Piapoco

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
pio
Location
4.38°, -68.60°
Notes
Closely related to Achagua
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Huber, R. and Reed, R. (1992). Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Klumpp, Deloris Pharris de. 1995. Vocabulario piapoco-español. Bogotá: ILV. Kondo, R. 1983. La classificación de mamiferos y reptiles por los indigenas Guahibo, Cuiba, Piapoco, y Yucuna. In L. Criswell (ed.), Articulos en Linguistica y Campos Afinas 12. Bogota: SIL. Reinoso Galindo, Andrés Eduardo. 2002 [1992]. Elementos para una gramática de la lengua piapoco. (Colección Premios Nacionales de Cultura.) Bogotá: Ministerio de Cultura. Sudo, Timothy. 1976, Fonología del Piapoco. En Sistemas fonológicas de idiomas colombianos. Colombia: Ministerio de Gobierno.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location chènuníise tʃènuníise See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment balìi, ibalìiná balìi, ibalìiná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
at en, a em, a location iwéré iwéré See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
back espalda costas body wadàa (espalda inferior) wadàa (espalda inferior) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bad mal mal quality báawéeri bá:wé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
belly barriga barriga body dèe dèe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location cáliacubáata káliakubáata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
big grande grande quality manuíri manuíɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
black negro preto colour cúulíiri kú:lí:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blood sangre sangue body irái iɾái See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bone hueso osso body api api See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body ucuta, ìni 'seno' ukuta, ìni 'seno' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
child niño, niña criança human sùmài, sùmàu sùmài, sùmàu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment acalèe akalèe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cold frío frio quality casalíníiri kasalíní:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality báisíiri iyú 'truly' báisíiri ijú 'truly' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
day día dia time èeri èeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality casaquèeri kasakèeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dry seco seco quality chuìri tʃuìɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dust polvo poeira environment imuluísi, ísa imuluísi, ísa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ear oreja orelha body uwi uwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment cáli káli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna yéewési 'huevos' jé:wési 'huevos' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eye ojo olho body tuí tuí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
far lejos longe quality déeculéeri déekuléeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body iséená isé:ná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship [-án]iri (dp91) [-án]iɾi (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather pluma pena fauna báica báika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fire fuego fogo environment quichái, síyái kitʃái, síjái See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flower flor flor environment íiwinási íiwinási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment samàna samàna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora ìyacanási ìjakanási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
good bueno bom quality cayábéeri kajábé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ichùna 'pelo del cuerpo' itʃùna 'pelo del cueɾpo' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hand mano mão body cáapi ká:pi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar úa úa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
head cabeza cabeça body [nu]iwita [nu]iwita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality íimierí íimierí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
how? como como grammar càiná, cawiná, jài kàiná, kawiná, hài See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1sg yo eu grammar núa núa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
if si se grammar asáisí asáisí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location irìcu irìku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body yapicúa japikúa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lake lago lago environment úni úni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf hoja folha environment ibáiná ('hojas suyas') ibáiná ('hojas suyas') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body apáu apáu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body càwa kàwa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment énu (lightning, thunder, gun) énu (lightning, thunder, gun) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
liver hígado figado body ubana ubana See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality cáaléeri káaléeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna cùlibàu kùlibàu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
man/male hombre homem human asìali asìali See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna iinási iinási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moon luna lua environment quéeri ké:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship atúa atúa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouth boca boca body nùma nùma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
name nombre nome human ípidená ípidená See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality núuwãi núuwãi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body iinási iinási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neck cuello pescoço body canápi kanápi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
new nuevo novo quality wàlisàiri wàlisàiɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
night noche noite time catá katá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
no/not no não grammar càmita kàmita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
nose nariz nariz body ídacu ídaku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
old viejo velho quality wasìeli wasìeli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
one uno um number ab[ì-] (dp91), abe ab[ì-] (dp91), abe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
other otro outro grammar áiba áiba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body cáuláiquéeri káuláikéeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human wenàiwica wenàiwika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment unía unía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
red rojo vermelho colour quíiraca kí:ɾaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body machacàníiri matʃakàníiri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture àyapu àjapu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
root raíz raiz flora ipìchu ipìtʃu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rotten podrido podre quality mùsumùsuìri mùsumùsuìri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sand arena areia environment kai[na] kai[na] See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality caserùnica kaserùnika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
short corto curto quality maléenéeri maléenéeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body wáacuta wáakuta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental báiri, cáaluíri báiri, káaluíri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skin piel pele body ímami ímami See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sky cielo céu environment capìlaléeri kapìlaléeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality achúméeri, yáana atʃúmé:ɾi, já:na See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment ísa ísa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
star estrella estrela environment dùlupùta dùlupùta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora àicu àiku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone piedra pedra environment íba íba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body yàapusài jàapusài See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar yáara já:ɾa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nía nía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality cáucuìri, ibaniéri, ibaníiri káukuìri, ibaniéri, ibaníiri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thin delgado fino quality aliséeri aliséeri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
this este/esta este grammar yái, úái jái, úái See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2sg xx xx grammar pía pía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throat garganta garganta body canápi kanápi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
three tres tres number máisiba máisiba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment énu (lightning, thunder, gun) énu (lightning, thunder, gun) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bite morder morder body ichicúadaca, imasáaca, nuamíadaca, yaamíaca, yúucaca itʃikúadaka, imasáaka, nuamíadaka, jaamíaka, júukaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blow soplar soprar body ipùaca ipùaca See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
breathe respirar respirar body mìadáidaca mìadáidaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
burn quemar queimar environment emáca emáka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body amíadaca amíadaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
climb subir subir motion michàacawa mitʃàakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
come venir vir motion nùacawa néese nùakawa néese See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact chanàaca tʃanàaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
count contar contar mental càlidaca, putàaca (qual é contar numero?) kàlidaka, putàaka (qual é contar numero?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cry llorar chorar mental ícháaníca ítʃáaníka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact bacáidaca, dalúaca, wichùaca, íríaca, màchawìaca bakáidaka, dalúaka, witʃùaka, íríaka, màtʃawìaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state étácawa étákawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dig cavar cavar impact nuícaca nuíkaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental núamacanica núamakanika See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ìraca ìɾaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
eat comer comer body yáaca já:ka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fall caer cair motion yúuwàacawa júuwàakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fear miedo medo mental cáalíri (miedoso) káalíri (miedoso) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flow fluir fluir motion iwatácawa iwatákawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fly volar voar motion yálacawa jálakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grow crecer crescer state cáaléeri yàacawa, dàwinàacawa káaléeri jàakawa, dàwinàakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hear oír ouvir mental émì~aca émì~aka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hide esconder esconder motion bàaca bàaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact núaca núaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other pìacawa pìakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
kill matar matar impact étáidaca, nuáca étáidaka, nuáka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental alíacawa alíakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
laugh reír rir mental icáaníca ikáaníka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion cùacawa, lìacawa kùakawa, lìakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nùyaca nùjaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other nùacùaca; nucuculíadaca. nùakùaka; nukukulíadaka. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact nunúaca nunúaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
say decir dizer mental íma íma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact íwíaca íwíaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
see ver ver mental icáca ikáka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact núacani énu iyú (disparar com êxito) núacani énu ijú (disparar com êxito) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state awinacawa (sentarse) awinakawa (sentarse) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sleep dormir dormir body imáca imáka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body sàni sàni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spit escupir cuspir body nùapìsaca nùapìsaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tucúaca tukúaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact imulìacawa imulìakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact sutàaca sutàaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state bàlùanícawa (estar de pie continuamente) bàlùanícawa (estar de pie continuamente) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
steal robar roubar other yéedùa jéedùa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
suck chupar chupar body isidùaca, bèrùaca, sùsùaca isidùaka, bèrùaka, sùsùaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swell hincharse inchar body imulacàacawa imulakàakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
swim nadar nadar motion màlacawa màlakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
think pensar pensar mental ínáidacawa ínáidakawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ucaca ukaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact bapìaca bapìaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other càpucùadaca, èwìaca, ènúadaca kàpukùadaka, èwìaka, ènúadaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body equitáca ekitáka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion nuèpunícawa nuèpuníkawa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other íbaidaca íbaidaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tongue lengua lingua body nène nène See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tooth diente dente body yèi jèi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
two dos dois number pucháiba putʃáiba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
water agua agua environment ú(u)ni ú(u)ni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar wía wía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wet mojado molhado quality isàbéeri isàbé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
what? que, qué que grammar càiná, cawiná kàiná, kawiná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
when? cuando quando grammar càicaalíná, chácaalíná kàikaalíná, tʃákaalíná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
where? donde onde grammar càicatáiná, cháná kàikatáiná, tʃáná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white blanco branco colour cabalèeri kabalèeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar càiná, cawiná kàiná, kawiná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship -ínu, acawéetúa -ínu, akawé:túa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wind viento vento environment cáuli káuli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wing ala asa body yàanabái jàanabái See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human inanái inanái See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour é(e)wa, éewéeri é(e)wa, é:wé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar píacué píakué See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
foot pie body abàli abàli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar àniwa àniwa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
all todo todos other canánama, macáita kanánama, makáita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body cùlubàa kùlubàa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body écúapi ékúapi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body misàale misàale See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body casìabèdaca kasìabèdaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fingernail uña unha body uba uba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
heart corazón coração body nuwàwa (mío), íiricu (suyo) nuwàwa (mío), í:ɾiku (suyo) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sun sol sol time èeri èeɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment dúli dúli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green verde verde quality ipùléeri ipùlé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hot caliente quente quality ùuléeri ùulé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. iwàyu iwàju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna màsibèe; kuìpìra (H&R92) màsibèe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kúiθi (R01) kúiθi (R01) See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. cháse tʃáse See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans má(a)tsaɺi (R01) má(a)tsaɺi (R01) See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. màalài; kutùwi (H&R92) màalài See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae cùusere kùuseɾe See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae sípi sípi See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae chalìri tʃalìɾi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes tóomorokóko (H&R, loan into Playero?) See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. atàlu, éda (H&R, two species) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica dùlewasíwa dùlewasíwa See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae unùcu unùku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae chíiyàali; á(a)wa (R01) tʃí:jàali; á(a)wa (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wáchuli wát∫uli See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family cumàta kumàta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba máali má:li See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae yàalubái imàníirinái (yàalubái 'furniture', imàníirinái 'someone who make sth' ), θú(u)wa jàalubái imàní:ɾinái, θú(u)wa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris áuli yéenibe wàlisài áuli jé:nibe wàlisài See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis yàlidu, únichàwini (rk83) jàlidu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) mutùsi, sálu 'oso palmero' mutùsi, sálu 'oso palmeɾo' See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tʃèe (dp91), adài (Choloepus didactylus, rk83) tʃèe (dp91) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. katsúiri (hr01), cachuíri; tʃamàna (HR92) katsúiɾi (hɾ01), katʃuíɾi See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus tsamai (R01) tsamai (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kubái (dp91) kubái (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. sàlabàda; ká(a)θama, ané(e)ri (R01) sàlabàda; ká(a)θama, ané(e)ri (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae uma[i] (dp91), umái uma[i] (dp91), umái See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. inirúi (R01) inirúi (R01) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. culìri kulìri See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura balùta balùta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. chàmanàli tʃàmanàli See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata túpu 'lagarto', túpu achúméeríina 'lagartija' túpu 'lagaɾto', túpu atʃúmé:ɾí:na 'lagaɾtija' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. itàanàa machàníiri (itàanàa '?', machàníiri 'without power') itàanàa matʃàní:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura mása mása See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes màanu (umàwali ‘boa-man monster’) (H&R) màanu (umàwali ‘boa-man monster’) (H&R) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae yorohua (rk83) [see Cuiva?] See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna áapi (dp91), àapi á:pi (dp91), àapi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox búula (rk83) [see Guahibo?] See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria tʃip[áni][lu] (dp91), icùli 'morrocoy', chapànilu, ála tʃip[áni][lu] (dp91), ikùli 'moɾɾocoy', tʃapànilu, ála See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis múya (rk83) See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) cáli yùuwi káli jùuwi See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba puberi (R01) puberi (R01) See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manacái manakái See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa idèwi idèwi See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea pú(u)ba (R01) pú(u)ba (R01) See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pipìri pipìɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua punàma punàma See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) sáawali sá:wali See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra wéeni, pirimiθi (R01) wéeni, pirimiθi (R01) See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens áasi (dp91) á:si (dp91) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus màwiru màwiɾu See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum sitùa sitùa See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. palátuna (H&R, SP) palátuna (H&R, SP) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) màsikài, kanapíri (H&R) màsikài, kanapíri (H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays canái kanái See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tʃéma (dp91) tʃéma (dp91) See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna jéetaná, àiku (H&R, ‘tree, stick’) jéetaná, àiku (H&R, ‘tree, stick’) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana piirí (H&R) piirí (H&R) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. irìsi irìsi See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana piritsa piɾitsa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala weeru (R01) weeru (R01) See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum úuluí ú:luí See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia camuíru kamuíru See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta káini (dp91) káini (dp91) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta capìeli kapìeli See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas calìri kalìɾi See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. yàcui jàkui See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. atacuí atakuí See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) cumàchi kumàtʃi See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. áya ája See Language page plant Ana Paula B., PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. mamiri, wácu (2 vine species) mamiri, wáku (2 vine species) See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. cúna kúna See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi ká(a)pi (hr01) ká(a)pi (hr01) See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola yúuba àicu júuba àiku See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kuwée, kéesi (H&R, various species) kuwée, kéesi (H&R, various species) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata mané mané See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. cuwée kuwé: See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis má(a)ba má(a)ba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria alàaba alàaba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae cúude kú:de See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera máadáwi, káawi (R01) má:dáwi, káawi (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera máadáwi má:dáwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora dúli, umapi (R01) dúli, umapi (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda chìlichili éewéeri ('? + yellow') tʃìlitʃili é:wé:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones chália tʃália See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea chiyéinchiyéin tʃijéintʃijéin See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera yéeni, kawanáire jé:ni, kawanáire (H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pùledèru (mosca casera) pùledèru (mosca casera) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae pìidu pìidu 'gɾillo del monte' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. cáwi, aliyáiri 'gusano comestible' káwi, alijáiɾi 'gusano comestible' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mapìri mapìri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera càmala kàmala See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea cubàli kubàli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita áini áini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda calàsu kalàsu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae èeni èeni See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tsá(a)wi (hr01), catànèeri cháwi tsá(a)wi (hɾ01), katànèeɾi tʃáwi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. apía apía See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha cabàlu kabàlu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ìisi, àlawàta ìisi (H&R, under cebus monkey: alawàta) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella pùwài (dp91), wàcuì pùwài (dp91), wàkuì See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons puwài cabalèeri (rk83) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus cuwáiri (rk83) kuwáiri (rk83) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae isìri (rk83) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis yéewi jé:wi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis machéeruli matʃé:ɾuli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu chamùu t∫amùu (H&R) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari apìtʃa (dp91) apìtʃa (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae chála tʃála See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kapìsi (dp91) kapìsi (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. píisi (dp91) pí:si (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kéesu qué:su See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti pú(u)θu (R01) pú(u)θu (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) tába tába See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus íri (dp91) íɾi (dp91) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae matèri matèɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris é(e)ma é(e)ma See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus néeri né:ɾi, àmali (O. virginianus, rk83) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus cawáyu kawáju See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material walàya 'canasta típica' walàja 'canasta típica' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tùliquìchi tùlikìtʃi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bed cama cama culture-material yàalubáisi waiméeri íinata jàalubáisi waimé:ɾi í:nata (banco+?+sobre) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material amàca; é(e)da (R01) amàka; é(e)da (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material yàalubáisi jàalubáisi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport ída ída See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology camaliqueeri; camapuacairi. kamalikeeri; kamapuakairi. In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology bàlesi bàlesi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other kuráaru (R01) kuráaru (R01) may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
firewood leña lenha other kitʃái, àicu míisíiri (àicu 'wood', míisíiri 'ripe, dry?') kitʃái, àiku mí:sí:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wàwasimi wàwasimi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology cuwáisàiri [others: dios mitico I. Calira. 2. Maachuludani. dios mitológico I. Capilyali. 2. Cuwai. 3. Chamana iweesabaa. 4. Chamani. 5. Chawaliwali. 6. Chunisai. 7. Macabali. 8. Munuani. 9. Macuuchuiri. ("No tiene muslo") kuwáisàiɾi In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology íwa, japuɺuɺu (R01) íwa; japuɺuɺu (R01) multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wisùanási wisùanási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool chìpaali tʃìpaali especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool θitúa (hr01), demá[pu] (dp91), chucùlu θitúa (hɾ01), demá[pu] (dp91), tʃukùlu hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ùlibàna ùlibàna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool demápu demápu arco See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport téna téna See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
plate plato prato culture-material quiɾápieli kirápieli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool mapuwáa 'olla de barro', iwàsape mapuwá: 'olla de baɾɾo', iwàsape See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool pùali pùali agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool máini máini See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
wax cera cera other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
honey miel mel food enué enué only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture bapìsi, íiyanási bapìsi, íijanási See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology wìisicái 'magic potion to attract women' wìisikái 'magic potion to attract women' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
school escuela escola acculturation néewáidacatáiwa (from 'teach/learn') néewáidakatáiwa (from 'teach/learn') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
paper papel papel acculturation cuyàluta, nucùyalutàni. kuyàluta, nukùyalutàni. See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology dàpuli dàpuli See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cawámai kawámai See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology càliculìi kàlikulìi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation bèsuè 'sugar cane' bèsuè 'sugar cane' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material wabàma (bark skirt) wabàma (bark skirt) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress nùabàlìricúiri (lit. 'what I put on my feet') nùabàlìrikúiri (lit. 'what I put on my feet') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation úwi, úwisàiri úwi, úwisàiri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
cat gato gato acculturation míichi míitʃi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation énu 'thunder, gun' énu 'thunder, gun' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress càyuwa kàjuwa See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
salt sal sal food iwi(duma) (R01) iwi(duma) (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology pùicái ('forefathers' song') pùikái ('forefathers' song') See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool siripíwa siɾipíwa currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool kapiθiri (R01) kapiθiri (R01) hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool nucàmúana nukàmúana esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food chucùluta tʃukùluta See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food uma (R01) uma (R01) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
hunt cazar caçar food íideca í:deka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kuweeθi (R01) kuweeθi (R01) Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool bacàa, cumàchi bakàa, kumàtʃi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ayáiba 'pilón' ajáiba 'pilón' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ayáiba ajáiba See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture culía, yàlaqui kulía, jàlaki prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food machúca matʃúka agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food macàdu; ú(u)ɺe (R01) makàdu; ú(u)ɺe (R01) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food cáini yàasu dúacái (cáini 'mandioca', yàasu 'of the', dúacái 'starch') káini jàasu dúakái See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food kuɺiaka-na(a) (R01) kuɺiaka-na(a) (R01) agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food irìca irìka word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool culáli kuláli hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool tsupiθi (R01) tsupiθi (R01) agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool yanáisi janáisi can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
house other capìi kapìi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Sudo, Timothy. 1976: 55 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 55 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 55 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes i: e: u: a: i: e: u: a: Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 55 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 55 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 62 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 62 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 62 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Galindo, 2002, p. 69-81 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Verbal synthesis, but all categories marked with separable morphemes. Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Person, aspect, and mood all indicated with verbal affixes. Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Galindo, 2002: 85 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Person marking/possession seems to be the only prefixes, but there are many suffixes. Galindo, 2002: 85 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Galindo, 2002: 85 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Noun-noun compounds, but also noun-verb, and noun-adjective compounds. These usually refer to natural beings such as plants and animals. Galindo, 2002: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Galindo, 2002: 139-142, 150-180, 235-268 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Galindo, 2002: 139-142, 150-180 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Galindo, 2002: 292 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Galindo, 2002: 150-180, 235-268 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Galindo, 2002: 150-180, 235-268 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Galindo, 2002: 99-100 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 -íɺi (masc.), -átua, -íɺu (fem.) -íri (masc.), átua, íru (fem.) There are three class markers that seem to appear with nouns, but two of them are "feminine." Adjectives agree in gender and only have masculine and feminine markers (no feminine examples are given to indicate whether adjective agreement is the same with Galindo, 2002: 130, 143 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes One of the feminine markers is also called a classifier, but it appears to be functioning in the same way as the other class marker. However, there are also numeral classifiers. Galindo, 2002: 98-112 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Galindo, 2002: 99 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no All examples of inanimates seem to be masculine, unmarked gender. Galindo, 2002: 99-101, 143-145 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes Only animates are marked for gender, constituting a break between animates and inanimates. Galindo, 2002: 99-101 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no All pronouns can take gender markers. Galindo, 2002: 99, 143 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates n/a Galindo, 2002: 99, 101 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates n/a Galindo, 2002: 99, 101 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" n/a Galindo, 2002: 99, 101 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes -ema, -ba -ema, -ba -ema only seems to appear with 'five' and -ba only with two, three, and four and a word meaning "quantity." Galindo, 2002: 191 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes The one classifier on nouns is identified as having a derivational function, although only one example is given. Galindo, 2002: 100 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -nái -nái Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no No examples of inanimates are given. However, Galindo notes that only the nominals that express mass quantities do not show the plural. Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no First- and third-person plural pronouns are suppletive. The second-person plural uses the 2nd person singular and a plural marker, but it seems specific to pronouns, distinct from the nominal plural, although it is used to indicate agreement on verbs. Galindo, 2002: 160, 184 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Galindo, 2002: 98-109 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Galindo, 2002: 183-203 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Galindo, 2002: 88 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Galindo, 2002: 88-90 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 -i, -de, -ɺa -i, -de, -ra -i for things close to the deictic center, -de for things outside of the center, and -ra for things outside of the deictic space. Galindo, 2002: 186 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Galindo, 2002: 186 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes y- (masc.), u- (fem.) y- (masc.), u- (fem.) Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Pronouns can optionally take gender markers, but they are not required. Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns yes Pronouns can optionally take gender markers, but they are not required. Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes The "middle voice" marker is attached to personal cross-referencing prefixes in true reflexive constructions. Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes -ɺi -li Dative case marking destinations. Galindo, 2002: 209-210 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 11 Galindo, 2002: 209-218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Dative marking on recipients. Galindo, 2002: 209 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Examples show case marking on a number of types of entities, including animate and inanimate. Galindo, 2002: 209-218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Examples show case marking on a number of types of entities, including animate and inanimate. Galindo, 2002: 209-218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Galindo, 2002: 114 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Galindo, 2002: 114 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Galindo, 2002: 114 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Galindo, 2002: 114 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Galindo, 2002: 114 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no -ápitsa (comitative), -yú (instrumental) -ápitsa (comitative), -yú (instrumental) Galndo, 2002: 217-218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Galindo, 2002: 190-191 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Numbers above four are expressed via something along the lines of "one of our hands." Galindo, 2002: 190-191 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Only numbers up to five are described in Galindo (2002). Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Galindo, 2002: 190-191 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Galindo (2002) notes that there are different roots for the numbers 1-4, but not whether these are transparent. Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Only numbers up to five are described in Galindo (2002), but he notes that the numbers above five are made via the syntactic unit expressing "five." Galindo, 2002: 190-191 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info. Only numbers up to five are described in Galindo (2002). Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Adjectives can take all inflection that verbs can, while nominals cannot. Galindo, 2002: 238-241, 263-264 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Galindo, 2002: 237 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Galindo, 2002: 99 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Galindo, 2002: 99 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Galindo, 2002: 95-96, 343 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes -ɺe, -ni, -de -ɺe, -ni, -de Alienable nouns take one of three markers when possessed, as well as prefixes referencing possessor. Galindo, 2002: 99 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Galindo, 2002: 92-95 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Galindo, 2002: 93-95, 343 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes -le, -ni, -de -ɺe, -ni, -de Alienable nouns take a suffix when they are possessed which is not found on inalienable nouns. Galindo, 2002: 93-95 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes i-…-zi i-…-θi Prefixed with third-person possessor and an extra suffix is added. Galindo, 2002: 92 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Galindo, 2002: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Galindo, 2002: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Galindo, 2002: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Galindo, 2002: 142 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Galindo, 2002: 143, 340 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -ná -ná Galindo, 2002: 135 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes -da -da Galindo, 2002: 136 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -ɺé -ré Galindo, 2002: 133 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no Adjectives and nouns can act as stative verbs without any sort of special morphology. Galindo, 2002: 152-153 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Comitative case marking, coordination is unmarked. Galindo, 2002: 217-219 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes -té -té Seems to be fused with a perfective aspect marker. Indicates that the event occurred more than three days in the past. Galindo, 2002: 170-171 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Galindo, 2002: 161-172 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Galindo, 2002: 161-172 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no The "prospective" indicates that action is about to begin, but other aspect and mood markers describe action in the future. Galindo, 2002: 169 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Galindo, 2002: 161 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Galindo, 2002: 161 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Galindo, 2002: 161 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Galindo, 2002: 161 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no The verb appears in minimal form, with person markers, but not with any other morphology. Galindo, 2002: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Polite imperatives expressed via some sort of verbal construction. Galindo, 2002: 270-271, 303-304 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Galindo, 2002: 270-271 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes -éwa -éwa Galindo, 2002: 300 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Galindo, 2002: 308-310 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes -áɺima -álima Galindo, 2002: 301 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Galindo, 2002: 308-310 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -tata -tata Galindo, 2002: 321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -kái -kái "Frecuentativo," refers to customary events. Galindo, 2002: 168-169 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes -kaitsa -kaitsa Galindo, 2002: 320 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes -θi, -ka, -ha -zi, -ka, -ha Dubitative -ɵi is used to express the speaker's doubt that the speaker has about the existence/reality of the event, the realis -ka is used to signal the reality or existence of the event. "Virtual" -ha is used when the speaker is not sure the event is go Galindo, 2002: 173-174, 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes -mi -mi Indicates that the speaker has knowledge of the event by way of evidence left during the event. Galindo, 2002: 177-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes -θa -za The citativo indicates that the speaker doesn't have knowledge of the event first-hand, but rather that he knows from hearing it. It can appear with any of the words that require a subordinate clause expressing another's words. Galindo, 2002: 175-176 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no info Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes See example on page 265 Galindo, 2002: 265 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no See examples on pages 251-252. Galindo, 2002: 251-252 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes See examples on pgs. 251-252 Galindo, 2002: 251-252 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no See examples on pgs. 251-252 Galindo, 2002: 251-252 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Galindo, 2002: 339 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Galindo, 2002: 339 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Galindo, 2002: 96 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Galindo, 2002: 96 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Adjectives follow the noun unless the noun is topicalized or the adjective is acting on a complex noun phrase. Galindo, 2002: 328-329 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Adjectives follow the noun unless the noun is topicalized or the adjective is acting on a complex noun phrase. Galindo, 2002: 328-329 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Galindo, 2002: 328 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Dem no Galindo, 2002: 328 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Num-Noun yes Galindo, 2002: 328 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Num no Galindo, 2002: 328 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes All examples are N-Rel. The source discusses relative clauses as a type of adjective, which follow the noun unless the noun is topicalized or the adjective is acting on a complex noun phrase. Galindo, 2002: 241-242 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no All examples are N-Rel. Galindo, 2002: 241-242 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Galindo, 2002: 241-242 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Galindo, 2002: 241-242 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes See examples on 273-275 Galindo, 2002: 273-275 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects n/a No case marking on subjects and objects. Galindo, 2002: 113-121 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked n/a Galindo, 2002: 113-121 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker n/a Galindo, 2002: 113-121 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers n/a Galindo, 2002: 113-121 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) n/a Galindo, 2002: 113-121 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive yes Agent pronouns are prefixed to the verb, while stative intransitives and patients of transitives appear after the verb. Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive yes Agent pronouns/person-marking are prefixed to the verb, while stative intransitives and patients of transitives are suffixed or otherwise appear after the verb. Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Pronominal subjects appear prefixed t verb. Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Galindo, 2002: 162 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no y- (masc. sing.), u- (fem. sing.), na- (plural) y- (masc. sing.), u- (fem. sing.), na- (plural) Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no yá (masc. sing), uá (fem. sing), nía (pl.) yá (masc. sing), uá (fem. sing), nía (pl.) Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes -kué -kué Can be used with either singular or plural person-markers to express multiple participants. Galindo, 2002: 160 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Galindo, 2002: 99, 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes y- (masc. sing), u- (fem. sing) y- (masc. sing), u- (fem. sing) Third-person singular distinguishes masculine and feminine. Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes -ɺi -li Dative case marking destinations. Galindo, 2002: 209-210 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Galindo, 2002: 209-210 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Galindo, 2002: 209-210 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no No mention of a passive construction. Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Galindo, 2002: 161-163, 253 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -ída -ída Galindo, 2002: 161-163, 253 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Galindo, 2002: 161-163, 253 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Galindo, 2002: 252-262 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes kaná kaná Galindo, 2002: 241 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Galindo, 2002: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Galindo, 2002: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Galindo, 2002: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Galindo, 2002: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes The content word is preposed. Galindo, 2002: 273-274 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Adjectives can take all derivations that verbs can, while nominals cannot. Galindo, 2002: 239-240 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Adjectives can take all derivations that verbs can, while nominals cannot. Galindo, 2002: 239-240 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Galindo, 2002: 263 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no The examples all occur with a gender marker on the verb in the relative clause. These gender markers are also used on adjectives, suggesting they are agreement markers rather than heads. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. yes Galindo notes that this is "the" way that Piapoco forms relative clauses. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes The inflection of the verb with a nominal class marker seems to be how the language makes a relative clause. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no There doesn't seem to be an overt relativizer. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no There doesn't seem to be an overt relativizer, while there are several types of nominalizing morphology. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no The verb -wawa does this function, but it's an auxiliary. Galindo, 2002: 299 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Galindo, 2002: 287-313 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Galindo, 2002: 150-183 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no An adverbial form does this. Galindo, 2002: 222 Aimee Lawrence