Underived adjectives

Nominal Syntax - Adjectives
There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1993: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin says that adjectives contrast with other parts of speech, although he does note that they co-occur with nominal and verbal word-level suffixes. Allin, 1976: 193 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 25 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 142 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520, Shauer, 1978: 44 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi suggests a class of adjectives distinction from verbs, on the basis that adjectives take cross-referencing suffixes, while verbs take both suffixes (O) and prefixes (S, A). This may be better described as an active-inactive alignment system. Howev Mosonyi, 1987: p 55-56 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Adjectives are formed by taking a word from a different word class and adding an adjectivizing affix (which varies based on semantic goal). Santos 2006:176 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes They are rare. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 72 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Adjectival function accomplished through use of classificatory nouns (CNs) or descriptive verbs. Facundes, 2000: 432-344 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes very small class of adjectives Mihas 2010:143 Daniel Smith
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:52-60 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p156 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 310-311 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes However, this category only has four lexemes. This undervied adjectives seem to have a derived historical origin. Brandão 2010:22 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:14 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965:118 Daniel Smith
Añun yes small class of adjectives Patte 1989:59-61 Daniel Smith
Bora no The adjectives are classifiers. Seifart - 2005:77-103 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no "There are no adjectives. Only nouns occur to modify nouns in noun phrases" Abbott 1991: 128 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes It seems that the class of (underived) adjectives in Panare is very restricted in number. Payne 1993:134 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 253, 254 Shannon Dardis Most adjectives, however, are derived from other parts of speech.
Guna yes small class (e.g. bipi 'small') Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes small class Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:19-20 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Bourland 1976:55 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Alphonse 1956:4, Quesada 2008:54-7 Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes small class Queixalós 1998:84 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:137-8 Daniel Valle There are about 40 underived adjectives
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1999:43 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1974:73-8 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:462 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 187-9 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Rojas:179 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info it seems that there are underived adjectives based on the examples Parker 1965:33, Perroud 1973:25 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no However, Faco Soares (1990:86-87) shows that uderived adjectives exist Montes 2004:162 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:187 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p296 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 216 Shannon Dardis These are the qualifying adjectives and others mentioned in Deza Galindo (1992: 86,87).
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.41-44 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes little info, but there seem to be a few, e.g. 'small' Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes small set of roots that never occur with verb endings but only classifers Miller 1999, p. 51 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes small class of adjectives distinct from nouns and verbs Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 124 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack The class of nonderived adjectives is small. Among the adjective roots are ape- 'other', bɨkɨ- 'old (animate)', kai- 'entire, all', pedẽ- 'dry', etc.
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.41 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.36-38 Chris Clack
Barasano no Barasano is a verb-adjective language, which is to say that there is a single set of roots which may take either regular verbal inflection and serve as predicates or may take nom, part., and classifiers and serve as modifiers in NP. Jones & Jones 1991, p.63 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.24 Chris Clack
Siona yes While most of the adjectives are derived from verbs, there is a small set of (possibly borrowed?) underived adjectives. Wheeler - 1987:117 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Adjectives appear to be underived, but this is not stated outright West and Welch 2004: 62-63 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no no true adjectives Lizot 1996: 32-3, Ramirez 1994: various examples Kelsey Neely Terribly confusing. There's not a lot of good, direct discussion of adjectives. They pretty much are only either verbs or get incorporated
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no descriptive verbs are derived from verbs, quantifiers, however, are underived Borgman 1990: p. 209 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:308 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:194 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:55 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Rossler 2008:106-123 Daniel Valle
Kokama no author only discusses adj.-like VPs. Adj word class not apparent Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 47 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 59 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes? 54 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no? 1 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 96-99 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 45 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 25-6 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no 14 done 0
Uradhi Yes 334 Y 1
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info 74 Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa n/a 70 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang yes 3 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi yes 39 done 1
Martuthunira n/a 51-55 done 0
Marrgany yes 301 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 85 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 386 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru n/a 51 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 62 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 253 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 36 1
Dyirbal yes 319 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 289-290 done 1
Djinang Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 49 done 1
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no 80 done-Jessica 0
Batyala Yes 3 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 60 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 65 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 84 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 72-73 Mathi Mathi, 185-187 Wati Wati done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 26 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 81 done 1
Katthang yes 33 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima n/a done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 20 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 20 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 301 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 68 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 123-4 done 1
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 32 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 40 done 1
Arrernte Yes 78 1
Kokatha Yes 56 1
Karajarri Yes 73 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 9 1
Ritharrngu Yes 216 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 13 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no? 0
Bilinarra n/a 3.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 49 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 55 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 18 1
Wajarri Yes 13 1
Warungu no 159 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes very small/limited class Payne and Payne 1990:416 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps