Nyangumarta

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
nna
Location
-20.50°, 122.21°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ngali inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ngañcurru inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngaju inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nyuntu waraja inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar jana inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar paliny inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location kankarni inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar yarrana unknown Claire Bowern
all todo todos other wirr inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar pa inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body luku inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ngalkuny inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental kurntany inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment 4842 doubtful loan Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ji unknown Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body 4913 unique Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality kurlu inheritance Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanka inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body pirlu inheritance CHECK Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kaniny-karti inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality 4407 inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body pajinaku inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour warrukurla loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body pijirri unknown Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body puyu-pini- (V3) inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality nurta inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body kunyja inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture 4717 inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body 4835 inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body 5200 unknown Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment kampana inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body japaly pini (V3) loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human partany inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion karntinyaku inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment 5200 inheritance Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality warri unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion kurtaliyi unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kamparna inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental [missing] missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ngangkurla inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact wirrkala unknown Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state 4805 unknown Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact karla inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna wartaji inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality 4397 inheritance Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental pitany yana- (V5) inheritance Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body minypila inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality 3870 inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment kurlurlu unknown Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body kurlka inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment warrarn inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body ngananya inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna mitya inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body 4062 loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body purta inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion pungka inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality kaja inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body 3903 loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship japartu inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental wirnti loan Ngumpin-Yapa Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna wirru inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment wika unique Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna kapi inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion warrki-rni (2) unknown Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment pupu unknown Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion warrayi loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment japurr inheritance Claire Bowern
foot pie body jina inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora kalyawari unique Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality ngalypa unknown Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state 4550 unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mampu inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body parirri inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body jinturtu inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental pinakarra inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality purtuly unknown Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion [missing] missing Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wilana- (V2) Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact wilala parirriju inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other 4707 Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar wayirti unique Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kaninykarti Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body jarru inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body mirri-mirri unknown Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact panipungkanya unknown Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental miranu inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment 9427 inheritance Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental juka mana- (V3) Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment parrka loan Ngarluma Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jampukarti Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body jina inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kartakarra unknown Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment marrji-marrji inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ralyu-ralyu inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality makanu unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna parlu inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body ralyu-ralyu inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human 5200 inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kuwi inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment mujungu loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 4452 inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body jawa inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human 9170 inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ngalyi inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality wangka unknown Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body ngalyi inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality kuwarrija inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time 4134 loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar munu Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body 5200 inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality 4217 unknown Claire Bowern
one uno um number waraja inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other kurta-rna (2) unknown Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar yajungu doubtful loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human 10127 unknown Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body nyimil doubtful loan Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment 3906 inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour mijimiji unknown Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body jirumpu Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture rutu loan Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora karlka unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality puka unknown Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment jungka inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental muwarr Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirirr inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental parrjala unknown Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yiri (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ruwi_x001E_ unique Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality murlku inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body lirnpi inheritance Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body wurrku (parraparra) inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state kajala unknown Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body karnu inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment parlparr inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body kartakarra, kupalya unknown Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality wupartu loan Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body parntila inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment jungan inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body janga inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact yilyu Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact junyi-rni unknown Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wararr karrinyi- (V1) inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment panikata inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment warnku inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body nguma-rna unknown Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time janja unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body jirrmirl inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body rapurapu unique Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion nyimurljarra inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body wipu loan Wati Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar pala inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality winya Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality wililiny Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental kurlkari mana (V3) Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar wangka inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number wirrpamarta Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body ngalyi inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact parnpili unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment katurany unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact karrpi-rni inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jarliny inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body rirra inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality 4561 inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other [missing] missing Claire Bowern
two dos dois number kujarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body karupini- (V3) Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion marti inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment wanayirti inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality wirna loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar ngani inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyanga inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanyjarni inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour mirta-mirta unknown Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar nganurtu inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship nyurni managulu Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wangal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body wirru unknown Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human mirtawa inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other warrkam(u) loan English Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body ngarla inheritance Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour jungkarrjungkarr unknown Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis parrjaniny parrjaniny loan direction unknown Yawuru underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae karlarla-karlarla karlarla-karlarla loan direction unknown Yulparija reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus pilarri pilarri loan direction unknown Pilbara underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora jakarli jakarli semantic shift pearlshell (misidentification?) WW %tyakuli underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia mirtarra mirtarra loan Yulparija 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba wirraju wirraju inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer manti manti inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp jarti carti loan Pilbara WW underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris jiri inheritance WW or inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kaparrku kaparrku unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae japayipayi capayipayi unique reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus wirnti ngirriny wirnti ngirriny unique phrase 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis muŋkaliny inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri pirlawarl pirlawarl loan Nyulnyulan WW %pilawal unknown 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae kurrikala kurrikala unique unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lungkurta lungkurta inheritance WW WW %lungkurt underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii karruwarlkan karruwarlkan loan Warnman unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurturr kurturr inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula marlalparra marlalparra unique unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) jirrpirn jirrpirn unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius wirluru wirluru loan into protolanguage WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis tarrki tarrki loan English underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata kanyjamarra kanyjamarra unique unknown 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera kapalupalu kapalupalu unique reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota wirntiŋirriny wirntiŋirriny loan direction unknown 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera purtapurta purtapurta unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) wirtan wirtan inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda jirrini jirrini unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae juwiny-juwiny juwiny-juwiny unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes jarrarlaparlparl jarrarlaparlparl loan Walmajarri reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species nguparr nguparr unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus juntangu (1) juntangu (1) loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo wartaji wartaji doubtful loan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris yukurru yukurru loan Pilbara underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae jilyurru jilyurru loan direction unknown WW WW %tyipily underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta wiru (1) wiru (1) inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae kalaya kalaya loan Yulparija underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pirrala pirrala unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) pupu pupu loan direction unknown WW %pupu reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera warrayi warrayi unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) wartarrpiny wartarrpiny inheritance unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii kulamanu kulamanu inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) pupuka pupuka unique reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla pilyaku pilyaku loan direction unknown WW %pilyaku 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp wangkarli wangkarli loan underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) partalyu partalyu unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera wajapi wacapi unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis julinyjirrkura julinyjirrkura unique unknown 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas wayarti wayarti unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus parlurl (1) parlurl (1) loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarta yawarta loan areal WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae tirrurntirrurn tirrurntirrurn unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae cuti tirrurntirrurn unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae mangkuru mangkuru loan direction unknown Ngarluma underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. manaraly manaraly unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kuñayi kuñayi unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) rurrururru rurrururru loan direction unknown WW %rurru reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) piyarapin piyarapin loan Pilbara unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus parrtjarta parrtjarta inheritance parrtyirta NGY -cognate? unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus manakarra manakarra unique unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis manmarlkura manmarlkura unique unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya kurlinyjirr kurlinyjirr loan Yulparija unknown 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kulukuku kulukuku loan direction unknown Walmajarri WW %kurutuk reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp pirrapirra pirrapirra inheritance reduplicated 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca tiwirl-tiwirl unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kurrparturtu kurrparturtu loan Walmajarri WW unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus kunarri kunarri unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea yinyjiyinyji yinyjiyinyji loan direction unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species ngurrajakurrjakurr ngurrajakurrjakurr unique reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis wurrangka wurrangka loan Ngarluma underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi kuntirrka kuntirrka unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda makartu makartu loan direction unknown Ngarla underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta liwurn liwurn inheritance cf. luurn in NGY etc WW %liwurn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata janaja janaja unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones minipari minipari loan direction unknown also in Nyiaparli unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha parlarri parlarri unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna pinka pinka unique underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus manganya manganya loan direction unknown underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jurru jurru loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia malykan malykan loan direction unknown Ngarluma missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae wangkarru wangkarru loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species paru paru loan Yulparija WW %paru underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ngakalyalya ngakalyalya inheritance unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea purtalypurtaly purtalypurtaly unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides juwi juwi unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera kartarra kartarra unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) ngilkirr ngilkirr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina miti miti loan Walmajarri WW %mirti underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wakurra wakurra loan WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) mungka mungka unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis lirrirnkirn lirrirnkirn unique underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax walartu walartu loan Pilbara WW %walakurru underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jirntirr-jirntirr jirntirr-jirntirr loan direction unknown WW WW %tyintipirri reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) pirna pirna inheritance pirna termite egss NGY - WW? underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii jilajaku jilajaku unique compound 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna mungka inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna pinga inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna yintajarra unknown Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna 4338 loan Kariyarra Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yukurru inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna warrapa loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna mangkuru loan Ngarluma Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna wangkarru loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress tyiliminti loan direction unknown Kurrama Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool warrarnkatyi loan Nyulnyulan WW %warankatyi Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool marti loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material kurtan loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool kulya loan Ngarla Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool paralyi inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material tyartu loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport missing Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology parlkun unique Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool pirlpirn unique Claire Bowern
cook food food kukiman loan English Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food martumpirri loan direction unknown Pilbara WW %martumpirri Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology tyurrka pini- (V3) unique Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool warnu semantic shift Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool kurlpi unique Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kapukarri mana-(takes inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology nyuka loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool wunkalka loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
fire-saw other marra semantic shift? cf words related to ‘wing’?? Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other wika unique Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wirli-wirli loan Kriol WW %wilwili Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool kutyuŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food yuntara loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kuyi inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology malpu loan Western Desert Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tyuŋkarri loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
grog food kari semantic shift WW %kari Claire Bowern
hair belt dress ŋarirri doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
headband dress yakirri loan Western Desert Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology maparn loan direction unknown WW %maparn Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food ŋarrityi unique Claire Bowern
house (European) other maya loan WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food wura inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology pilyi mana- unique Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology para loan direction unknown areal WW %para Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tyimputarri loan Malay Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tyirrtyi loan Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool matyarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology karntawarra doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool piyanapinti unique Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology pilyarri inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food missing Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tyulurr unique Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karrparta loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool walparra loan direction unknown WW %walparra Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation ŋatyi unknown Claire Bowern
tea food walyaka semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics purlku loan with semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other milirr unique Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology karltyi doubtful inheritance discontinuous distribution Claire Bowern
windbreak other wuŋku inheritance Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material tarta semantic shift Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool parru-parru loan Ngarla Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation mili-mili loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food missing Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation marraka semantic shift ‘little bird’ Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tyutyika loan English Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics mirrityin loan English WW medicine Claire Bowern
earth oven food yapan loan Ngarluma ‘hot stones’ Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation ŋawu-ŋawu unique onomaopoeic? Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tyilaman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress maŋkawala loan direction unknown Yulparija Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mirrilyi unknown Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture matyarra loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool warnu inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture kapara inheritance Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture piyanapinti Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool walparra Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool yantana inheritance Claire Bowern
house other maya loan Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ty j /c/ done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no done 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes done 1
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes done 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no done 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no done 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no done 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no done 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no done 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes done 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes done 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes done 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes done 1
Word Order Num-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Num yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes done 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no done 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no done 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes done 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes done 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? not done yet done X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? not done yet done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no done 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? not done yet done X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? not done yet done X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? not done yet done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no info done x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no? done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no info done x
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? not done yet done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info done x
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? N/A done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? not done yet done X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no done 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? not done yet done X
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? not done yet done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? not done yet done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? not done yet done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column not done yet done X


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile no