Apprehensive construction

Verbal Categories - Mood
There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 100 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no The discussions of the verb at various levels do not describe a morpheme/verb form of this type. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 320 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 66-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006: 164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes There is both a verbal clitic and a complex predicate construciton that convey this meaning. Aikhenvald, 2003: 384 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no The suffix ,-macumà is used to express this. Zamponi 2003:56 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no info Duff-Tripp Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 247-289 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes The verb "to watch" plus the imperfective suffix are used together to encode this meaning Brandão 2007:49 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965:70-81 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of mood Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 117-122 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This is a prohibitive verbal suffix which is distinc from a negative imperative in which it is more than of an warning Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-146 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:357 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:11-23 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:87-92 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes The imperative negative prefix has this function too Giron 2008: p273 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 135 to 140 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no not sure yet Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-102 Christopher Clack
Hup yes bare verb stem, tone appears to be lexically determined Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 73 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.32-38 Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 390 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64-70 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.74-87 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The tense evidentials of avoidance is marked by -ro. Jones & Jones 1991, p.88 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes The negative imperative can also be used with first- and third-person subjects, in which case it means 'lest'. Strom 1992, p.137 Chris Clack
Siona yes Suffix meaning (roughly) "doubt." Wheeler - 1970:93 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes used to express that one should prevent something from happening by taking care Ramirez 1997: 145-146 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:275 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes enclitic Vallejos 2010:485 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes? 68 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 138 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 25, 43 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 125-6 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu yes 22 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r14 done 1
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta yes 202 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 60 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 15 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 179 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 56 done 0
Martuthunira yes 136, 249-251 done 1
Marrgany No 315 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 496 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 95 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 437 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 68 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 204 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 93 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 158, 103 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No info 59 x
Dyirbal yes 113 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 70 done 0
Djinang No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 224-225 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 46-7 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 188 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 55 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 39 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 98 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 78 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 47-50 done 0
Katthang no 85-6 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 175 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 46 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 142 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 328 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 131 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes FO 128 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 96 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 119 done 0
Arrernte Yes 179 1
Kokatha No 38 0
Karajarri Yes 143 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 173 0
Ritharrngu No 104 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 55 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman Yes 49 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 144 1
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No info 72 Y2 x
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari Yes 48 1
Wajarri Yes 122 1
Warungu yes 614 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no not likely Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps