Makiritare

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mch
Location
4.71°, -64.39°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Escoriaza, Damián. Datos Linguisticos de la Lengua Makiritare. 1959. Hall, Katherine. 1988. The morphosyntax of discourse in De'kuana Carib. Ph.D. diss., Washington University in St. Louis. Hall, Katherine. Carib (De'cuana). 2007. In Mary R. Key, Intercontinental Dictionary Series.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location kawə̄ (IDS) kawə̄ (IDS) inheritance shared Wayana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
and y e grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment wedēnnə (IDS) wedēnnə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
back espalda costas body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bad mal mal quality kənemhɨnɨ (IDS) (Noun form; verbal form is koneʔda); kone'da (KH) (means 'bad, evil'), konemhünü (KH) kənemhɨnɨ (IDS); koneʔda (KH), konemhɨnɨ (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
belly barriga barriga body dudūnoi (IDS) (means 'stomach'); dudu:noi (KH) (means 'stomach') dudunoi doubtful loan, direction unknown Warekena nuneni See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
below abajo, debajo abaixo location doʔnə (IDS) doʔnə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
big grande grande quality nuwe (IDS); adai'hö (KH) (means 'big', 'large' and 'wide') nuwe (IDS); adaiʔhə (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
black negro preto colour hudumato (IDS, KH) hudumato inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
blood sangre sangue body munu (IDS, kH) (Also āki [IDS]) munu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bone hueso osso body yēʔhə (IDS); ye:'hö (KH) je:ʔhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
breast pecho, seno peito body ʔdohɨ-dɨ (IDS); iyohü:Udü (KH) ʔdohɨ-dɨ (IDS); ijohɨ:Udɨ (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
child niño, niña criança human nnedɨ (IDS); inñe:dü (KH), nnedü (KH) nnedɨ; inɲe:dɨ (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cloud nube nuvem environment kāʔdutu (IDS) kāʔdutu (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cold frío frio quality kəmme (IDS); kömme (KH) kəmme inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
day día dia time anə̄to (IDS); ano:to (KH) anə:to (IDS); ano:to (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dirty sucio sujo quality nossahe (IDS) nossahe (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dry seco seco quality ssedēhe (IDS); ssede:he (KH) ssede:he unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tuhuʔhūdato (IDS) tuhuʔhūdato (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dust polvo poeira environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ear oreja orelha body hāna (IDS); hana ha:na (IDS); hana (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
earth/soil tierra terra environment nono (IDS) nono (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
egg huevo ovo fauna iʔmoi (IDS); i'moi (KH) iʔmoi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
eye ojo olho body ənu (IDS); ye:nudu (KH) (means 'my eye'), önu (KH) je:nudu (KH), ənu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
far lejos longe quality amoinče (IDS) amoinče (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fat/grease grasa gordura body kātɨ (IDS); cha:tü (KH) (means 'animal fat') ka:tɨ (IDS); tʃa:tɨ (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
father padre, papá pai kinship haha (IDS); ha:ha (KH) haha (IDS); ha:ha (KH) doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
feather pluma pena fauna iʔhōʔtɨ (IDS); i'ho'tü (KH) (also means 'hair') iʔho:ʔtɨ (IDS); iʔhoʔtɨ (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fire fuego fogo environment wāʔto (IDS) (Also dudīnɲɨ); dudi:nñü, wa:'to (KH) dudi:nɲɨ (KH), wa:ʔto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
flower flor flor environment čə̄hɨdɨ (IDS) čə̄hɨdɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fruit fruta fruta flora čə̄hɨdɨ̄-hɨdɨ (IDS) čə̄hɨdɨ̄-hɨdɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
good bueno bom quality ašiča (IDS) aʃitʃa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body hū (IDS); hu: (KH) hu: inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hand mano mão body amō-dɨ (IDS); amo (KH) amo:-dɨ (IDS); amo (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tɨwɨ (IDS); tüwü (KH) (also means 'him/her') tɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
head cabeza cabeça body hūʔhə (IDS); hu:'hö (KH) (means 'my head') hu:ʔhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
heavy pesado pesado quality tamənɲato (IDS) tamənɲato (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
how? como como grammar ākene (IDS) ākene (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
1sg yo eu grammar ɨwɨ (IDS); üwü (KH) (also means 'me') ɨwɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
if si se grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location aʔka; anwaʔka (IDS) aʔka; anwaʔka (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
intestines intestinos intestinos body hyōtɨ (IDS) hyōtɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lake lago lago environment čūʔhə (IDS) čūʔhə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
leaf hoja folha environment yadɨ (IDS) jadɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
leg/foot pierna perna body hētɨ (IDS) hētɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
liver hígado figado body chö:dedü (KH) tʃə:dedɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
long largo comprido, longo quality nuwe (IDS) nuwe (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna dāmə (IDS); da:mö (KH) da:mə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
man/male hombre homem human danwa (IDS, KH) danwa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
meat/flesh carne carne fauna hyunu (IDS, KH) hjunu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
moon luna lua environment nūnə (IDS); nu:nö (KH) nu:nə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship denɨ (IDS) (Reference term. Term of address is mama) denɨ inheritance but cf. Arawak? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mouth boca boca body ənta (IDS); nta (KH), önta (KH) nta (KH), ənta (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
name nombre nome human tə̄tɨ (IDS) (call (=name)); ö:tü (KH) tə:tɨ (IDS); ə:tɨ (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
near/close cerca de perto quality amoinče-ʔdaɨ (IDS) amoinče-ʔdaɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
neck cuello pescoço body hɨ̄mɨɨ (IDS) hɨ̄mɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
new nuevo novo quality eduwa:to (KH) eduwa:to unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
night noche noite time čomomɨ̄dɨ (IDS); chomomü:dü (KH) tʃomomɨ:dɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
no/not no não grammar mmʔhmɨ (IDS) mmʔhmɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
nose nariz nariz body ənna (IDS); önna (KH) ənna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
old viejo velho quality henaʔdohə (IDS); inchomo (KH) (means 'old one'), de'mu (KH) (means 'white hair, elder person') henaʔdohə (IDS); inʃomo (KH), deʔmu (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
one uno um number tōni (IDS) to:ni inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
person/human being persona pessoa human ssoto (IDS) ssoto inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
rain lluvia chuva environment konōhoɨ (IDS) konōhoɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
red rojo vermelho colour seweičato (IDS) (also means 'ripe') seweitʃato (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
right/right hand derecha direita location/body əmuʔdemhɨnɨɨ (IDS) əmuʔdemhɨnɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
road/path camino caminho manufacture ə̄ma (IDS); ö:ma (KH) (means 'road, route, path') ə:ma inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
root raíz raiz flora missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
rotten podrido podre quality čə̄tāhəɨ (IDS) čə̄tāhəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sand arena areia environment sāʔdaʔda (IDS); sa:'da'da (KH) sa:ʔdaʔda unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ākə̄tədɨɨ (IDS) ākə̄tədɨɨ (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
short corto curto quality tawedatoɨ (IDS) tawedatoɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
shoulder hombro ombro body nkawəɨ (IDS) nkawəɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
skin piel pele body hiʔhə (IDS); hi'hö hiʔhə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sky cielo céu environment kahuɨ (IDS) kahuɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
small pequeño pequeno quality šeʔkə (IDS); she:'kö, she:'koto'kö (KH) ʃeʔkə (IDS); ʃe:ʔkə, ʃe:ʔkotoʔkə (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
smoke humo fumaça environment widīnčə (IDS); widi:nchö (KH) (also means 'vapor') widi:ntʃə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
star estrella estrela environment šidīčə (IDS); shidi:chö (KH) ʃidi:tʃə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora dēɨ (IDS) dēɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stone piedra pedra environment təʔhu (IDS) təʔhu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tail cola, rabo rabo body dāʔkɨdɨ (IDS); da:'küdü (KH) da:ʔkɨdɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tɨnwano (IDS); tünwanno, ka:nno (KH) (also them) tɨnwano (IDS); tɨnwanno, ka:nno (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality hūšīheɨ (IDS) hūšīheɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
thin delgado fino quality sāʔtaheɨ (IDS) sāʔtaheɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
this este/esta este grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
2sg xx xx grammar əmədə (IDS); ömö:dö (KH) əmədə (IDS); əmə:də (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
three tres tres number aduwawə (IDS); a:duwa:wö (KH) aduwawə (IDS); a:duwa:wə (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
thunder truenos trovão environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bite morder morder body ēkādɨ (IDS) ēkādɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
blow soplar soprar body yaičumā-dɨ (IDS) yaičumā-dɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
burn quemar queimar environment transitive: ukā-dɨ; intransitive: daʔtwa-dɨ (IDS) transitive: ukā-dɨ; intransitive: daʔtwa-dɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
climb subir subir motion -annuʔku- (IDS) -annuʔku- (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
come venir vir motion w-eʔ-nə (IDS) w-eʔ-nə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cook cocinar cozinhar impact -aʔnə (IDS) -aʔnə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cry llorar chorar mental w-amo-nə (IDS) w-amo-nə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cut/hack cortar cortar impact čūhiya-dɨ; yaʔka-dɨ (IDS) čūhiya-dɨ; yaʔka-dɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
die/be dead morir morrer state #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dig cavar cavar impact tɨʔkādɨ (IDS) tɨʔkādɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dream soñar sonhar mental wənētɨnə (IDS) wənētɨnə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
drink beber, tomar beber body enku (IDS) enku inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
eat comer comer body wowašīnčənə (IDS); wowashi:nchönö (KH) wowashi:ntʃənə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fall caer cair motion w-eduka-nə (IDS) w-eduka-nə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fear miedo medo mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fly volar voar motion wede:wede (KH) wede:wede unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hear oír ouvir mental eta:dü (KH) eta:dɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -aiʔhuka-dɨ (IDS) -aiʔhuka-dɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
kill matar matar impact aminɲaʔkadɨ (IDS) (Also ema-dɨ); aminña'kadü (KH) aminɲaʔkadɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental t-owanəkə t-ɨdɨ-dɨ (IDS) t-owanəkə t-ɨdɨ-dɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
laugh reír rir mental waʔsenɲo (IDS) waʔsenɲo (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body wenɲə (IDS) wenɲə (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact -aiʔhuka-dɨɨ (IDS) -aiʔhuka-dɨɨ (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
see ver ver mental ene-dɨ (IDS); ene:dü (KH) (means 'to see, know) ene-dɨ (IDS); ene:dɨ (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact t-ɨwə̄-dɨɨ (IDS) t-ɨwə̄-dɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sit sentar(se) sentar state w-atahhimā-nəɨ (IDS) w-atahhimā-nəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sleep dormir dormir body w-ɨnɨʔ-nə (IDS); wü:nküno (KH) w-ɨnɨʔ-nə (IDS); wɨ:nkɨno (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hyoʔhōdɨɨ (IDS) hyoʔhōdɨɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact eʔkukā-dɨɨ (IDS) eʔkukā-dɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
swell hincharse inchar body awonɲəʔkādɨɨ (IDS) awonɲəʔkādɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
swim nadar nadar motion tɨwəʔhiyɨ (IDS) (Also hənɨn-nə; and tɨwəʔhiyɨ, with the sense of bathe, swim); tüwö'hiyü (KH) (also means 'to bathe') tɨwəʔhijɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
think pensar pensar mental tɨtahə-nəɨ (IDS) tɨtahə-nəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact himā-dɨɨ (IDS) himā-dɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact imɨdɨɨ (IDS) imɨdɨɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
vomit vomitar vomitar body wenaʔtahəʔeʔnəɨ (IDS) wenaʔtahəʔeʔnəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
walk caminar, andar andar motion w-ōhoyma-nə (IDS) (Also īʔčə̄dɨ); wo:hoimanö (KH), hüdüi (KH) (means 'stop, bet, parade, walk) w-o:hojma-nə (IDS); wo:hoimanə (KH), hɨdɨi (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
work trabajar trabalhar other tadawāhuɨ (IDS) tadawāhuɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tongue lengua lingua body ɲūdu (IDS); ñu:du (KH) ɲu:du inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tooth diente dente body dedɨ (IDS); dedü (KH) dedɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
two dos dois number āʔkə (IDS); a:kö (KH) a:ʔkə (IDS); a:kə (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
water agua agua environment tuna (IDS, KH) tuna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kɨnwanno (includes more than one listener); künwanno (KH) (also means 'su') kɨnwanno (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar kɨwɨ (IDS) (speaker + 1 listener) kɨwɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wet mojado molhado quality ennüichahö (KH) (means 'soaking') ennɨitʃahə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
what? que, qué que grammar ākene (IDS); a:kene (KM) (also means how), önekö:mü (KH) a:kene (KM), ənekə:mɨ (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
when? cuando quando grammar əičənnāwəkəɨ (IDS) əičənnāwəkəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
where? donde onde grammar ə̄išaɨ (IDS) ə̄išaɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white blanco branco colour təʔkeʔne (IDS); tö'ke'ne, tö'kena:to (KH) təʔkeʔne, təʔkena:to inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
who? quien, quién quem grammar ənə̄kɨ (IDS) ənə:kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wife esposa esposa kinship missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wind viento vento environment hehēnčəɨ (IDS) hehēnčəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wing ala asa body ahəʔsaiɨ (IDS) ahəʔsaiɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
woman/female mujer mulher human wodi (IDS, KH) wodi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kɨnota (IDS) kɨnota inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ənwanno (IDS); önwanno (KH) ənwanno inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
foot pie body hūdu (IDS); u'hu (KH) hu:du (IDS); uʔhu (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar dea (IDS) dea (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
all todo todos other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lung pulmón pulmão body ʔtaway-dɨ (IDS) ʔtaway-dɨ (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bark corteza casca environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fingernail uña unha body əmmi (IDS); ömmi (KH) (also means 'claw') əmmi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
heart corazón coração body yēwanɨ (IDS); chö:wanü (KH) (means 'his heart') je:wanɨ (IDS); tʃə:wanɨ (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sun sol sol time šī (IDS); shi: (KH) ʃi: inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment hɨ̄ (IDS); hü: (KH), chu (KH) (means 'mountain', 'forest') hɨ:; tʃu (KH) inheritance; unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
green verde verde quality šēne (IDS) (Same as 'blue'); she:ne, she:'na'to (KH) (means 'green, blue, not ripe') ʃe:ne, ʃe:ʔnaʔto (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hot caliente quente quality taʔne (IDS); ta:'ne (KH) (also means 'warm') taʔne (IDS); ta:ʔne (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. adu:du (small flying animal, like a bat) (KH) adu:du (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. shahoko (KH); ka:'shai ʃahoko; ka:ʔʃai inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tu'kui (KH) tuʔkui inheritance See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kadu:wai kadu:wai unknown possible %ara form? See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica dodo (IDS) (Probably from Spanish 'loro'. Other kinds of parrots are kayʔčay; kudēwa); dodo (KH) kai'chai (KH), kadu:wai (KH) (means 'macaw, large parrot') dodo, kaiʔtʃai (KH), kadu:wai (KH) doubtful loan from Span or Arawak? See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae hadūma (IDS); hadu:ma (KH) hadu:ma loan Spanish paloma See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae hiyāna (IDS); hiya:na (KH) hija:na inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kudūmu (IDS) (Refers to 'black vulture'); kada:kada:di (KH) (means 'king volture' - Sarcoramphus papa) kudu:mu (IDS); kada:kada:di (KH) inheritance cf. TG urubu See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family hātu (IDS) (From Spanish 'pato'); ha:tu (KH) ha:tu loan Spanish See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae wana:di (KH) wana:di semantic shift believed to be spirit of Wanadi, creator; compare Arawak forms resembling kuwai See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris sɨ̄ʔna (IDS); sü:'na (KH) (also means 'wolf') sɨ:ʔna loan Arawak See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) hömu:kö (KH) həmu:kə unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kahaw (KH); ötü:kö (KH) (means 'small armadillo') kahaw (KH); ətɨ:kə (KH) inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wade'da'ta (KH) wadeʔdaʔta unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. missing See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna nākukwāno (IDS) ( Refers to fish in the water; lit. 'people who live in the river'. Fish caught and out of the river is oʔtāho); na:kukwa:no (KH) na:kukwa:no unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ka:'shai (KH) ka:ʔʃai unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. kudi:di (KH) (means 'catfish') kudi:di loan direction unknown Arawak (Achagua) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kudi:di (KH) (means 'catfish') kudi:di loan direction unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kawaw, tudu:du (KH) kawaw, tudu:du (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. yama:nadi (KH) jama:nadi loan - WW %tʃamana, from North Arawak (cf. -li) See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata asü:kü (KH) asɨ:kɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura sada:kani (KH) (also means 'crayfish') sada:kani inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae monse (KH) monse (KH) doubtful loan cf. Arawak *maʔnu forms See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna əkə̄yu (IDS) (Also tadādwēmə); ökö:yu (KH) əkə:ju inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox künno'to (KH) (means 'poisonous snake') kɨnnoʔto unique See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria heʔde (IDS) (Means 'turtle'); he'de (KH) heʔde inheritance See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) wade:ku: (KH) wade:ku: unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens homi (KH) homi inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus wana:deke (KH) wana:deke inheritance cognate Mapoyo, Carijona? See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. hadu:du (KH) hadu:du inheritance? See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) wanaʔ (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ənɲa (IDS) ənɲa inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum kawai (IDS) ( Also čāwaiʔčɨ, 3rd person possessed form); ka:wai (KH) kawai (IDS); ka:wai (KH) doubtful loan into protolanguage possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna dē (IDS); de: (KH), chu:ta (KH) de:, tʃu:ta (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana wiʃu wiʃu inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing See Language page large tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia şoka 'monkey grape' şoka 'monkey grape' cf. puruma in Kariña See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kɨdēde (IDS) kɨde:de (IDS); jada:di (KH) inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum šāku (IDS); sha:ku (KH) ʃa:ku inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas šāku (IDS); sha:ku (KH) ʃa:ku inheritance See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) etü:dötoho (KH) (means 'sacred calabash, gourd'), kankudu (KH) (means 'gourd') etɨ:dətoho (KH), kankudu (KH) unique See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. weyama (KH) (means 'large gourd or pumpkin') wejama (KH) inheritance See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. wö:'nö (KH) (means 'fiber cord or twine used in making baskets') wə:ʔnə missing See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata ya:kö (KH) (means 'large ant') ja:kə (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis wannə (IDS); wannö (KH) wannə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera matūtu (IDS); matu:tu (KH) matu:tu loan, direction unknown Sikuani See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora motto (IDS) (Means 'worm') ('earthworm [KH]); mutu (KH) (means 'worm, maggot') moto (IDS); mutu (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones mɨnə̄tə (IDS); münö:tö (KH) mɨnə:tə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea kata:tadu (KH) kata:tadu (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae shidishidi (KH) ʃidiʃidi inheritance? onomatopoeic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita sūnwa (IDS) su:nwa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda memu (IDS, KH) memu inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae modoy (IDS) (Refers to a spider that doesn't bite); yadakadu:hwai (KH) (means spider that bites') modoj (IDS); jadakadu:hwai (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ma:do/mado (KH) ma:do/mado (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha yadākadu (IDS) (Means 'monkey'), yada:kadu (KH) (means 'monkey') jada:kadu unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] adawa'ta (KH) (means 'araguato monkey) adawaʔta inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae dawāde (IDS); dawa:de (KH) dawa:de inheritance - WW %jawari See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis ña:ñudi (KH) ɲa:ɲudi unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari du'kadi (KH) duʔkadi unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kidi'shu (KH) kidiʔʃu unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. aha:dadi (KH) aha:dadi (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris yüwü:dü (KH) jɨwɨ:dɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus asɨ̄kɨ (IDS); asü:kü (KH) asɨ:kɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kadi:yu (KH) kadi:ju inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wa'shadi (KH) waʔʃadi inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kawādi (IDS); kawa:di (KH) kawa:di doubtful loan Arawak; cf. also Hoti See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material wɨ̄wa (IDS); wü:wa (KH) wɨ:wa unique cf. Yanomaman See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material wɨ̄wa (IDS); wü:wa (KH) wɨ:wa missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material mayūdu (IDS): mayu:du (KH) maju:du loan Arawak, see Warekena majúlu See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material öwa'tö, ö:'wa'tö (KH) əwaʔtə, ə:ʔwaʔtə (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material āʔtəy (IDS) (Means 'chair' and 'bench'; also mūde); a:'töi (KH) a:ʔtəj (IDS); a:ʔtəi (KH) doubtful loan North Arawak, e.g. Baniwa éedai See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
canoe canoa canoa transport [kanowa] (IDS) (From 'canoa' (canoe). Also kudiyāda) kanowa doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology hü'wai, kade:hu (KH), aichu:di eda:mo (KH) (means 'healing specialist (of blowing)) hɨʔwai, kade:hu (KH), aitʃu:di eda:mo (KH) inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology unknown Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology womɨ (IDS); womü (KH) (also means 'dress, garments') womɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
firewood leña lenha other -keme-dɨ (IDS) -keme-dɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kahūšawa (IDS) kahu:ʃawa inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology wanādi (IDS) (Means "God") wana:di unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology hīču (IDS); hi:chu (KH) hi:tʃu unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology ai'chüdi (KH) (means 'song', 'chant'), wayha:ma (KH) (song for the innauguration of a house) aiʔtʃɨdi (KH), wajha:ma (KH) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kɨmɨʔkə (IDS); kümü'kö (KH) kɨmɨʔkə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
machete machete facão culture-material kümü (KH) kɨmɨ unique cf. East Tukanoan kõbẽ 'axe' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wɨ̄wɨ (IDS) (means 'axe') wɨ:wɨ inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool šimāda (IDS); shima:da (KH) ʃima:da loan Arawak, cf. Wapishana sumara hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sukuhi (IDS), yaichadü (KH) sukuhi (IDS); jaitʃadɨ (KH) loan; unknown Yanomaman See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bow arco arco subsistence tool šimāda ehɨ̄dɨ (IDS); shima:da ehu:du (KH) ʃima:da ehɨ:dɨ (IDS); ʃima:da ehu:du (KH) unique built from loan, see 'arrow' arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
paddle/oar remo remo transport hēna (IDS); he:na (KH) he:na unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
plate plato prato culture-material hada:hi (KH) hada:hi loan, direction unknown - WW %parapi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ədinɲə (IDS) (Also hadankāna, 'pot, jar'); ödi:nñö (KH) (means 'pot' and 'jar'), höhö (KH) (means 'pot, jar') ədinɲə (IDS); ədi:nɲə (KH), həhə (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool hüta:di (KH) (means 'griddle, skillet') hɨta:di (KH) unknown agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool tu:nu:nu (white medicinal resin) (KH) tu:nu:nu unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
honey miel mel food missing only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material təʔhu (IDS) (means 'stone' or 'rock'); tö'hu (KH) (means 'rock') təʔhu missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture āʔtoɨ (IDS) āʔtoɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology iʔhōʔtɨ (IDS) iʔho:ʔtɨ missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology wānai (IDS) wa:nai See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
school escuela escola acculturation wo:wanomatoho (KH) wo:wanomatoho (KH) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bottle botella garrafa acculturation hote:ya (KH) hote:ja (KH) loan Spanish See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
paper papel papel acculturation hahe:da (KH) hahe:da (KH) loan Span/Port 'papel' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology wənētɨnə (IDS) wəne:tɨnə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
chicken gallina galinha acculturation wamēdi (IDS) wame:di unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Spanish See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ëši:ča:dï (sugar cane) (KH) ëʃi:tʃa:dï (sugar) (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material oðaʔkuëkëno (skirt separate from dress), muwa:hu (skirt) oðaʔkuëkëno (skirt separate from dress), muwa:hu (skirt) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
cat gato gato acculturation mēši (IDS) me:ʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation waitʃa waitʃa unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ədāhə(IDS), ëda:hë(KH) əda:hə unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
salt sal sal food sayu (IDS); sa :yu (KH) saju (IDS); sa:ju (KH) loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ay'chudi (KH) ʔajʔtʃudi unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool kuda:ta (KH) kuda:ta inheritance currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool ku:nwa (KH) ku:nwa (KH) inheritance hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wadi-wadi (IDS); wadiwadi (KH) wadi-wadi (IDS); wadiwadi (KH) inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food a:da:di (KH) a:da:di (KH) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hunt cazar caçar food emanɲuhɨdɨ (IDS); össe (KH() (also means 'hunting party'), tönö:mö aminñökatoho (KH) (means 'hunting gear') emanɲuhɨdɨ (IDS); əsse (KH), tənə:mə aminɲəkatoho (KH) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool etü:dötoho (KH) (means 'sacred calabash, gourd'), kankudu (KH) (means 'gourd') etɨ:dətoho (KH), kankudu (KH) unknown; doubtful loan %koto/matoko See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture yada:di (KH) yada:di (KH) doubtful loan - WW %jalaki prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ssuku:taka; yo:'küdü (KH) (means 'his manioc meal or mush'), akai'chadü (KH) (means 'to make manioc flour (mañoco) by rubbing) ssuku:taka; yo:ʔkɨdɨ (KH), akaiʔtʃadɨ (KH) inheritance; unknown North Arawak agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food kɨdēde (IDS) kɨde:de unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tünküi (KH), amu:tu (KH) (means 'reeds for making a manioc-squeezer') tɨnkɨi (KH), amu:tu (KH) inheritance; unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool mana:de (woven basket for sifting manioc flour) mana:de (woven basket for sifting manioc flour) inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool kadaihyai (river spider used for fish bait) (KH) kadaihjai unknown can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ha'hi (KH) (means 'fish net'); ssodo'ha (KH) haʔhi (KH); ssodoʔha (KH) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
house other mmā (IDS); ümmai (KH) (means 'my house') mma: (IDS); ɨmmai (KH) inheritance cf. Wai Wai See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Hall 1988: 214 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Hall 1988 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Hall 1988:215; 255 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Hall 1988:257, 265 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no only nasals, semivowels and the glottal Hall 1988: 214-258, 264 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Hall 1988: 214-259 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Escoriaza 1959 Amanda Meeks
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Hall 1988: 270 Melody Ann Ross
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes certain forms involve marking both agent and patient Hall 1988: 151 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Hall 1988: 313 Melody Ann Ross
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes "Verb stems are composed of verbal or nominal roots, thematic affixes and transitivity markers. Verb stems are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect mood and negation. Transitivity affixes mark reflexive, reciprocal, passive and causative forms. Sub Hall 1988: 331 - 335 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no person markers, tense, aspect and mood are suffixes Hall 1988: 331 - 335 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes person markers, tense, aspect and mood are suffixes Hall 1988: 331 - 335 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no "Suffixation and justaposition are the two most productive morphosyntactic processes" Hall 1988: 331 - 335 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no no evidence so far- this does not seem to be very common in any Carib lgs Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Occurs most often with adjectives and demonstratives. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:11-14 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info no mention of N compounding Hall 1988 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Hall 1988: 339, 341 Melody Ann Ross Ex. (35)b. Also, subordinate verbs DO have a marker (p. 341-2)
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Hall 1988:340-341 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:16 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Auxiliaries are forms of 'to go' and 'to be' Hall 1988: 335 Melody Ann Ross
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no "While noun incorporation occurs in De'kwana, it does not appear as a currently productive process." Hall 1988: 323 Melody Ann Ross
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes "..two major morphosyntactic classes marked by the suffixes -dü and -i and several minor classes" Hall 1988: 288 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 author refers to classes that only differ in the possessed form Hall 1988: 288 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no no noun classifiers Hall 1988: 291-292 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Hall 1988: 287 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Hall 1988: 287 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no "Demonstrative pns occur in both animate and inanimate forms"; not in noun classification Hall 1988: 281 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Gender is not distinguished even in the 3rd person. Hall 1988: 282; Escoriaza 1959:12 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:9-11 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:9-11 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Hall 1988: 303 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Escoriaza 1959 Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Hall 1988: 306 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -tomo, -komo, -dü, -i Hall 1988: 306 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Hall 1988: 306 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Hall 1988: 306 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Hall 1988: 306 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no "The plural suffix occurs less often with inanimate nouns" Hall 1988: 307 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Hall 1988: 282 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Hall 1988: 101-3, 282-3 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross No mention in either source of any definite or indefinite articles
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info author does not discuss definiteness Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes künwannno, ñña künwanno, ñña incl., excl. Hall 1988:282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Hall 1988:282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 proximal, medial, distal for sing. and pl. Hall 1988: 101-3, 282-3 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Hall 1988: 283 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no S and O are highlighted by word order- not morphemic Hall 1988: 65-68 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 1 "There is no overt morphological marking to signal the genetive relationship beyond the word order itself" Hall 1988: 49 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Hall 1988: 296-297 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Case marked by independent postpositions Hall 1988: 287-300 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes 5 = one hand, 10 = both hands Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes base 20 Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes 5 = one hand Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks "two" functions as a postposition meaning 'with' in the sense of accompaniment, the word for zero occurs as a sentence-level negation marker.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Hall 1988: 301, also B.2.5 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no person markers on possessed nominals, verbs and postpositions Hall 1988:284 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Hall 1988: 292 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Hall 1988: 292 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Hall 1988: 361-371 Melody Ann Ross Examples from texts
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Hall 1988: 361-371 Melody Ann Ross Examples from texts
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Hall 1988: 292 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Hall 1988: 104 Melody Ann Ross "seem to be partially nominal in origin"
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Hall 1988: 329 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Recent past: completive: -i, incompletive: -anö; Distant past: completive: -ne, incompletive: -akene Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Hall 1988: 329 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Non past: -a; Future: immediative: -ta, probabilitive: -tai; non past: -a; future immediative: -ta; future probabilitive: -tai Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Non past: -a; Future: immediative: -ta, probabilitive: -tai; non past: -a; future immediative: -ta; future probabilitive: -tai Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Hall 1988: 330 Melody Ann Ross No evidence for suppletion included in source
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes -kö Hall 1988: 346 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info Hall 1988: 346 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Similar semantics are conveyed by using the future tense, but there is no evidence of the hortative morpheme. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:16 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes iterative: -hö, abilitative: -hai, negative: -'da, futurative: -'de, desiderative: -se, imperative: -kö, permissive: -ñoho Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Hall 1988: 336 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes iterative: -hö, abilitative: -hai, negative: -'da, futurative: -'de, desiderative: -se, imperative: -kö, permissive: -ñoho Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes -i only an irrealis marker Hall 1988: 204, 341, 358, 382 Melody Ann Ross No realis marker, only irrealis
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Hall 1988: 172 Daniel Smith Not sure what's going on here- abcorporeal movement as a transitivizer?
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no The semantics of evidentials are conveyed by word choice. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no The semantics of evidentials are conveyed by word choice. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes ke ke reportative particle Hall 1988:354 Daniel Smith No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no The semantics of evidentials are conveyed by word choice. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes -to, -cho, -ñe Hall 1988: 333-334 Melody Ann Ross
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV order is the dominant order, but others are allowed Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Hall 1988: 48 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Hall 1988: 46 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Hall 1988: 46 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Hall 1988: 46 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Hall 1988: 48 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Hall 1988: 48 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Hall 1988: 42 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Hall 1988: 42 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Hall 1988: 52 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Hall 1988: 52 Daniel Smith
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Hall 1988: 50 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Noun-Dem no Hall 1988: 50 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Num-Noun yes Hall 1988: 52 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Noun-Num no Hall 1988: 52 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Hall 1988: 53 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Hall 1988: 53 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Hall 1988: 53 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Hall 1988: 53 Melody Ann Ross
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Hall 1988: 54 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no no core case marking on full NPs Hall 1988:44 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no no core case marking on full NPs Hall 1988:44 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no no core case marking on full NPs Hall 1988:44 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no no core case marking on full NPs Hall 1988:44 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no no core case marking on full NPs Hall 1988:44 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Escoriaza 1959:14-15 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Escoriaza 1959:14-15 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Escoriaza 1959:14-15 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Escoriaza 1959:14-15 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive yes Hall 1988:123 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Hall 1988:150 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive yes Hall 1988:150 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) yes Hall 1988:152 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes free pronouns can occur Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Hall 1988: 287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Hall 1988: 285 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes agent prefixes Hall 1988: 287 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes patient prefixes Hall 1988: 287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Escoriaza 1959:15 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes 3rd person patient is 0 marker Hall 1988:287 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes Escoriaza 1959:11-14 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no some prefixes are shared (1st and 2nd sing.) The rest are different Escoriaza 1959:11-15 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Hall 1988:81 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Hall 1988:81 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Escoriaza 1959 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no -t- Hall 1988: 173 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no -t- Hall 1988: 173 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes -t- Hall 1988: 173 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes t- -ho circumfix Escoriaza 1959:15 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Escoriaza 1959:15 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Escoriaza 1959 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Escoriaza 1959 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Hall 1988: 127 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -wö Hall 1988: 128 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Hall 1988: 129 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Hall 1988: 130 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Hall 1988: 131 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Hall 1988: 132 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes noun incorporation Hall 1988 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes a:'ke Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -da, -hünü Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes a:'ke *Word for zero is a sentence level negation marker Hall 1988: 303 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes 'da Hall 1988: 300, 387 Melody Ann Ross example sentence on pg. 300; gloss on 387 gives 'da as 'no one knows' as well as negation marker
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes ka Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross Example sentences seem to indicate that polar questions can take rising intonation OR interrogative particle- see pg. 344
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no rising intonation for polar questions is optional Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Hall 1988: 78 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Hall 1988: 78 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Hall 1988: 351-352 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Hall 1988: 351-352 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Hall 1988: 351-352 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes -dü Verb forms are nominalized with the suffix -dü and may be marked w/ person prefixes and temporal suffixes. Hall 1988: 351 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -se Hall 1988: 336 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Hall 1988:349 Melody Ann Ross "There is generally an assumption that the subject of the first verb will be the subject of verbs that have the same person/number agreement in subsequent clauses unless otherwise indicated."
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
6000 large AG medium sedentary