the reeds to make cigarettes broader (also refers to agave stalk, probably on functional grounds finite clause? “it.smokes” (I think) Rejon 1995:40 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis pohni?atsi skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275) same other complex has -tsi ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus pia tseena wolf unique same phrase big coyote Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna huutsúu bird (general) inheritance *hutti/huttu Numic Stubbs 205c (2008:69) same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger tɨe anikuura? sugar ant unique narrower (small black kitchen ants are probably meant) phrase small ant Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus wasápe bear unique Central Numic from “kill several”; derivation means “game” same other complex has -pɨ ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus piarabo liebre, hare inheritance *taput/C Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same phrase big-rabbit Rejon 1995:31 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus panatsayaa? blackberry bush, raspberry bush unique broader (diverse berries) underived obviously complex but no help in R&A Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? kokaa? guinea fowl semantic shift *kaka “quail, grouse” Numic Stubbs 1702a (2008:241, probably shouldn't be combined with quail broader (includes domestic guinea fowl -- but NOT prairie chicken) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tɨe tɨmakupa? wildcat, bobcat unique same phrase small cougar Robinson & Armagost 1990:161, 162 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ueyahcoró butterfly unique same underived probably complex but impossible to recover etymology or analysis Rejon 1995:21 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ebihuutsuu? bluejay, bluebird unique this has *huttu, but is totally unlike other Shoshone, probably a calque broader (vague as to even genus! -- Aphelocoma? Cyanocitta? Sialia? phrase blue-bird Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pitusɨ nu?ye?; wobi tohtaraki woodpecker unique Central Numic These are identical to Crum & Dayley's Duckwater forms: putumpittsi; wopin tottontaki, actualy “Shoshone” only as I can't find similar forms in T. Shoshone broader (any woodpeckers, source is vague) phrase wopin tottontaki means wood pecker -- I would say calque except Duckwater has identical formj. pitusi? is “backwards” -- nu?ye? crawls??? Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pasocopi golondrina inheritance *pasoko- Northern Uto-Aztecan new set for “swallow”; this is identical to the W. Shoshone form pasokompii from Duckwater broader (any swallow, as per Rejon's “golondrina”) other complex has -pi ABS Rejon 1995:46 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tabú?kia? rabbit inheritance *taput/C Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same other complex I don't know wht the -kia? thing is 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. soho obi huupi cottonwood tree inheritance *sohopin Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111), only Numic and Hopi same phrase cottonwood tree Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans tseena gray fox, coyote unique broader (more like “wild canid”) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos tuwikaa? raven, crow, blackbird inheritance *kak Uto-Aztecan Probably not a calque because it's in Rejon for “crow”; unique increment: Stubbs 584 (2008:117) broader (seems to be any old black bird) phrase tu- “black”??? -kaa is the “crow” cognate Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus arɨka? deer inheritance *tɨkɨya Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121); what is the a- increment? 3Pposs? and why no /ia/? Why k?? same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris sarii? dog inheritance *sati Numic may be an arealism; Stubbs 674 (2008:126) in N. Paiute, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura ku?e wóo dove, pigeon unique broader (includes pigeons and doves) finite clause? on.top moans (as per R&A, but they give only woo?etɨ “howl” Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae pɨɨyɨ duck inheritance *picV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 706a (2008:130) same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus parɨa elk inheritance *tɨkɨya Numic Stubbs 625a (2008;121) with pa- “big” as throughout Numic same phrase big deer at least etymologically, this is the REGULAR reflex from “deer”, “deer itself is odd. Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pekwi fish inheritance *paNkwi Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived etymologically phrase water-fish Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera ekapusi?a flea inheritance *pusia Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205) same phrase red-flea/louse Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. ecahcueré ekakwɨrɨɨɂ Red Hammer unique All Central Numic has the “red” element, but usually with panna -- i don't know what kwɨrɨɨ? us same phrase eka-kwɨrɨɨ? Rejon 1995:51 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera animui housefly inheritance *muwi/muCi Numic Stubbs 887 (2008;151) same phrase X-fly (ani is a different set in “mosquito”???) Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei mumutsi? soapweed, yucca, beargrass; Yucca louisianensis (Rejon lechugilla) inheritance *amu(wV) Uto-Aztecan A specifically Central Numic development, note T. Shoshone muuppüh “Joshua tree”; probably one of the etyma in Stubbs 4 (2008:40), the agave words same other complex has -tsi ABS, may be a diminutive here (it's a smallish plant, the “shin-dagger”) Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon ekatseena? red fox [Vulpes] unique same phrase red-wild.canid Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna pohpi kwáai; Rejon pasauiyió 29 (pasawii?o?) frog unique same finite clause? jumping goes (R&A) Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos kwihnai eagle inheritance *kwi'na Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 717b (2008;131), Western, Central Numic same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. pokopi berries, fruits, nuts inheritance *pokoN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 183 (2008:65) broader (diverse fruits) other complex has -pi ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:85 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) sonipɨ grass inheritance *sonV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1029 (2008:166) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:153 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ahtakii grasshopper (small sp.) inheritance *attaNkaC Numic Stubbs 1036 (2008:167) narrower (a kind of grasshopper) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ewa kɨɨpi? ground squirrel inheritance *iNkwa Numic Stubbs 2099 (2008:289) same finite clause? ground.squirrel bite-er?? Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. wokoohwi tree squirrel unique Contains woko “pine tree” same other complex pine.tree - animal.classifier??? (Robinson & Armagost say “literally, turns fast”, which is folk etymology -- how they could have an entry for “tree squirrel” directly under “pine tree” and come up with that is a great mystery, it's unsupported by any mat Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus mupitz owl inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227), the expected VERY stable form for Bubo virginianus and given that there is at least one other word for “owl” I assume in “range” that it is NOT generic same other complex has -pitsi or -pɨtsi abs (source does not distinguish) Rejon 1995:38 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis tosa wɨra? white bear inheritance Numic see N.P. wɨdaɂa ; Grizzly also “white bear” in Shoshone unknown Rejon 1995:19 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae kuhtsu tɨbini? toad, horned toad unique same finite clause? buffalo questions (??) Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus puukU horse semantic shift *puNku/pukku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) same underived Rejon 1995:32 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae wɨ?kɨ?buu?; Rejon temumumquit 32 hummingbird unique Nothing comparable for either form. Rejon looks vaguely like Numic *muttanaC -- maybe with metathesis??? same phrase R&A say wɨ- “flutter”, ku?buu “say boo”. Maybe. Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pahmu tobacco loan Yokuts loan is into Proto-central Numic, of course WW %pa7mo same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic ɨnɨ? bug, insect, creature semantic shift *ɨnɨC Numic Stubbs 2066 (2008:285), usually “spirit, ghost”; this elevates to Numic and changes meaning (unless it's a loan from Ute) broader (“critter” -- extent not clear) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica ekawaapi juniper inheritance *wa'aC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 414 (2008:94), interestingly, it's not Central Numic *sama, suggesting that's a recent innovation same phrase red-juniper-ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera pusi?a head louse inheritance *pusia Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205) narrower (head louse only according to R&A) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa kumiitsanatsu milkweed unique same underived obviously complex but no help in R&A; may include sana- “gum” ?? But why the initial ts- then?? Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos soo yake? mocking bird, locust [Cicada JHH?] unique broader (mockingbirds and cicadas????) finite clause? always chirps (I'm not sure verb is fully formed) Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera mutsikwù?aa? Mosquito unique same finite clause? pointed.thing-awkwardly.flaps.wings (say R&A but in fact not analyzable from their dictionary!) Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera tɨpi simuhta? moth (long sp.) unique same finite clause? rock sucks.through.nose Robinson & Armagost 1990:164 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tɨmahkupa? panther, mountain lion unique same finite clause? tɨmah-kupa? clench-strangle (according to R&A Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kuyúutsi quail inheritance *kuyu(...) Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2358 (2008;316), “turkey”, perhaps a loan into Numic from Hopi??? But pretty good corresp. broader (any old quail) other complex has -tsi, probably in this case DIM from kuyu?ni “turkey” Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata poná caracol inheritance *po'owa Stubbs 1907 (2008:267), same as Shoshone po'an broader (perhaps any snaill) underived Rejon 1995:44 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum wa?rokoo?, wa?koo? shell of shellfish (clam, oyster, any shell fish) inheritance *ko... Uto-Aztecan probably Stubbs 1906 (2008:267) or perhaps 1905 (*koyo) --- with wa- from “water” -- a loan from somewhere??? broader (any shell) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:219 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum puhi ta?ara? poison ivy unique same phrase leaf poison Robinson & Armagost 1990:161 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. wɨhtsabeyakatɨ rattle snake unique same finite clause? wɨhtsabeya-katɨ rattle- sits Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp ekaɨnɨɨ red ant; large red ant unique narrower (a kind of red ant) phrase eka-ɨnɨɨ red-bug Robinson & Armagost 1990:164; 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus tuwikaa? raven, crow, blackbird semantic shift *kak Uto-Aztecan Probably not a calque because it's in Rejon for “crow”; unique increment: Stubbs 584 (2008:117) broader (seems to be any old black bird) phrase tu- “black”??? -kaa is the “crow” cognate Robinson & Armagost 1990:183 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis tosa nakaai hawk inheritance *naka'i Numic Stubbs 724 (2008:132) same phrase white hawk.sp (R&A say “white hears”, utter nonsense Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus ebikuyuutsi; rejon 40 ebikuyonit chaparral cock, roadrunner inheritance *kuyu(...) Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2358 (2008;316), “turkey”, perhaps a loan into Numic from Hopi??? But pretty good corresp. same phrase blue quail (modern form) or blue turkey (Rejon form) -- “quail” is just “turkey-DIM” Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna tɨe huutsuu small bird unique same phrase small bird (perhaps a calque on elicitation) Rejon 1995:? 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna paboko'ai timber lizard inheritance *poko Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1338 (2008:203), distribution looks areal: W. and C. Numic, Tub. same phrase big-lizard Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kwasinaboo? snake (general) unique same finite clause? kwasi-naboo? tail-is.striped/spotted/patterned Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata pahmo namahya? sumac (tobacco powder, they gloss tobacco mixer) unique This refers to the custom of making ash of these berries and mixing them with tobacco for smoking same phrase tobacco-powder Robinson & Armagost 1990:223 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco huhmara?, huumara? falcon unique perhaps a loan from somewhere? same underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae tatétz araña unique same other complex tarantula is tapuehretz pɨhɨ re?tsI 46; probably has -tsi ABS Rejon 1995:44 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis nabohcutz spotted skunk (naboo unique same phrase spotted - kɨ-tsi??? Rejon 1995:43 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae pasanao toad unique same underived has “water” or “big”, perhaps had sawa “green” -- can't tell Rejon 1995:48 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) huupi tree (general) inheritance *huCV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 (2008:47) same other complex has -pi ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ekabapi red-headed buzzard unique “red” and “head” both Proto-Numic reflexes same phrase eka- “red”, pa-pi “head” Robinson & Armagost 1990:162 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines wakarée; wakate?ee Charney 25 turtle inheritance *ayaC Uto-Aztecan the -ee is from ay! Stubbs 2539 (2008:316) The wakata part looks like the UA “frog” word Stubbs 940 WW %wakat same underived etymologicall a phrase, frog-turtle Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia pa?sa ponii huupi oak unique same phrase pa?sa ponii “acorn”, huupi “tree Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata tuhuupi, tuhu huupi blackjack oak, barren oak, Q. marilandica unique same phrase black tree Robinson & Armagost 1990:124 2 1 acorns eaten 2 leaves used in cigarettes 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica tɨe kuyúutsi partridge, quail (small) inheritance *kuyu(...) Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2358 (2008;316), “turkey”, perhaps a loan into Numic from Hopi??? But pretty good corresp. broader (includes partridge??) phrase small quail Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis nɨkɨta goose inheritance *nakɨ Numic Stubbs 711 (2008;130) only W. and Central Numic broader (any wild goose) underived Robinson & Armagost 1990:163 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica natsamukwe? wild grape , Vitis sp. unique same underived clearly complex but no help on analysis from R&A Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) soni narúa oats unique includes Stubbs 1029 broader (probably includes domestic oats) finite clause? grass - ??? (verb isn't in dict; Narua was name of Cynthia Parker Robinson & Armagost 1990:167 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) ohayaa? sunflower, Helianthus sp. (any yellow flower) unique same underived etymologically a phrase, oha- “yellow” Robinson & Armagost 1990:166 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sɨhɨɨbi willow inheritance **sɨhɨ Numic Stubbs 2486 (2008:332); is this related to the *sɨhɨ “Rhus trilobata” words? Both used for basketry withes. narrower (a species of willow, surely) other complex has -pi ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990:165 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kaa rat inheritance *kawa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:213) same underived Rejon 1995:40 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper uoabi gusano inheritance *wo'a Numic Stubbs 2526 (2008:338) same other complex has -pi ABS Rejon 1995:51 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna anIkuura7 inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna huutsu/u inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna anImuI inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna sarii7 inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna soni, sonipY inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna aryka inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kwasinaboo7 unique Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna pyhy re7tsI unique Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress pia tso7nika7 headdress, war bonnet (big hat) unique a very different item from the California dance headbands phrase Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool paakA, paka arrow inheritance *pakaN- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1778; in meaning "arrow" only in Numic simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material aawo cup, vessel, container; arch. Basket inheritance *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717 N simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tsoomY bead inheritance *coiN Numic Also in Southern Numic; Stubbs 1513 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool eetY bow for shooting arrows inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport sahKi canoe inheritance *saCki Numic See N. Paiute 'tule boat, raft' simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation otY aawO bottle semantic shift *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717 phrase brown container Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation tyboopY letter, paper unique other complex writing-ABS Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology paraiboo7 chief, officer, agent, chief wife among multiple wives, stepmother unique phrase paraibo 'peace chief' pa-taibo big-X (taibo='white man'??) Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wahta pole, club unique simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tsa7nika undersear, G-string, loincloth, jock strap unique simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
cook food food kwasyty cook inheritance *kwasi/aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 421 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
corpse food tyjaipY, tyjai7 corpse, dead body inheritance *ja7ay Numic Stubbs 2011 656 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nyhkary dance inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 2011 633 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Atsabi7 Creator, holy spirit (name of deity) unique other complex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nabUsi7aipY dream (N) unknown Central Numic only, Stubbs 718 derived, other complex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kokorá7a chicken loan unknown simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
earring other nakI tsa7nika7 earring unique phrase ear entered.into Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology Tuhkwasi taiboo7 Satan, devil unique phrase Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology momysaka fire tender in peyote meeting unique compound Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other kutYhorapY, kutoorapY fireplace, hearth, fire hole unique phrase fire-dig-abs Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kunaA firewood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food hyary7 to trap, fish inheritance *hya Numic Stubbs simplex R Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool hya7, hya7eety fishhook inheritance *hya Numic simplex Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food tohtia masya7 wheat unique phrase R Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food tyky wasy7 game (animals killed in the hunt), pl. wasypy unknown wasy- 'hunt' Central Numic only phrase see 'hunt' in T. Shoshone; tyky is 'food' R Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology pye tyjaii7 ghost, evil spirit inheritance *ja7ay Numic Stubbs 2011 656; has the *ty- element too like towish, etc. phrase R Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nypykapy grave inheritance *ku7way Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 322 metathesis compound R Jane Hill
alcohol food po7sa baa whiskey unique phrase crazy water R Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puha7aity shaman inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex R Jane Hill
honey miel mel food yny bihnaa honey inheritance *pisaC Uto-Aztean phrase bug sugar R Jane Hill
house other kahni house, teepee, room, home inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 simplex R Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food tyhoity hunt game inheritance *tyho Numic Stubbs 2011 1235 simplex R Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material nahuu7, nahhoo7 knife, drawing knife unique compound R Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool huu aawo, huaawo, huakwo mortar, wooden vessel (arch. Bedrock mortar?) inheritance *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717 N compounded with 'wood' word phrase R Jane Hill
necklace other tsomo korohko bead necklace inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Central Numic only, from either *koLoka or *kuta phrase R Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool wuujY awl, icepick, any sharp-pointed implement for punching holes thru which sinews pass inheritance *wicaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2296 simplex R Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport panatsitoo7 oar, canoe paddle unique compound water stick R Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tsohkwe7 pestle (with hole in center) unique like BSVS, has 'stone, head' IP but not the same; also tyraju7ne7 (126) pestle of hardened wood knot for pounding meat or corn simplex Jane Hill
pinole food koo7 mush, cornmeal mush unique simplex R Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other to7I pipe for smoking loan *to7i Numic Sierra Miwok s; see SSM to7is-:a- 'pipe' and fix, what is loan direction?ee W. Mono to7isi WW %to7i simplex R Jane Hill
pitch food sanahkena, sanahpI sap of tree or plant inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex R Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool aawo cup, vessel, container; arch. Basket inheritance *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food onaabI salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex R Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology namahku clothes (any wearing apparel), household goods, belongings inheritance *nammakku Numic See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', Comanche 'clothes'; W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads; also hoi-yah, ahts-ă-kan-nah red & blue beads, probably Hudson Bay Merriam 45:303 simplex R Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool hyary7 trap (general term for all traps) inheritance *hy7aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2406 simplex R Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hubija7 song, hymn inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 simplex literally, 'sounds mournful, like crying' R Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tahkana7 spear inheritance *takka Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 66 simplex R Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tyyhtama7 string, yarn, ties unknown Central Numic only word for 'tie'; Stubbs 2011 2335 compound wyhtama7 to bale, bundle R Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material narYsO bag, sack inheritance *tyso Numic Stubbs 2011 113 compound R Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pihnáa7 sugar, sweets semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 simplex R Jane Hill
sweathouse other nasukoo7i kahni sweat house unique quite similar to S. Paiute form but not the same verb phrase R Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology narymu7ikaty tell, relate inheritance *ti(N)wa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1489 compound narymu7ipY story, tale R Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology kuhkupary kill with heat, cremate, burn to death accidentally (sg ob) unique kuhtokwe pl obj compound fire-? R Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pahmu tobacco loan Yokuts into Proto-Central Numic WW %pa7mo simplex R Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress napy shoe, footprint, trail inheritance *naNpa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 938a simplex R Jane Hill
medicine narcotics natyYsu7u medicine inheritance *natysuC Numic can't find in Stubbs compound R Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material koono, kohno cradle, box, container, resting place inheritance *kono Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 142 simplex R Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation tyyhtamuh raibo7 policeman, sheriff unique phrase whiteman who ties us up R Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation ekasahpana7 soldier unique compound red-chested (refers to Spanish uniform w/ red sash) R Jane Hill
corn food haniibI corn, maize, ear of corn inheritance *hani Northern Uto-Aztecan Hill 2003 other complex R Jane Hill
beans food pihuura(7) bean loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex R Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation wa7oo7, wa7o7a cat unique loan from where??? simplex R Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tawo7i7 gun (any type), pistol, rifle unique simplex R Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress tso7nika hat unique compound pl. tso7wekwa7 R Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wiyaa7 (in pahki wiyaa7 “rawhide rope”) inheritance Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture huaawo “mortar” unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ty7ehkooi7” cane, shepherd's crook unknown Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture po7himary unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture tyraju7ne7 “pestle” inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool eety “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool paaka7 semantic shift Jane Hill
house other kahni inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 3 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large AG low mobile no