Contrastive tones

Phonology - Suprasegmental
Note how many contrastive tones


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino 0 Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 16 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes 2 contrastive tones Allin, 1976, p. 72 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 8 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Yukuna no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 1-14 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi notes that the pitch accent of Baniwa is reduced to an "accent of intensity." Mosonyi, 1987: p. 25-26 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes 2 tones. Phonemic 'stress' (one syllable per word, so primary stress) is realized with high pitch more than with intensity. Mansen, 1967: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald 2003 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1980:710 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:14-18 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Fast 1953:191-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Souza 2008 says that it is still unknown Souza 2008:63 Daniel Valle
Baure no info more likely not Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes 2 (low and high) Seifart - 2005:39-43 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 140-148 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012:41-66 Daniel Smith
Pemon no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith Daniel Smith
Naso yes high, low Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith high and low limited to a small set
Ika no more likely not Frank 1990:10-18 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes two tones:low and high Margery 1982:37-8 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:42 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:19-115 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no more likely not Aguirre 1999:16-26; Mortensen 1999:4-8 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no Saint and Pike1959:4-17 Daniel Valle more likely not
Ingá no Levinson 1976:19-32 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:69-203 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.85 Daniel Valle tone differences are correlate to main stres and secondary stress
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes First time I hear that Quechua has tones. But the author says that there are "four tonal levels" Parker 1965:11-6 Daniel Valle
Tikuna 5 Montes (2005:130) notes that Tikuna has three contrastive tones Montes 2000:296 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:120-3 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Loewen 1954 Daniel Valle
Andoke 3 Landaburu 1979, p.48 Kelsey Neely high, low, mid
Puinave yes (4 types: low, high, ascendent and descendent) Giron 2008: p104 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 83 to 94 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños tone is a prosodic feature
Kaingang no Cavalcante 1987 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. Daniel Smith not indicated/expected
Hup yes 2 tone contrasts Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004:13-15 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes high tone always falls on stressed syllable, others are mid and low, stress/accent pattern Miller 1999, p.15 Amanda Novak The phonological word is composed of one to five syllables with one pricipal stress.
Cubeo yes low, mid, high and 1 Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 6 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack According to Chacón 2012, there are high, mid, low and contour tones in Kubeo
Kotiria yes H and HL Stenzel 2004, p. 83 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes 2; high and low Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p. 27 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack Animal parts and human parts are distinguished only by tonal differences.
Koreguaje yes There are two tone levels in Coreguaje, high and low. Gralow & Cook 1984, p.3-4. Cook '93, p.11 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack some suffixes have alternative ways that are inexplicable from the current structures of tone and emphasis.
Barasano yes 2 contrastive tones; High and High-Low. Gomez-Imbert, p.1 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Stressed syllables often occur with raised pitch.(high/low level) Strom 1992, p.13 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:20-21 Daniel Valle
Tukano 3 Ramirez 1997: 68 Kelsey Neely these appear to be underlying tones, not surface tones
Yanomami no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes There a four tones: low, mid, high and extra high. Bontkes and Bontkes 2009:13 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:107-34 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:39 Daniel Valle
Aché no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 2-5 done 0
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no n65 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh no Y? 0
Yorta Yorta no done 0
Yir Yoront no Done-Dan 0
Yindjibarndi no 10 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 19-20 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu no not yet 0
Yalarnnga no 9, 10, 11 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 62 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu no 35 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 21 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 16 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 6 to 7 done 0
Uradhi No 322 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 42 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no d30-4 done 0
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa No 44 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 10-36 Done-Dan 0
Mpakwithi no 0
Mayi-Yapi no 25 done 0
Martuthunira no 25-50 done 0
Marrgany No 295 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 384 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna no done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 5-6b Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 47 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 41 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no Done-Amalia 0
Gupapuyngu no 0
Gumbaynggirr no xix done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 74 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 2 0
Dyirbal no 274 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 22 done 0
Djinang No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay no done 0
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharuk no 0
Dharawal no done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Ngarinyin no 0
Yulparija No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 67 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 67 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 25 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 7 done 0
Katthang no 27 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 130-135 done 0
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 2 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 295 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 14 Done- 0
WesternTorres no K81 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 8 done 0
Arrernte No 76 0
Kokatha No 25 0
Karajarri No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 27 0
Ritharrngu No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 13-9 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no 9, 10, 11 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 36 Y2 0
Narungga No 39 done 0
Tharrkari No 5 0
Wajarri No 31 0
Warungu no 1 0
Adnyamathanha no Y2 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith not likely
Baniwa yes high; rising=high on second mora of long V Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps