Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb)

Morphology - General
Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number]


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No indication of fusion. Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Verbal synthesis, but all categories marked with separable morphemes. Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes The person marking suffixes vary depending on the tense/aspect of the verb, although tense/aspect may be marked with additional morphemes as well. Mansen & Captain, 2000: 800-801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Tense and evidentiality are fused, (and interrogative fused with tense/evid). Aspect, mood, aktionsart, degree all distinct morphology Aikhenvald 2003, 254, 288 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no The only fused categories are person/number Facundes, 2000: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-42 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes person and number are combined in verbal affixes Duff-Tripp 1997:71-9 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes "The degree of fusion is extremely low in Baure." Danielsen 2007: p83 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 249 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:161 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes tense, aspect, mood Seifart - 2005: 61 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes certain forms involve marking both agent and patient Hall 1988: 151 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes person-markers, aspect, tense and number Abbott 1991: 113 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Tense, person, and grammatical function are fused into prefixes Gildea 1989:9 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 105 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-145 Daniel Valle
Damana yes person, number, tense, aspect, modality, function (agent/patient) Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993:42-43 Daniel Smith only 1S, 2S, 3S, 3Inclusive for person
Aguaruna yes Some third person markers are fused with tense markers. Overall 2007:329-30 Daniel Valle However, this is a very peripheral feature of the grammar since fusion only occurs in suffixes marking 3rd person and TAM under certain circunstances
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:8-14 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no However, situation in which first person acts upon second person in which a single verbal suffix /-iki/ marks both subject and object. This is the only case of verbal fusion I have found. So, fusion is limited to this suffix only. Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses yes Verb can combine tense and person in a single portmanteau morpheme Fleck:395 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes They seem to mark mood, person and number by a single portmanteau morpheme which varies according to those dimensions. Salas 1992, p.107 Daniel Valle
Páez yes person, number and mood are marked by a single portmanteau verbal morpheme Rojas:168 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes But this is highly restricted in the language. There are only three suffixes which do this. Parker 1965:24, 47-57 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info More likely not Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes At least person and tense/aspect are fused in verbal markers Loewen 1954:62 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes only found with reality marking modals and directionals. Irrealis fuses with directionals to make 3 distinct forms Landaburu 1979: 194-195 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p276-292 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 125 Shannon Dardis Aymara shows things like tense and person/number by adding a suffix for each category to the stem. My sources do not indicate that any of those suffixes combine categories.
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no except for a few tonal morphemes Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes ex. Tense evidental markers carry information about tense, subject, and how speaker obtained this info Miller 1999, p. 64 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes e.g. nominalizer + gender Chacón 2012:234 Daniel Smith
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.38 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Verbal suffixes express emphasis, direction of movement, causation, benefaction, negation, contraexpection, aspect, tense-mood, and person-number. Jones & Jones 1991, p.5 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.67-70 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely West and Welch analyze these as portmanteau, but Ramirez segments them. Tense/aspect and person/gender/animacy/number seem to be only two cases where categories are combined
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: p.240 Kelsey Neely The table on this page provides many examples of the most common verbal suffixes. While Ramirez doesn't state that there is no fusion, there is none indicated by this comprehensive table.
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-99 Kelsey Neely no fusional morphemes appear
Sanumá yes with certain evidentials Borgman 1990: 170 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Aspect markers can also enconded number (of the subject) Everett 2006:278 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:86-120 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 83 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 83 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 125 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 74 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 111 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 41 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 33-34 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no 33 done 0
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 166-167 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 90-91 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 55 done 0
Martuthunira no? done 0
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 365 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 123, 127 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 407 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 300 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 70 0
Dyirbal No 55, 246 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 69 done 0
Djinang no 169 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 82-88 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 38 done 0
Bularnu no 73 Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes 49 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung yes 77 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no 97 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 45 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 118-158 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 326 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen no 108 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara no 32 done 0
Arrernte Yes 202 1
Kokatha No 27 0
Karajarri No 218 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu no 74 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 915 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari no 42 0
Wajarri no 101 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no but morphological fusion occurs on phonetic level Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps