Yidiny

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
yii
Location
-17.12°, 145.77°
Notes
Features
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (127)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis gan.gu:l (TC; <gan.gula>) ~ gangu:la (G; <gan.gula>) gan.gu:l (TC; <gan.gula>) ~ gangu:la (G; <gan.gula>) inheritance *kankula pYTj To Tjaapukay /gan,gula/ 'grey kangaroo'. underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae munyimunyi (TC) munyimunyi (TC) inheritance *muñimuñi pYTj The Tjaap cognate /munyimunyi/ is used only of a small light brown ant sp. reduplicated Used as generic in generic-specific expression 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus wurrgu:l (C; <wurrgulV> wurrgu:l (C; <wurrgulV> unique underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora milga milga unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia gayay (TCG) & gujila (W) [short-nosed], bin.gu (T) & guygal (C) [long-nosed] gayay(TCG) & gujila (W) [short-nosed], bin.gu (T) & guygal (C) [long-nosed] inheritance /gayay/ poss. to *kaya ('dog') underived 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer jilibiri (C only) ~ gundal (T only) jilibiri (C only) ~ gundal (T only) inheritance *cilipiri pYTj To Tjaap /djilbiri/ 'barramundi' compound ? Poss. w. /jili/ 'eye'; see analysis of Tjaap cognate. minya 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp munyin (TC) muñin unique Resembles Tjaap /mundji/ 'bat' underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jarruy (TCG) caruy inheritance *carruy pYTj underived minya All bird spp are minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing missing minya 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis dandi tanti unique Dioscorea bulbifera underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri gambul (TC) ~ burru:gan (G; <burrugan>) gambul (TC) ~ burru:gan (G; <burrugan>) inheritance To Tjaapukay /gambul/ underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae dungun dungun inheritance *tungun pYTj To Tjaapukay underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species dumbul dumbul unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii gurru:ngga (T; <gurrungga>; gurrngga in C&G) gurru:ngga (T; <gurrungga>; gurrngga in C&G) inheritance underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus bijuu (TC) bijuu (TC) inheritance *picuy pYTj To Tjaap /bidjuy/ 'fish hawk'; 2nd-syll. correspomdence problematic underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula yabi (TC) yabi (TC) unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) jiyarrjiyarr (C) jiyarrjiyarr (C) unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius galga:man (T; <galgaman>) ~ galga:li (C; <galgali>) kalkaman ~ kalkali unique underived minya 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata ngarrga (TC) ngarrga (TC) unique underived mayi 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera guban ( TC) & gungga:mbur (TC; <gunggambur>) guban ( TC) & gungga:mbur (TC; <gunggambur>) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota dan.gal [spilotes] tan.kal unique underived 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera gingaa (T) gingaa (T) inheritance To KYalanji /kinga/ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) galbiy (TC) & milgir (T) ~ wujurrwujurr (C) galbiy (TC) & milgir (T) ~ wujurrwujurr (C) unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda ginba (TCW) ginba (TCW) inheritance *kinpa pYTj To Tjaapukay /ginba/ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae gurril (T) gurril (T) unique underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes bagam (TC) & gambi:n (TC; <gambinU>) bagam (TC) & gambi:n (TC; <gambinU>) inheritance *pakam pYTj To Tjaapukay bagam; POSSIBLE LOAN: KYal /bakamu/ 'green pigeon'; expected Yidiny cognate **baga:m underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species dagarr (T only) dagarr (T only) unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus gunyji:lbay (TC; <gunyjilbay>) & bima (TC) gunyji:lbay (TC; <gunyjilbay>) & bima (TC) inheritance *kuñcilpay pYTj To Tjaapukay underived ? minya 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo magarbarra (T) ~ bugul(barra) (C) magarbarra (T) ~ bugul(barra) (C) unique derived /magar/ 'outside' + /barra/ 'relating to' 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris guda:ga (TCGW; <gudaga>) guda:ga (TCGW; <gudaga>) inheritance *kutaka pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae buru:gu (TCG; <burugu>) buru:gu (TCG; <burugu>) inheritance *puruku pYTj To Tjaap /buru:/ 'whistle duck' ang KYal /buruku/ 'pied cormorant' underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong julmbu:rran (C; <julmburran> julmbu:rran (C; <julmburran> unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta junggu:n (TC; <junggunU>) & wugun (TC) junggu:n (TC; <junggunU>) & wugun (TC) inheritance *cungku+ pYTj To Tjaap. djunggum derived With /+nu/. 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) gamu (TC) gamu (TC) semantic shift *kamu pNortheast Original sense poss. 'water' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera barabara (TCG) barabara (TCG) inheritance *parapara pYTj To Tjaapukay /barabara/. Resembles KYal /burulburul/ reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gugi:ny (TC; <guginyU>) kuki:ñ inheritance *kukiñu pYTj To Tjaap /guginy/ 'flying fox' underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni ganya:rr (G&W dialects; <ganyarrA>) ~ ganya:rra (T&C; <ganyarra>) ganya:rr (G&W dialects; <ganyarrA>) ~ ganya:rra (T&C; <ganyarra>) inheritance *kañarra pPaman underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii bindu:ba (T; <binduba>) ~ ngalma:rri (C; <ngalmarri>) & junbar (TC) & jun.gi (TC) & wulur (C) bindu:ba (T; <binduba>) ~ ngalma:rri (C; <ngalmarri>) & junbar (TC) & jun.gi (TC) & wulur (C) unique underived minya ? 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) manggum manggum unique underived Used as a generic in generic-specific terms 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing /bajigal/ 'FW turtle (sp: Elseya latisternum) (TC)' is cognate w Tjaap /badjigal/, the generic term for turtles 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp garrnggan (all dialects) garrnggan (all dialects) unique underived minya 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) nguyay (TCGW) & jirrgar (TC) nguyay (TCGW) & jirrgar (TC) inheritance *nguyay pYTj To Tjaapukay /nguyay/ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera bundim (TC) & balmbiny (TC) puntim & palmpiñ inheritance *puntim pYTj To pPama-Maric *punti+. Forms like /pinti/ are very widespread underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis girajalbu girajalbu unique underived ? 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina jilibura (TC) jilibura (TC) inheritance *cilipura pYTj Tjaap cognate /jiliburay/; /y/ presumed derivational compound Poss. w. /jili/ 'eye' minya 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas ngawu:yu (CG; <ngawuyu>) ngawu:yu (CG; <ngawuyu>) unique underived minya 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata wirgarr (C only) wirgarr (C only) inheritance *wirkarr pYTj To Tjaap. /wilgarr; *rk for Y /rk/, Tj /lk/ is a guess here. underived minya 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus guli (TC) guli (TC) inheritance *kulu pPNy To pPNy *kulu. Poss. < *kuli or < *kulu+y. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yarraman (TC) yarraman (TC) loan languages to south WW %yarraman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae ngunanggarra (C) ngunanggarra (C) unique underived ? minya 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet jarru:ga (TCGW; <jarruga>) jarru:ga (TCGW; <jarruga>) inheritance Failure of V2 to lengthen would make it a loan from Tjaap. Record unclear. underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae yuri (TC) yuri (TC) loan languages to south (Maric; Djirbal) Loan status attributed because of failure of initial *yu (in pMaric *yuri) > /cu/ and because "only found to the west of Yidinyji territory; known by repute to Yidinyji people". underived minya 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda gadu:gal (TC; <gadugal> & gurru;jun (T only; <gurrujun>) gadu:gal (TC; <gadugal> & gurru;jun (T only; <gurrujun>) unique underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. jalnjul TC) jalnjul TC) unique underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera muygun (G) & marbiny (T) ~ murir (C) & ngugun (C only) muygun (G) & marbiny (T) ~ murir (C) & ngugun (C only) unique /ngugun/ < *ngukun; Tjaap /ngugun/ 'mosquito' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) gulumburu (TC) gulumburu (TC) unique underived ? 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) wariwari (TC) & ban.ga (TC) & diwu (TCW) & muruy (TG) ~ wunba (C) & wulubaga (G) wariwari (TC) & ban.ga (TC) & diwu (TCW) & muruy (TG) ~ wunba (C) & wulubaga (G) unique reduplicated mayi ? 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus maybu (T) maybu (T) unique underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus gayay (TCG) ~ guji:la (W; <gujila>) gayay (TCG) ~ guji:la (W; <gujila>) unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius giwa:n (T; <giwanV>) ~ guwalangu (T) & bunul (T) giwa:n (T; <giwanV>) ~ guwalangu (T) & bunul (T) unique underived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis yagal (TC) yagal (TC) inheritance *yakal pYTj To Tjaap. underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gulu:du (TC; <guludu>) gulu:du (TC; <guludu>) inheritance *kurlu+ pPama-Nyungan Sound-symbolic and probably widely borrowed WW %kurlu+ underived Old derivation. minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca diwidiwi (T, not C) diwidiwi (T, not C) unique reduplicated minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis galbu (T) galbu (T) inheritance *kalpu pYTj To Tjaap. underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus gurril (jaban) kurril (capan) unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea yirri:lam (T; <yirrilam>) yirri:lam (T; <yirrilam>) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi gara:na (T; <garana>) ~ garna (TCW) gara:na (T; <garana>) ~ garna (TCW) inheritance *kar.na pPaman underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda yurrubajal (TC) & jaynggar (TC) yurrubajal (TC) & jaynggar (TC) unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta giraagiraa & jijiluru (T; C jiljiluru) giraagiraa & jijiluru (T; C jiljiluru) inheritance *kirakira pYTj To Tjaap /giragira/. Conditioning of V2 lengthening not accounted for reduplicated minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus ganya:rr (G&W dialects; <ganyarrA>) ~ ganya:rra (T&C; <ganyarra>) ganya:rr (G&W dialects; <ganyarrA>) ~ ganya:rra (T&C; <ganyarra>) inheritance *kañarra pPaman underived minya 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae julwa (C) & julgay (G) & dirngi (CG) & mugi:r (C, G; <mugiriV/i>) julwa (C) & julgay (G) & dirngi (CG) & mugi:r (C, G; <mugiriV/i>) unique underived minya ? 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones dumbu:n (T; <dumbunU>) dumbu:n (T; <dumbunU>) inheritance *tumpunu pYTj To Tjaap. /dumbunum/. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha jajinyi (C,G) ~ balbirrigan (W) jajinyi (C,G) ~ balbirrigan (W) unique underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna bini:rr (T&C; <binirrI>) bini:rr (T&C; <binirrI>) unique underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus yagu:ny (TC; <yagunyU.A>) ~ yagu:nyang (G; <yagunyang?) ~ yagu:nya (W; <yagunya>) yagu:ny (TC; <yagunyU.A>) ~ yagu:nyang (G; <yagunyang?) ~ yagu:nya (W; <yagunya>) unique underived minya 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jama jama inheritance *cama pYTj To Tjaap. /djama/. underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae garra (TCG) garra (TCG) inheritance To Tjaap. /garra/. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae murujum murujum unique underived minya 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna wuru:ba (TC; <wuruba>) wuru:ba (TC; <wuruba>) inheritance *wurrupa pYTj To Tjaap /wurruba/ and (with problematic phonological history) YYoront /+wurrvw/ (in sugarbag terms) underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita wanggu:lay (TCGW; <wanggulay> wanggu:lay (TCGW; <wanggulay> inheritance *wangkulay pYTj To Tjaap. underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale jaban (TCGW) & jabulagay (TC; <jabulagay>) jaban (TCGW) & jabulagay (TC; <jabulagay>) unique /jabulagay/ to Tjaap /djabulagay/ 'small eel' underived ? minya 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea jurri:n (TC; <jurrinU>) & ngubi:rrbiny (TC;<ngubirrniny>) & junam (TC) jurri:n (TC; <jurrinU>) & ngubi:rrbiny (TC;<ngubirrniny>) & junam (TC) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides missing missing missing minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) munu:nggul (TC; <mununggul>) & manu:nggul (TC; <manunggul>) munu:nggul (TC; <mununggul>) & manu:nggul (TC; <manunggul>) unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata wurbu (TC) wurbu (TC) unique underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina mindil (TC) & giri (T) mindil (TC) & giri (T) inheritance *mintil pEasternPaman To Tjaap and GYim /mindil/ 'tick' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru waja (T) & jugu (C) ~ gurba:n (C; <gurbanU>) waja (T) & jugu (C) ~ gurba:n (C; <gurbanU>) inheritance *waaca pNortheast pPama to Karnic underived minya 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) jugi (TCW) ~ dandu (G) jugi (TCW) ~ dandu (G) inheritance *yuku pPaman Poss. pPama-Nyungan. Development of initial *y > /j/ problematic but also in KYal and close dialects and in Yidiny /juru/ 'elbow' < *yu:ru. *y > /i/ problematic. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax guya:l (TC <guyalA>) guya:l (TC <guyalA>) inheritance *kucala local GYim south to Maric; correspondences problematic WW %kucala underived minya 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jigirrjigirr (TC) jigirrjigirr (TC) unique reduplicated minya 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) jambun (TC) jambun (TC) inheritance *campun pYTj To Tjaap. /djambun/. underived minya 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes done-Catherine 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes done-Catherine 1
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no done-Catherine 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced check done-Catherine 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection check done-Catherine 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word check done-Catherine 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only n/a done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion not done yet done-Catherine X
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction not done yet done-Catherine X
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no done-Catherine 0
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no done-Catherine 0
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no done-Catherine 0
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun not done yet done-Catherine X
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Num-Noun no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Noun-Num yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. N/A done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system N/A done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system N/A done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately N/A done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent N/A done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done-Catherine x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info done-Catherine x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? yes done-Catherine 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no done-Catherine 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes done-Catherine 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no done-Catherine 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? not done yet done-Catherine X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) not done yet done-Catherine X
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no done-Catherine 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no info done-Catherine x
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes done-Catherine 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? no done-Catherine 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no info done-Catherine x
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no done-Catherine 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? yes done-Catherine 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? yes done-Catherine 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. not done yet done-Catherine X
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no done-Catherine 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense mobile