Person inflection on non-verbal predicates

Nominal Categories - Other nominal
i.e. nominal or adjectival


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Melendez, 1998: 141 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no In the examples, all subjects are expressed by free pronominals. In the discussion of pronouns, pronouns that are bound to nominals have a possessive meaning. Allin, 1976: 185-187, 285-288 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Nouns and adjectives can be predicated, but undergo verbalizing derivation Aikhenvald, 1995: 39-40 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 237 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no There seems to be a copula that gets the person marking (see clause 2 on page 528), but the examples under "attribute clauses" on p. 524 do not have person marking on the predicates. Shauer & Shauer 2000, p. 524, 528 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes On adjectives, but not on nouns. Nouns indicate person with full NPs or free pronominals. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes There is no person inflection on the predicate in equational clauses. However, there does seem to be person marking on the predicate in relational clauses. Both relational and equational clauses use non-verbal predicates. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Examples on page 504 do not seem to have person marking, although this may be because they have an overt subject. Facundes notes that non-verbal clauses are formed "solely of the juxtaposition of two NPs." Facundes, 2000: 504 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes adjectives only Mihas 2010:145 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:69-124 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes Pronouns can be the locus of typical verbal mprphology in nominal predicate constructions Souza 2008:126 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:179 Mitz Perez
Nanti no “Roots” can be either adjectival or verbal. When they are “verbal,” they take person markers, but when they are adjectival, they don't. When adjectival predication is used, a copular form is used. Michael, 2008. p. 310-313 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:59 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965:97 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Mostly adjectival. Seifart - 2005:31-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no person markers on possessed nominals, verbs and postpositions Hall 1988:284 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Nominal. Carson 1982:105 Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no copula takes tense/aspect Payne 2012:303-306 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:25-6, 46-59 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-96 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:241 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:8-14, 33-4 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:5-23 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no To mark possession of pronouns, it is like the first kind of the pronoun is dropped out ad the remaining is the possessive pronoun. It seems that it is better characterized as suppletive forms. Zúñiga 2006, p. 225 Daniel Valle
Páez no Rojas:172-80 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Names of places may have prefixed person markers as verbs do Montes 2004b:80 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Color adjective behaves as verbs Olawsky:188-9 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p177-216 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 126 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack Adjectives are inflected to agree in gender or classifier and number with the noun they modify.
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993 no info/not expected
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.36 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The nominalizer suffix may simply be the regular gender-number suffix for nouns or a combined form of gender, number, animacy, and time and space. Jones & Jones 1991, p.42 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler - 1987:116-176 Daniel Smith
Tukano no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely probably not
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 308-12 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no no person inflection Vallejos 2010:426 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa no 72-3 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no LG26-7 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 79, 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 76 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 52 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 334 Y 0
Paakantyi yes Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 190-2 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 399 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 46 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal N/A 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 23 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 36 done 1
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 48 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 287-296 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 123 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 19 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 77 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 74 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 26 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 43 done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 43 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 181-189 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 22 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 326 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 73 Done- 0
WesternTorres no cf K85b 66 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 39 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 166 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 6 0
Ritharrngu No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 103-4 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari No 24 0
Wajarri No 39 0
Warungu no 186 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps