Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no but they can be used as suffixes when there is a So Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 41-42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Pronominal subjects can be indicated with either prefixes or suffixes on the verb (for both transitives and intransitives). Suffixes only distinguish gender, not person, but there is no other indication that these are adjectives (not verbs). Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 802 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 203 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Prefix vs. suffix placement depends on transitivity status of the verb. Payne 1982:2324, 9096; Payne 1981:34 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Only for third person plural Duff-Tripp 1997:72 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:174 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Person markers are pro-clitics. Michael, 2008. p. 345 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Rowan 1978:vii Daniel Valle
Palikur no free pronouns Launey 2003:65 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes free pronouns only occur in the 1+3 and 3:COLL person, otherwise are suffixed Abbott 1991: 101 Melody Ann Ross See chart
Eñepa no Thomas Payne 1989:33; Thomas Payne 1995:295 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes Based on examples de Armellada 1999:19 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes in 0 anaphora constructions Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Not sure why some subject pronouns appear as prefixes and others as suffixes. This may be related to the particular caracteristics of each subject suffix individually. Frank 1990.7-8 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Always occur, even when free NPs are present. Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:328-31, 361-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:16, 59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1974:9 Daniel Valle
Matses no There is subject person agreement as part of a portmanteau suffix which also encodes tense Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.116 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes These pronominal subjects marked in the verb always occur with all verbs except with the subclass of transitive impersonal verbs Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:487 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979; p.62; 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31-32 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.108 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.114 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:170 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes often as a part of a portmanteau suffix West and Welch 2004: 10, 22; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes 3rd person dual and plural are often marked as a suffix, but most person markings are clitics preceding the verb Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples throughout
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):9 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:28-9, 46-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no Rossler 2008:73-74 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no s148-9 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 83 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 1 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 77 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 71 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 352 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 127 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 121 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 124 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 106 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 53-54 done 0
Martuthunira no 100-109 and 136-164 done 0
Marrgany No 335 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 399 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 36 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 124 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 342 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 52 done 0
Djinang No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 50-51 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 32 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 23-7 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 77 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 63-65 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 156-157 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 43 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 73 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 42 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 324 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 92 Done- 0
WesternTorres no K85c 82 done 0
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 106 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 55 done 1
Arrernte No 101 0
Kokatha No 65 0
Karajarri Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 22 0
Ritharrngu No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 5.2.5 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga Yes 74 done 1
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 77 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes O=So Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps