Kokama

Family
Tupian
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cod
Location
-4.50°, -74.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Espinosa, Lucas. 1989. Breve diccionario analítico castellano-tupí del Perú. Sección Cocama.Ediciones C.E.T.A., Iquitos. Vallejos Yopán, Rosa. 2010. A grammar of Kokama-Kokamilla. University of Oregon. (Doctoral disseration). Faust, Norma. 2008 (3ra. ed.). Gramática cocama. Serie Lingüística Peruana no. 6. ILV, Lima.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location arɨwa arɨwa loan Spanish See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
and y e grammar See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location rupe (suff.) rupe See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body yatukupe jatukupe inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality aytse ajtse unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body tsehueca tseweka loan Zaparo tawaka See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location wɨrɨ wɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality tua tua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour tsuni (to be black) tsuni inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body tsuwɨ tsuwɨ inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body kanuara kanuaɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body putis putis inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human ɨcratsen ɨkɾatsen unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment uni-ta-watsu uni-ta-watsu unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality tsɨre (to be cold) tsɨɾe doubtful loan Quechua tʃiri See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality atsimin atsimin unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
day día dia time kuarachi kuaɾatʃi unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality charu tʃaru unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality ikana ikana inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment turuka turuka See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body nami nami inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna tsúpia tsúpia inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body chitsacuara (eyes) tʃitsakuaɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality amutse (to be far) amutse inheritance cf. Kamayura See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship papa papa doubtful loan Spanish See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna wɨra-tsa ('bird-leaf') wɨra-tsa ('bird-leaf') unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment tata tata inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment sisa sisa loan Quechua See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment tsahue (foggy; also used figuratively for "not clear") tsawe See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora ɨwɨria ɨwɨria inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality era (to be good) eɾa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tsa, yaquɨtsa tsa, jakɨtsa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body pua pua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ai ai inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body yaquɨ, yaquɨcuara jakɨ, jakɨkuaɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar mañatipa maɲatipa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar etse etse inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
if si se grammar rashi raʃi See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location cuara (suff.) kuara inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body tiputi chiru tiputi tʃiru inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment ɨpatsu ɨpatsu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment tsa tsa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body tsutɨma tsutɨma inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tsentsene tsentsene unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body pɨna pɨna inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality ipuku ipuku inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kɨwa kɨwa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human ahua, ñapitsara awa, ɲapitsaɾa inheritance; unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tsu tsu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment yatsɨ jatsɨ inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama mama loan Span? See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body yuru juɾu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human chira tʃiɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality ari (suff.) ari unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body yachuka jaʧuka unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
night noche noite time ɨpɨtsa ɨpɨtsa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar tɨma tɨma unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body ti ti inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality wiju wixu unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
one uno um number huepe wepe inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar amua amua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body aicua (to become sick); aicuan (adj.) aikua; aikuan unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human awa awa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment amana amana inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour pɨtani (to be red) pɨtani inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture pe, pecuara pe, pekuaɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality pua pua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment itini itini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tsapaka ('sharpen') tsapaka ('sharpen') unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body yɨwa-pɨka 'arm-seat' yɨwa-pɨka 'arm-seat' unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental uti uti unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body piruara (also bark) piruara inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment kuarachi kuaratʃi loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality chura tʃura doubtful loan, direction unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment tatatini tatatini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ɨwɨra ɨwɨra inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment itaki itaki inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body tsui tsui unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar yukun (distal), yama (indefinite) jukun (distal), jama (indefinite) unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inu inu unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar ajan axan inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar ene ene inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
three tres tres number mutsapɨrɨca mutsapɨɾɨka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment tupa tupa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body caruta; aya (~ from mosquito/snake) karuta; aja unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body tsapu tsapu unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment uquita; uqui (refl.) ukita; uki unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion warika warika unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion uri uri inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ɨita ɨita unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental yachu jatʃu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tsaquɨta tsakɨta doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state umanu umanu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental ukɨrɨaytsi ukɨrɨajtsi inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body curata kuɾata doubtful loan see various ku forms in region See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body eyu eju inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion uhuari uwari inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental aquɨcha (tener miedo) akɨtʃa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion atsɨrɨca atsiɨrɨka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion uhue uwe inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state aipa aipa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental tsenu tsenu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion yamimi (refl.) jamimi inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ayuca ajuka unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other emete emete unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact umanuta umanuta doubtful loan Zaparoan See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental icua ikua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental apuca apuka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion yaparari japarari inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body caquɨrɨ kakɨrɨ inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other yatse (to ~) yatse unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ayuka ajuka See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental kumitsa kumitsa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental umi umi unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact aya aja unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state yapɨca japɨka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body uquɨrɨ ukɨɾɨ inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body tsetuni tsetuni inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ipama (stand up) ipama inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other muna muna inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body tsuhuana tsuwana unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body irura irura inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion ɨata ɨata inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental ikuaka ikuaka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact itika itika inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tɨquɨta tɨkɨta unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body uhuene uwene inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion ucua, uhuata ukua, uwata unknown; inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other camata kamata doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body tsai tsai inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
two dos dois number mucuica mukuika inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment uni uni loan Arawak See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ini ini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar penu penu unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality tɨa-ta tɨa-ta unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar mari mari inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar mañapucatipa maɲapucatipa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar macatipa macatipa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour tini (to be white) tini inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar ahuataca (interrogative) awataka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship miricua miɾikua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment ɨwɨtu ɨwɨtu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human huaina waina inheritance? See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour iu (to be yellow) iu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar epe epe inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
foot pie body pɨta pɨta inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar catu katu unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
all todo todos other upi; upimari (everything) upi; upimari unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pɨta-muchuri 'foot-node' pɨta-mutʃuri 'foot-node' unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body jɨwa-kuara 'arm-inessive' jɨwa-kuara 'arm-inessive' inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body tsɨi tsɨi inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment piruara (also skin) piɾuaɾa (algo skin) inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body ia ia inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time cuarachi kuaɾatʃi inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality ɨquɨrata (to be green) ɨkɨɾata inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality tsacu (to be hot) tsaku inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wɨra wɨra inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. piakui piakui doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito nípaaki See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae wainumi wainumi inheritance See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes urukutú uɾukutú doubtful loan - WW? onomatopoeic? %murukutu / kurukutu See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. arara aɾaɾa loan into protolg? - WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica missing See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wɨra=kɨra ('bird-DIM') wɨra=kɨra ('bird-DIM') unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae urupu uɾupu inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakará wakaɾá doubtful loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yahuara (the same word used for "tiger" jawaɾa semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tatú tatú inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. jakari jakari inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus purake puɾake inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ipira ipiɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. tapaka tapaka See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura cururu kuɾuɾu See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. yakuraru jakuɾaɾu semantic shift compound w/caiman? See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata yakari jakari semantic shift from 'caiman' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. yawawira jawawiɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae muiwatsu muiwatsu inheritance snake-big' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mui mui inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox tsuitini 'Bothrops' tsuitini 'Bothrops' See Language page Widespread South America Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria puka puka loan, direction unknown Cofan poka See Language page Widespread Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis ipirahuira (lit "fish-penis"?) piɾawiɾa unique See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa mɨrɨti mɨɾɨti inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana pinawa pinawa See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea patiwa patiwa inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua manaka manaka See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) amanju amanju inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra wapi ɨ wa wapi ɨ wa See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens ɨkɨ ɨkɨ inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea muni muni See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nana nana inheritance - WW See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. panara panaɾa loan Spanish? See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. purutu (Spanish loan) puɾutu loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ahuati awati inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum petɨma petɨma inheritance See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ɨhuɨra ɨwɨɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ruku ruku inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. ɨna ɨna inheritance See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] muni-watsu muni-watsu See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta yahuiri (not specified as bitter or sweet) yawiɾi unique See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yɨtika jɨtika inheritance See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. kara kaɾa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) missing See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. itimu itimu See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. timu timu inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tsatsɨwa tsatsɨwa See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata tucanɨra tukanɨɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kuki kuki doubtful loan, direction unknown Napo Quechua ukui See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mapa mapa loan Arawak See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria arawi arawi inheritance? - WW %arawe, Mello 2000 *taraBe; cf. Carib (*)masarawa See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera panama (Mello2000) panama (Mello2000) inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tsatsuka tsatsuka See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora tsɨwɨj tsɨwɨj inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones yatsura jatsuɾa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea yakirana jakiɾana inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae chiri tʃiɾi loan - WW %tʃiriku: Quechua, Aymara, Zaparoan, Kokama, Matses? See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. teβekɨwa teβekɨwa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kupia kupia inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea menepa menepa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kawa kawa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yahuara jawaɾa inheritance cf. Arawak, Tukanoan See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. yuwara juwaɾa See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha arawata arawata loan - WW Carib (howler monkey) See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] akiki akiki inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella cai kai inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis yawara pana miri jawaɾa pana miɾi See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari tayatsu tajatsu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua atʃuniʔ (Mello2000) atʃuniʔ (Mello2000) loan Quechua/Aymara See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kapiwara (Mello2000) kapiwara (Mello2000) inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) paka paka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kuti kuti inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tapira tapira inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ɨtsɨwatsu ɨtsɨwatsu inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawariu kawariu See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material urkuru uɾkuɾu doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW %panaku See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material ukɨrɨ tupa (place to sleep) ukɨɾɨ tupa unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material tukini tukini unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material yapɨcatupa japɨkatupa inheritance from 'sit' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport ɨara ɨaɾa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tutu tutu loan - WW %toto (onomatopoeic?) See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology payum, tsumi, icuan (from the verb "to know") pajum, tsumi, ikuan inheritance; unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material ɨara, ɨrara ɨara, ɨrara unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology chiru tʃiɾu inheritance - WW %sarur, prob loan into Inga Quechua See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other yuta juta unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other ipia ipia inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mai mai unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tiama tiama inheritance multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material quɨchi kɨtʃi inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material quɨchi kɨtʃi semantic shift knife' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool uwa uwa inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ɨhuɨratsu, rejun ɨwɨɾatsu, rexun semantic shift from 'bow' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool kanuti kanuti loan Panoan arco See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport yapuquita japukita inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool yukuchi jukutʃi doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito kúsi See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material muritsu muɾitsu unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool kai kai unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other mapa-uka mapa-uka unique from loan 'bee' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food missing only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture puatsa puatsa doubtful loan, direction unknown Ocaina mõãʔša-ʔóɸɛ See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material pinawa pinawa inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology yakɨ warimata jakɨ waɾimata See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation escuela escuela See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ukɨrɨaytsi ukɨrɨajtsi See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation atawari atawari loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation uwakɨra uwakɨra See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material saya saja loan Port/Span saia See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pɨta + chiru 'foot cloth' pɨta + tʃiru 'foot cloth' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tsuntaru tsuntaru loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation puna puna semantic shift from 'blowgun' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology apu apu loan - WW %apu See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food tewe, tsewe tewe, tsewe loan - WW %tewe See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ikara (ritual song) ikara (ritual song) unknown See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool puna puna unknown currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool wachi watʃi hunting and warfare See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wauta wauta loan cf. Yavitero mahu'ita, Sikuani huata, Kokama wauta esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food tsɨqui tsɨki See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food timupura timupura unique from 'timbo' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food ipurkari ipurkari See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ipurak-ari-n (Mello2000) ipurak-ari-n (Mello2000) unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool missing See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool pari paɾi semantic shift stick grid See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool takaru tupa takaɾu tupa loan widespread; cf. Spanish taco See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture caitsuma kaitsuma inheritance? also in Nheengatu prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ui ui inheritance agriculture See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food meu meu inheritance usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food uwi, uy uwi, uj semantic shift from 'farinha' See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food waruna waruna unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool wɨrari wɨɾaɾi doubtful loan - WW %wirari hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool yumukuatata jumukuatata doubtful loan Tukanoan 'mingau' agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture itaki itaki if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
house other uca uka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Vallejos 2010:93-103 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Vallejos 2010:93-103 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Vallejos 2010:93-103 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Vallejos 2010:106-110 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Vallejos 2010:106-110 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Vallejos 2010:112 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Vallejos 2010:112 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Vallejos 2010:112 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no not likely Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no language is isolating Vallejos 2010:143 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Vallejos 2010:143 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Vallejos 2010:143 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Vallejos 2010:143 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no there is partial redup., but rare Vallejos 2010:153-154 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Vallejos 2010:153-154 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Vallejos 2010:155 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no not likely productive, but the author does not explicitly states it Vallejos 2010:155 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no not likely since language is isolating Vallejos 2010:155 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Vallejos 2010:402 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Vallejos 2010:160 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Vallejos 2010:42 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Vallejos 2010:42 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Vallejos 2010:42 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes =kana, =nu male speech, female speech Vallejos 2010:160 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no example (23b) marks inanimate Vallejos 2010:161 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no demonstratives used for definiteness Vallejos 2010:218 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Vallejos 2010:201 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no no verbal inflection Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 proximate/non-proximate Vallejos 2010:214 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Vallejos 2010:214 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no different sets of pronouns for male vs. female speech Vallejos 2010:201 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no different sets of pronouns for male vs. female speech Vallejos 2010:201 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Vallejos 2010:201-213 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Vallejos 2010:201-213 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Vallejos 2010:201-213 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Vallejos 2010:517-521 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 10 marked by postposition Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Vallejos 2010:518 Daniel Smith two types of dative markers: one for interlocutors and another for intralocutors
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes marked by postposition Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Vallejos 2010:279-304 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no =pu,=pupe=muki two instrumentals, one commitative Vallejos 2010:280-285 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes on nouns Vallejos 2010:426 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no no person inflection Vallejos 2010:426 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes proclitic on noun Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no author only discusses adj.-like VPs. Adj word class not apparent Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no author only discusses adj.-like VPs. Adj word class not apparent Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes -wara Vallejos 2010:230 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -n Vallejos 2010:234 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes -shka, -ra, -yara Vallejos 2010:385-393 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes marked by enclitic Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes immediate, medial and remote pasts Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes immediate and remote futures Vallejos 2010:478-481 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes =utsu, =a Vallejos 2010:478-481 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Vallejos 2010:473 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Vallejos 2010:548 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes tsani Vallejos 2010:559 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes ina prohibitive marked by a particle Vallejos 2010:561 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Vallejos 2010:492 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Vallejos 2010:492 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes =ray marked by enclitic Vallejos 2010:492 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Vallejos 2010:500 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes (=)mia marked by enclitic/particle Vallejos 2010:500 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Vallejos 2010:500 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes ukua habitual auxiliary Vallejos 2010:403 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes =era enclitic Vallejos 2010:485 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes =ía Vallejos 2010:494 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes ay, na two quotative particles Vallejos 2010:172 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Vallejos 2010:494 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Vallejos 2010:172 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SVO is pragmatically unmarked Vallejos 2010:466 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Vallejos 2010:466 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Vallejos 2010:466 Daniel Smith
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Vallejos 2010:466 Daniel Smith
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Vallejos 2010:466 Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Vallejos 2010:163,279-306 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Vallejos 2010:163,279-306 Daniel Smith
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Vallejos 2010:251 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Vallejos 2010:251 Daniel Smith
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no no adjective in Kokama Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no no adjective in Kokama Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Word Order Demonstrative-Noun yes Vallejos 2010:214-217 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Demonstrative no Vallejos 2010:214-217 Daniel Smith
Word Order Num-Noun yes Vallejos 2010:265 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Num no Vallejos 2010:265 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes RC can precede or follow the head noun Vallejos 2010:585 Daniel Smith
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes RC can precede or follow the head noun Vallejos 2010:586 Daniel Smith
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Vallejos 2010:584 Daniel Smith
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Daniel Smith
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Vallejos 2010:545 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no NPs are not marked for core cases Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no NPs are not marked for core cases Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no NPs are not marked for core cases Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no NPs are not marked for core cases Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no NPs are not marked for core cases Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes only in the 3rd person. Different forms for the 3rd person sg if an object Vallejos 2010:201 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no however, a pronoun may be optionally cliticized to the verb phonologically Vallejos 2010:210 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Vallejos 2010:210 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes a pronoun may be cliticized Vallejos 2010:210 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes only because Kokama has one set of pronouns that can have different functions Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes =tsui recipient is marked by a dative enclitic Vallejos 2010:524 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no recipient is marked by a dative enclitic Vallejos 2010:524 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no recipient is marked by a dative enclitic Vallejos 2010:524 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Vallejos 2010:336 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Vallejos 2010:336 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes -ka -ka marks several different related functions Vallejos 2010:336 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no Vallejos 2010:372 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Vallejos 2010:372 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Vallejos 2010:380 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Vallejos 2010:380 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes tɨma tɨma immediately precedes constituent Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no tɨma emete 'NEG exist' Vallejos 2010:446 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Vallejos 2010:537 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes =tipa Vallejos 2010:537 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) yes Vallejos 2010:537 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Vallejos 2010:537 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Vallejos 2010:544 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no no adjective in Kokama Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no no adjective in Kokama Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Vallejos 2010:423 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Vallejos 2010:583 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Vallejos 2010:567 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Vallejos 2010:567-665 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Vallejos 2010:567-665 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Vallejos 2010:567-665 Daniel Smith