Tariana

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tae
Location
0.44°, -68.90°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2001. Dicionário Tariana-Português e Português-Tariana. Boletim do MPEG 17/1. Belém. Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2003. A Grammar of Tariana. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Huber, R. and Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
all todo todos other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
and y e grammar káika, kayúka káika, kajúka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kapi-yapise (hand-?) kapi-japise (hand-?) unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kádali kádali unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
back espalda costas body sámise sámise inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
belly barriga barriga body wa, wáwa wa, wáwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
big grande grande quality hanúite hanúite inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
bite morder morder body whã wʰã unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
black negro preto colour kadíte kadíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
blood sangre sangue body díɾi díɾi inheritance cf. Tukano dii See Language page Ana Paula B.
blow soplar soprar body buetá buetá unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bone hueso osso body di-yápi di-jápi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
breast pecho, seno peito body kúda kúda inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
burn quemar queimar environment dhimíta dʰimíta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body pañhanipe pañhanipe unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
child niño, niña criança human emíte, emípeni emíte, emípeni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
climb subir subir motion dhísa, dísa dʰísa, dísa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
cold frío frio quality hapé-peɾi hapé-peɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
come venir vir motion nu nu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cook cocinar cozinhar impact yána jána inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality hápea hápea inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
count contar contar mental wa wa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
cry llorar chorar mental inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cut/hack cortar cortar impact písa písa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
day día dia time ehkwápi, hekwápi 'dia, tempo; mundo' ehkwápi, hekwápi 'dia, tempo; mundo' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
die/be dead morir morrer state yãmi, ɲami jãmi, ɲami unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
dig cavar cavar impact dhíka dʰíka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dirty sucio sujo quality kapisíte kapisíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dream soñar sonhar mental tapú, tapulisá tapú, tapulisá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
drink beber, tomar beber body díɾa díɾa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dry seco seco quality mákaɾa mákaɾa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dust polvo poeira environment mhéni mhéni unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
ear oreja orelha body di-whéni di-whéni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
earth/soil tierra terra environment hípai (Payne91) hípai (Payne91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
eat comer comer body ɲhá ɲhá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
egg huevo ovo fauna di-éwhe di-éwhe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
eye ojo olho body di-thí, di-thí-da di-tʰí, di-tʰí-da inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body íha íha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fall caer cair motion whá wʰá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
far lejos longe quality wyaka wjaka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fat/grease grasa gordura body kepíte 'fat' kepíte 'fat' unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
father padre, papá pai kinship ha-niɾi ha-niɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fear miedo medo mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather pluma pena fauna dí-ča, díča-ɾe, daɾuphemá-ma 'penacho' dí-tʃa, dítʃa-ɾe, daɾupʰemá-ma 'penacho' semantic shift hair See Language page Ana Paula B.
fire fuego fogo environment syáwa sjáwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish xx xx fauna kuphe, kuːphe kupʰe, kuːpʰe inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
flower flor flor environment díwi díwi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fly volar voar motion áɾa áɾa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
foot pie body dhipáma dʰipáma inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fruit fruta fruta flora hekuda, haikuda hekuda, haikuda inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
good bueno bom quality mačíːte, mačá-ite 'bom, bonito' matʃíːte, matʃá-ite 'bom, bonito' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
grow crecer crescer state mesá mesá loan Tukanoan masa See Language page Ana Paula B.
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body dí-ča, díča-ɾe dí-tʃa, dítʃa-ɾe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hand mano mão body kápi kápi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
head cabeza cabeça body dhiwída, di-whída dʰiwída, di-whída inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hear oír ouvir mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
heavy pesado pesado quality hamía-peri hamía-peri inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hide esconder esconder motion dáwa dáwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hit golpear, pegar bater impact yã, ñá jã, ñá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other káni káni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
how? como como grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
if si se grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location wálikuse wálikuse inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
intestines intestinos intestinos body ihákha ihákha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body kasyá kasjá unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
kill matar matar impact díːnu, dínu díːnu, dínu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lake lago lago environment makánai makánai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
laugh reír rir mental díka díka unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
leaf hoja folha environment paná-phe paná-pʰe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion swá swá unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment énu diperitá (thunder=?) énu diperitá (thunder=?) unique from thunder See Language page Ana Paula B.
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
liver hígado figado body kalétana kalétana unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
long largo comprido, longo quality yenúite, yenuníte jenúite, jenuníte unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
lung pulmón pulmão body karahtá karahtá unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dí-pe dí-pe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
moon luna lua environment deːpite keːɾi deːpite keːɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship há-do há-do inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mouth boca boca body núma 'mouth, word' núma 'mouth, word' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
name nombre nome human pitána pitána inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body dípe dípe unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
near/close cerca de perto quality dhiwéʃi dʰiwéʃi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
neck cuello pescoço body dhinúru dʰinúru inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
new nuevo novo quality emíte, walíte (young) emíte, walíte (young) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
night noche noite time déːpi, dépi déːpi, dépi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
no/not no não grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
nose nariz nariz body thakú tʰakú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
old viejo velho quality upíte, pedália, pedálie (old people) upíte, pedália, pedálie (old people) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
one uno um number paa(máya) (dp91), páː-da paa(mája) (dp91), páː-da inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
open/uncover abrir abrir other hála hála unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kakámia kakámia unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
person/human being persona pessoa human nawíki 'people' nawíki 'people' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact túda túda unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
rain lluvia chuva environment íya íja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
red rojo vermelho colour iɾíte 'vermelho, laranya, amarelo escuro; maduro' iɾíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
road/path camino caminho manufacture hinípu hinípu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
root raíz raiz flora háiku i-páɾi háiku i-páɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
rotten podrido podre quality í:peri í:peri unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
sand arena areia environment káido káido inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
scratch rascar rasgar impact sáwa sáwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
see ver ver mental inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality pimaníta pimaníta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact sitá sitá doubtful loan Napo Lowland Quechua ʃitana See Language page Ana Paula B.
short corto curto quality madúite madúite inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoulder hombro ombro body panápa, panákuri, nukapí íthani (1s-hand=?) panápa, panákuri, nukapí ítʰani (1s-hand=?) unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental kawalikupedíte kawalikupedíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sit sentar(se) sentar state whá wʰá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
skin piel pele body dí-ya dí-ja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sky cielo céu environment enú-kwa enú-kwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sleep dormir dormir body díːma díːma inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
small pequeño pequeno quality tsúite tsúite inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
smoke humo fumaça environment haliá-kuɾu haliá-kuɾu unique loanblend, 'white' + Tuk kuru 'group' See Language page Ana Paula B.
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body emé emé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
spit escupir cuspir body wisá wisá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact kadúwa kadúwa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact písu písu doubtful loan Carib: Panare peɟuku, peɟuʔ; Pemon pitʃaka See Language page Ana Paula B.
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state éma éma inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
star estrella estrela environment walipéɾa walipéɾa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
steal robar roubar other dí:tu dí:tu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora háiku, héku háiku, héku inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone piedra pedra environment hipá-da hipá-da inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
swell hincharse inchar body hyá hjá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
swim nadar nadar motion áhya áhja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tail cola, rabo rabo body di-číma, di-sipí di-tʃíma, di-sipí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
that ese/esa esse grammar hane (distal) hane (distal) unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality maléda, phanída maléda, pʰanída inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
thin delgado fino quality medewíte medewíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
think pensar pensar mental diánihta, dhimíta, dhimé diánihta, dʰimíta, dʰimé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
this este/esta este grammar hĩ (proximate dem) hĩ (proximate dem) inheritance Tariana-Baniwa See Language page Ana Paula B.
2sg xx xx grammar piha, phia piha, pʰia inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
three tres tres number madalí-da madalí-da inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
throat garganta garganta body maretaníkha maretaníkha unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
thunder truenos trovão environment énu énu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tútu, panída tútu, panída unique, inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tongue lengua lingua body énene énene inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tooth diente dente body é é inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kapúku kapúku inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
two dos dois number iamé(pa) (dp91), yamá-da, ɲamá-da iamé(pa) (dp91), jamá-da, ɲamá-da inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
vomit vomitar vomitar body khatá khatá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
water agua agua environment úni, úːni úni, úːni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wet mojado molhado quality kápe kápe unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
what? que, qué que grammar kwaka kwaka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
when? cuando quando grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
where? donde onde grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
white blanco branco colour halíte 'branco, transparente; cedo' halíte 'branco, transparente; cedo' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
who? quien, quién quem grammar kwana kwana inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wife esposa esposa kinship missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
wind viento vento environment kále kále inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wing ala asa body araníma, díphe araníma, dípʰe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
woman/female mujer mulher human ínaɾu ínaɾu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
work trabajar trabalhar other hpáni hpáni unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
yawn bostezar bocejar body yáta játa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ewíte ewíte loan (into protolg?), direction unknown E. Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B.
bad mal mal quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar diha, dihya (non-feminine), duha, duhua (f) diha, dihja (non-feminine), duha, duhua (f) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
1sg yo eu grammar nuha nuha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
leg/foot pierna perna body kawána kawána inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
man/male hombre homem human čãɾi, čiãɾi tʃãɾi, tʃiãɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar n(a)ha n(a)ha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yéka jéka unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar w(a)ha w(a)ha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
2pl ustedes vocês grammar iha iha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
bark corteza casca environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fingernail uña unha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
heart corazón coração body kale kale inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sun sol sol time ehkwapíte kéɾi (ehkwapíte 'day', kéri 'sun') ehkwapíte kéɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment maka-pulikúda maka-pulikúda unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
green verde verde quality hipolíte hipolíte inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hot caliente quente quality hamú-peɾi hamú-peɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana pi'ɾina, pi'ɾida, piɾimaphána pi'ɾina, pi'ɾida, piɾimapʰána inheritance Central North Arawak Also piɾimapʰána uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B.
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. hawáya hawája inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B.
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. phíči pʰítʃi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. káːs[iɾi] (dp91); katʃíra, káatʃiri (HR) káːs[iɾi] (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also katʃíra, káatʃiri (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis amána amána doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW Central North Arawak Ramirez reconstructs; cf. other Arawak source loans for dolphin uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B.
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus híɾi (dp91) híɾi (dp91) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes (H&R, Giacone: maauáli, mauáli (ps cobra)) inheritance missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B.
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora tsũdeɾi, umapí tsũdeɾi, umapí inheritance Central North Arawak Also umapí uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae jawala (H&R, Giacone: jawala, aéme, kauirí) unique Also aéme, kauirí No info (may be specfic types) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) sálu 'tamanduá bandeira', ãtẽ sálu 'tamanduá bandeira', ãtẽ inheritance Also sálu 'tamanduá bandeira' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B.
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri yéː (dp91), hemápiɾi 'tatu canastra' jéː (dp91), hemápiɾi 'tatu canastra' inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also hemápiɾi 'tatu canastra' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum sído sído inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B.
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana piɾíya piɾíja inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B.
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. déɾi, deːɾi déɾi, deːɾi semantic shift North Arawak *deeri 'sororoca' (Ramirez 2001) Attested Mandawaka, Kabiyari; no clear loan source uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B.
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. písiɾi písiɾi inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumáda kumáda loan (into protolanguage?) - WW North Arawak %kumana Wanderwort: probably Arawak source, loan into Wai Wai, various East Tukanoan, Puinave, etc. WW %kumana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis má:pa má:pa inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna képira; puipída (H&R92) képira inheritance Central North Arawak Also puipída (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B.
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba púpeɾi púpeɾi unique Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Broader (also peach palm) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B.
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kusirúda (calabash?) kusirúda (calabash?) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B.
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] kúida, wasé-na kúida, wasé-na unique Also wasé-na uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B.
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha kápaɾu kápaɾu inheritance - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch %kaparu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata máne máne inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris hemasiéɾe, hemasiéle hemasiéɾe, hemasiéle calque Tukano Calque 'tapir-river' (widely shared in Vaupes languages) compound tapir-river' See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum hídu hídu inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum hídu hídu inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda amáɾu sápale amáɾu sápale unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. dáːpi dáːpi inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B.
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hipatu 'epadú' hipatu loan, direction unknown - WW %patu Attested at least Rio Negro North Arawak. Wanderwort: E. Tukanoan, e.g. Bará pátu, Nheengatu ipadu, Nadëb batoʔ, Carijona ihatu WW %patu uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B.
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria dapátaɾu, ihída dapátaɾu, ihída inheritance Also ihída uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yamulitú, ɲamulitú jamulitú, ɲamulitú, (H&R, Giacone: ampiá (ps porco)) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Prob loan into Guahiban (proto-language?), e.g. Guahibo tsamúli. Also H&R, Giacone: ampiá ('porco') uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kapísi (dp91) kapísi (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) phiɾimičí pʰiɾimitʃí semantic shift Means 'kapok' in Baniwa; also attested Yucuna. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B.
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura kuheni kuheni unknown missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus néɾi, néːɾi néɾi, néːɾi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris čínu tʃínu semantic shift North Arawak from Proto-Arawak jaguar Probably derived (historically) from Proto-Arawak 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B.
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ulítu ulítu inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Also keɾáwi ulítu 'pomba-pedrês' Narrower (multiple types exist) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family kamída 'marreco', kumaːda, kumáda awakadite 'pato-do-mato' kamída 'marreco', kumaːda, kumáda awakadite 'pato-do-mato' inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch kumaːda, kumáda awakadite 'pato-do-mato' Narrower (multiple types exist) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. wépaɾi, yúɾu wépaɾi, júɾu unknown Also júɾu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus dakása dakása inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup shared Baniwa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kuphe, kuːphe kupʰe, kuːpʰe inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kesí-na kesí-na unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B.
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kawháneɾe kawháneɾe inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera dó:lo dó:lo inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B.
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis pidú pidú semantic shift In some other Central North Arawak languages this means 'Neotropical otter' (could be due to poor data) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kepipipe kepipipe (H&R, Giancone: kanapiri) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also Giancone: kanapiri uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans áːsine áːsine inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B.
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba mali mali inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B.
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. maːɾe maːɾe inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) WW%mare, Arawak origin uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B.
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae dukúliphe péɾi dukúlipʰe péɾi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens aasi (dp91), ãsi (aa01) aasi (dp91), ãsi (aa01) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Arawak is thought to be source of Spanish ají uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B.
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] íči ítʃi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae kúːɾipimi kúːɾipimi inheritance Central North Arawak Compare Tukanoan (E&W) forms mimi, etc. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. káːsiwa káːsiwa loan direction unknown Cubeo Cuebo katʃiva uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B.
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca siin[u] (dp91), deːɾiphína 'onça pintada, yáwi 'onça' siin[u] (dp91), deːɾipʰína 'onça pintada, jáwi 'onça', (H&R, Giacone: i-javi, iaavi, li-tsávi, javi) inheritance; doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown North Arawak Tukanoan *jai, cf. Tupi-Guarani *jawar Compare similar Tukanoan forms, e.g. e.g. Cubeo ja'wí, javi. Also siin[u] (dp91), deːɾipʰína 'onça pintada, jáwi 'onça', (H&R, Giacone: i-javi, iaavi, li-tsávi, javi) uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B.
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B.
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manaká, puɾama manaká, puɾama inheritance Central North Arawak Also puɾama uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B.
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae yáːliɾu jáːliɾu inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. dáːne, maːki, kéːsu dáːne, maːki, kéːsu unique Also maːki, kéːsu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ãdaɾu; ʔáadaru, ʔándaru (H&R92) ádaɾu doubtful loan into protolg - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) %arara Wanderwort: see Cocama arara, Wanano daharo, Carib forms, Spanish ara, Portuguese arara WW %ara uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kána kána inheritance Central North Arawak Inland N. Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B.
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. pákamu pákamu unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. hemúki 'mandí-urutú, kaiwáči, kewáči 'mandi-bandeira' hemúki 'mandí-urutú, kaiwátʃi, kewátʃi 'mandi-bandeira' inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Also kaiwátʃi, kewátʃi 'mandi-bandeira' Narrower (specific type) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta káini (dp91) káini (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B.
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kiníki kiníki unknown maybe from 'bitter manioc' Compare forms for 'potato' in Arawak lgs. Likely loan into Carib, see Makiritari kɨde:de, Pemon kanari uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa tewída tewída inheritance? - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B.
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. pú:pu pú:pu unique Also H&R, Giacone: áini-jo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B.
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ɲéːwi ɲéːwi inheritance Ptenonura? In some other Central North Arawak languages this means 'Giant otter' (could be due to poor data) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ínaɾi ínaɾi unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes púpuli 'coruya', makúwe, makúve 'courya-de-orelha' púpuli 'coruja', makúwe, makúve 'coruja-de-orelha' inheritance - WW? onomatopoeic Central North Arawak %pupu; P-A *punpuli (Payne91) See similar forms in Tukanoan, Yagua, etc.; probably onomatopoeic. Also makúwe, makúve 'courja-de-orelha' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) dáːpa dáːpa inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana punepina punepina unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B.
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica awíɲa wáɾu, awíɲa-wáɾu-ni 'papagaio moleiro' awíɲa wáɾu, awíɲa-wáɾu-ni 'papagaio moleiro' inheritance North Arawak Also awíɲa-wáɾu-ni 'papagaio moleiro' uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea yarukánapi jarukánapi unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B.
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pípiɾi pípiɾi doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW Central North Arawak %pipiri Broader (also black palm) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mawína mawína inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae uʔumá[i] (dp91) uʔumá[i] (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B.
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae yáːɾa jáːɾa inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B.
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. yeká-na jeká-na loan direction unknown East Tukanoan Shared Baniwa; Tukanoan Cubeo jɛ́ka, Secoya ɨka uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B.
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B.
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata dúpu dúpu inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna api (dp91), mawáli 'cobra, verme'; ʔã́mpi (H&R92) api (dp91), mawáli 'cobra, verme' inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also mawáli 'cobra, verme' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox áːpi, ãpi áːpi, ãpi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B.
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. daɾúyu, kulíɾi daɾúju, kulíɾi unique Also kulíɾi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae éːni, ewanapáli éːni, ewanapáli inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also ewanapáli uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. hayámaɾu hajámaɾu loan direction unknown Yanomami/Ninam Ninam, Yanomami jãmãɾu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kalí[ri] (dp91), ãwhi, awhída, hãwhi 'batata-doce, mandioca', húne 'batata-doce, batata-inglesa', máː kalí[ri] (dp91), ãwhi, awhída, hãwhi 'batata-doce, mandioca', húne 'batata-doce, batata-inglesa', máː inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also ãwhi, awhída, hãwhi 'batata-doce, mandioca', húne 'batata-doce, batata-inglesa', máː uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris héma héma inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kamáɾa kamáɾa inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae máːmi máːmi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura hípaɾu, káma, mulítu; páisi (H&R92) hípaɾu, káma, mulítu inheritance North Arawak Also káma, mulítu; páisi (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum yeéma (dp91), yéma (aa01) jeéma (dp91), jéma (aa01) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B.
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria íkuli, ičída 'yabuti do mato' íkuli, itʃída 'jabuti do mato' inheritance Also itʃída 'jabuti do mato' uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. yáːse, íya-yáːse 'tucano-de-peito-amarelo' jáːse, íja-jáːse 'tucano-de-peito-amarelo' inheritance loan into Tukanoan? Similar forms in East and West Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano dase. Also íja-jáːse 'tucano-de-peito-amarelo' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna háiku háiku (H&R, Giacone: aíkuna) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella púːwe (dp91) púːwe (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B.
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wáyuɾi 'urubu', éːta 'urubu-rei' wájuɾi 'urubu', éːta 'urubu-rei' inheritance North Arawak Also éːta 'urubu-rei' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B.
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ainí ainí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons hálo hálo inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup shared Baniwa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari ampiá (dp91), apiyá kesaníte ampiá (dp91), apijá kesaníte inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B.
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna čínu tʃínu semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna néɾi, néːɾi néɾi, néːɾi inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Derived pɑ: = one/other, -ekʰwapi “world” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool siduána siduána inheritance Proto North Arawak Alternate: pa-ita-nípe (?-CL:inanimate,instrument-PL) Derived -na = "long vertical" classifier, sidua = "cane" hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool episí-da episí-da inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Derived -da = round classifier especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool niɲá-na niɲá-na inheritance Proto Rio Negro Alternatives: nihyá-na; umapí; kú_x0001_i; apiyá umapí; kakusu_x0001_í; katanapí_x0001_ Phrase fish its-bait-POSS can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material maɾawí kaɾápi maɾawí kaɾápi basin, large, made of tuyuca unique Phrase unclear, but neither part means “tuyuca (clay)” suggesting it's a phrase, not a compound See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material káme basket, basket for transporting fruit Inheritance Proto Rio Negro Alternate: mukutú Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material kusíɾu-maka 'pequeno balaio' kusíɾu-maka 'pequeno balaio' unknown Derived -maka = "extended cloth" classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material pa-swá-ɾi pa-swá-ɾi unknown Alternate: édi 'bench' Derived -ɾí = object nominalization See Language page Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material éːdi, édi éːdi, édi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool mawípi mawípi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool (yawi) [tia]pu (dp91), yawithépu (aa01) (jawi) [tia]pu (dp91), jawitʰépu (aa01) inheritance *tapo Proto Arawak Derived -itʰépu "bow" noun classifier arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pa-píu-naki pa-píu-naki unique prob from 'sweep' Alternate: papiu-ni-naki Derived -naki = "long handle" classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport íta, itá-whya íta, itá-whya inheritance Proto North Arawak Alternate: íta Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation pisána pisána loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); other Arawak (e.g. Wapishana piʃani); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana See Language page Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kaláka kaláka loan - WW Proto North Arawak %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology é:ni é:ni unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
coca narcotics hipatu Unknown Local Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food jána Inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology walirú walirú loan East Tukanoan Simplex malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B.
dance (generic) culture-mythology ɾápa Inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology yapi-riku-ri yapi-riku-ri calque, direction unknown Tukanoan; 'one on bone' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tapu-rí tapu-ɾí inheritance Proto North Arawak Derived -ɾí = object nominalization See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology yawína jawína small drum unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool kadúiči kadúitʃi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology daɾuphéma daɾupʰéma unknown Unclear, but “pʰé” is a classifier meaning leaf-like, suggesting a relatively transparent word structure. Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology wiri wiri unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other tsié[e] tsié[e] inheritance Proto North Arawak from 'fire' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food dhilítu dʰilítu unique Derived di- is 3rd non-feminine marker See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool kesí-na Unknown Derived -na = "long vertical" classifier See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool kule-kha kule-kʰa fishing tool doubtful calque Baniwa Derived kule-kʰa; hook-CL:curvilinear See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool upíčí (matapi); maipukú, mepukú (cacuri) upítʃí (natapi); maipukú, mepukú (cacuri) Semantic shift from “strainer/sieve” Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food peːthé, paithé peːtʰé, paitʰé inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kawhi kawhi doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani 'fermented (manioc) drink' Phrase kupʰe = fish, na= 3rd plural possessor, -nipe = plural, tuda = “sieve, puçá”: “fish's sieve” (?) agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology talíwa talíwa flute (generic?) unknown Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ichiri itʃiɾi animal unique Proto Rio Negro Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B.
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tíya, kusirúda (calabash?) tíja, kusirúda (calabash?) unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool ãda 'ralo' ãda 'ralo' inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kayáma kajáma loan East Tukanoan Also Kakua kâyaʔ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool puáli 'forno' puáli 'forno' oven inheritance Simplex agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation sĩ́pi sĩ́pi shotgun unique Portuguese Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material amakú amakú inheritance Occurs in Arawak, Macaguan, Kakua (?), Urarina (?), Aguaruna, Taylor (1957): source is Arawak sleep-NMLZ WW %amaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress di-swa-ní-da di-swa-ní-da unique Alternate: dapída (woven hat) Derived di- = 3rd non-feminine cross-referencing (his X), -ní = masculine nominal derivation, -da = “round” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics payaɾúna pajaɾúna unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food dúne dúne inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food di-wíni 'caça' di-wíni 'caça' inheritance Proto Rio Negro Derived? di- is 3rd non-feminine marker See Language page Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material maliyé malijé loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Probably Carib > Baniwa-Tariana subgroup. Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress paramaríkha paɾamaɾí-kʰa inheritance Proto Rio Negro Derived -kʰa = curvilinear classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material wánaɾi wánaɾi unknown cf. Nadahup wan Compare Hup wan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool yéːda 'pequeno pilão para preparo do epadú' jéːda 'pequeno pilão para preparo do epadú' a small mortar to prepare “epadú” unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other wisíwai; na-itaníwi; yaɾukanáwi wisíwai; na-itaníwi; jaɾukanáwi unknown Alternate: wisíwei, na-itaníwi; jaɾukanáwi Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation papéra papéɾa loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material kaɾápi kaɾápi loan - WW %parapi Attested various Carib and Arawak lgs. Possibly related to Span. plato. Strange p~k correspondence (e.g. Akawaio parabi; Tariana karápi), but otherwise look like same etymon. Meaning varies between clay plate and clay pot. WW %karapi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool paːɾu-ní-da paːɾu-ní-da inheritance? cf. Baniwa Derived -ní = ?, da=round classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kusiɾúda, kúsiɾu kusiɾúda, kúsiɾu inheritance Alternate: kusiɾúda Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool maini maini inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food íwi íwi rock salt inheritance *idɨwɨ Proto Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapatu sapatu loan Portuguese Yanomam sapato; Hup capatu Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sálu sálu loan Span/Port soldado Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool mulúku mulúku inheritance Proto Rio Negro Alternate: mulikъna, hъida, muɾúku Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food kainíki 'tapioca' kainíki 'tapioca' inheritance Proto Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material tatapútawa tatapútawa unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food ɲumúku, yumúku ɲumúku, jumúku loan East Tukanoan (Wanano?) Alternate: jumúku Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material yépu, pune-pína jépu, pune-pína unknown cf. Cocama (Tupi) pinawa Alternate: jépu, pune-pína Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food hiɾína hiɾína inheritance? Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B.
tobacco (native) narcotics jéma Inheritance *yɨma Proto Arawak also in some Guahiban langs. (e.g. Cuiva tsйma) Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool néɾi i-wádo (néri 'deer', wádo '?') néɾi i-wádo Calque Compound néri 'deer', wádo? agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool pupáwa pupáwa unknown Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool yupíčí jupítʃí doubtful loan Proto North Arawak cf. Ramirez Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology píɾi 'flauta de Yurupari' píɾi 'flauta de Yurupari' Yurupari flute inheritance Proto Rio Negro Cognate Yucuna? Simplex a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material káme 'cesta', mukutú 'cesta p/ transportar frutos' káme 'cesta', mukutú 'cesta p/ transportar frutos' inheritance; doubtful loan - WW % panaku (cf. variants e.g. Cocama urkuru See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology yaɾu-maká-si jaɾu-maká-si inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ɲámu 'espírito, curupira' ɲámu 'espírito, curupira' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport hekutá, hiwaɾú-ita, unisitá hekutá, hiwaɾú-ita, unisitá unique; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kamáña, kamáyana kamáña, kamájana doubtful loan, direction unknown Cubeo kainime See Language page Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture payáɾu taɾadá-peɾi (payáɾu 'caxiri', taɾadá 'be alive') pajáɾu taɾadá-peɾi inheritance? - WW %pajaru prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
house other panisí panisí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Aikhenvald 2003: 26 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Aikhenvald 2003: 26 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Aikhenvald 2003: 26 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Aikhencald 2003: 32 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Aikhencald 2003: 32 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no the sequences Cy or Cw can be interpreted as a complex onset or as a syllable of CV structure Aikhenvald 2003: 37 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no only /y/ and /h/ as codas Aikhenvald 2003: 34 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no CVh codas can be considered the result of Tucano influence Aikhenvald 2003: 34 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Aikhenvald 2003 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Aikhenvald 2003: 37 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Aikhenvald 2003: 42 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes The domain of nasalization is phonological word, incl. any affixes, (not sure about clitics) and is probably due to Tucano influence Aikhenvald 2003: 42 Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Aikhenvald 2003: 44 Ana Paula Brandao
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Tense and evidentiality are fused, (and interrogative fused with tense/evid). Aspect, mood, aktionsart, degree all distinct morphology Aikhenvald 2003, 254, 288 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Aikhenvald 2003: 255-256 Aimee Lawrence pg. 255-256 dicsusses verb roots and verbal derivations, no mention of replacement
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Aikhenvald 2003: 66 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Aikhenvald 2003: 253 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Aikhenvald 2003: 253 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Aikhenvald 2003: 253 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no There is perhaps an archaic reduplicated form of the causative morpheme as an intensifier. Aikhenvald 2003: 274 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no No other discussion of reduplication. Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no Nominal compounds are not productive Aikhenvald 2003: 201 Ana Paula Brandao
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Aikhenvald 2003: 424 Ana Paula Brandao
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes There are two kinds of compounding Aikhenvald 2003: 446 Ana Paula Brandao
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Aikhenvald 2003: 235 Ana Paula Brandao
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no The overview of predicate structure does not describe any incorporation processes. Aikhenvald 2003: 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no The overview of predicate structure does not describe any incorporation processes. Aikhenvald 2003: 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 feminine, non-feminine Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes established classifiers Aikhenvald 2003: 89 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no All inanimates are classified based on their form or function. Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes -ite -ite There is a general animate classifier, -ita (numerals) and -ite (other words) is used with all animate nouns. Aikhenvald, 2003: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Other pronouns distinguish gender as well. Aikhenvald, 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Tariana has one classifier for animate forms. Aikhenvald, 2003: 88 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Tariana has a number of shape and form classifiers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 89-90 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes To classify nouns that do not have a classifier (about 40% of nouns), the head noun is repeated on the modifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 117 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes The classifiers corresponding to "animate" and "human" take distinct forms on numerals. Aikhenvald, 2003: 103-104 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Aikhenvald 2003: 172 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no The overview of noun structure does not include a singular number marker. Classifiers can be used for singular reference of a non-singular noun (such as "paper"). Aikhenvald, 2003: 83, 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -pe, -ne -pe, -ne -pe seems to be the most regular plural marker, although some clitics have a "built-in" plural? Aikhenvald, 2003: 83 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Aikhenvald, 2003: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Aikhenvald, 2003: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Aikhenvald, 2003: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Plural is marked on inanimate nouns, although the unmarked form is considered a general or collective sense and plural marking is only obligatory with animate nouns. Aikhenvald, 2003: 164-165 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Aikhenvald notes that plural marking in pronouns is distinct from that in nouns, although pronouns with a derivational classifier take the same plural marker as a noun with a classifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 164-165, 204 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no The use of the regular plural marker on any noun with a human referent gives an associative reading. Aikhenvald, 2003: 165 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes duha, diha duha, diha Homophonous with third-person free pronouns, but distinguished on distributional criteria. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204-205 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no There are "specifier" articles and demnstratives, but no definiteness markers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204-208 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes pa:- pa:- This artcile has several functions, including the number "one," "only," and "another." Aikhenvald, 2003: 215 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Plural pronouns can optionally distinguish gender by using a feminine classifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 ha- (proximate), hane- (distal) ha- (proximate), hane- (distal) Aikhenvald, 2003: 206 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes h˜ih˜i h˜ih˜i There is also an "emphatic" demonstrative, used to indicate "this very one." Aikhenvald, 2003: 206 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes diha (masculine), duha (feminine) diha (masculine), duha (feminine) Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes naha (unmarked), naha-ma-pe (feminine) naha (unmarked), naha-ma-pe (feminine) Plural pronouns can optionally distinguish genders. Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns yes Plural pronouns can optionally distinguish gender by using a feminine classifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no There is one morpheme that marks intransitivization, but reflexive interpretation is only found with three verbs. Aikhenvald, 2003: 177, 266-267 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Bound morphology is used. Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 Two core cases, two oblique cases (Locational and instrumental/comitative). Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 140-148 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Aikhenvald, 2003: 140-148 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes -ne (nouns), -ine (pronouns) -ne (nouns), -ine (pronouns) Aikhenvald, 2003: 140 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no "One," "two," "three" are all basic. Aikhenvald, 2003: 217 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Numerals from five to ten are based on the word for hand, plus the relevant number of "fingers." Aikhenvald, 2003: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Numerals above ten are based on "two hands plus x." Aikhenvald, 2003: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Aikhenvald, 2003: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes Four: ka-iphu-nipe (kephunipe) Four: ka-iphu-nipe (kephunipe) Four is a calque from Tucano, something along the lines of "the one who has a companion." Aikhenvald, 2003: 217 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Compound numerals exist up to twenty, but they are rarely used. Aikhenvald, 2003: 217 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Compound numerals exist up to twenty, but they are rarely used. Aikhenvald, 2003: 217 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Nouns have tense, but a noun in the predicate slot can take the clausal tense-evidentiality marking on top of nominal tense. Aikhenvald, 2003: 187 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122-123 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 122-123 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no In possessive NPs, classifiers can attach to the possessive marker and characterize the possessed noun. However, these are not distinct from noun classifiers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Obligatorily possessed nouns cannot be used without a cross-referencing prefix, although this is the same set of cross-referencing prefixes that are used for optionally (alienably) possessed nouns. Aikhenvald, 2003: 127-128 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Possession of optionally possessed nouns is indicated by juxtaposition. Aikhenvald, 2003: 129-130 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no The Arawak -tsi is retained in a few nouns. These are treated as optionally possessed. Inalienable nouns are classified as such because they cannot occur without a cross-referencing prefix. Aikhenvald, 2003: 127-129 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 127 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 127 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Other nouns that refer to things "closely associated with people" are obligatorily possessed, but human nouns do not seem to be among this class. Aikhenvald, 2003: 127 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 72 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes All adjectives require classifier agreement with the head noun. Aikhhenvald, 2003: 73 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -nipe -nipe Aikhenvald, 2003: 461 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Participles are often translated as agent nominalizations, but they mark the predicate of a relative clause. The two agent nominalizing morphemes are non-productive. Aikhenvald, 2003: 200, 460 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -nipe, -mi, -ɾi -nipa, -mi, - Aikhenvald, 2003: 200 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no The morphological causative -ita is used to nominalize some verbs, but this is not fully productive. Aikhenvald, 2003: 77 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no The description of comitative case marker describes it as being the "main mechanism of NP coordination." Aikhenvald, 2003: 150-151 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes The tense system is fused with evidentiality. Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes There is a distinction between recent past and remote past. Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Ana Paula Brandao
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no There are multiple future markers, but their use is conditioned by the person performing the action and the "definiteness" of the event. Aikhenvald, 2003: 320 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -de, -mhade -de, -mhade Aikhenvald, 2003: 287, 320 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289, 320 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 289, 320 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289, 320 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289, 320 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes The most common imperative strategy involves an "unmarked" verb--unmarked for tense, aspect, evidentiality, etc. Aikhenvald, 2003: 371 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes -nha -nha This is homophonous with the "present visual interrogative" marker. Aikhenvald, 2003: 378 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 409 Ana Paula Brandao
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes -da -da Referred to as a "cohortative," this is rather rare and is only use with the first person plural. Aikhenvald, 2003: 378 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Aikhenvald, 2003: 380-399 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes kanhina kanhina With the secondary verb kanhina, although this is variably glossed as "to be possible, easy" and "to be recognizable, easily recognizable." Aikhenvald, 2003: 247, 457 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Aikhenvald, 2003: 380-399 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes The verb is repeated to experss epistemic possibility. Aikhenvald, 2003: 449 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes =pada =pada Referred to as "counter-expectation," but described as a marker that describes action contrary to either the speaker's or hearer's expectations. Aikhenvald, 2003: 396 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes =tha =tha Clitic, usually on main verb. Aikhenvald, 2003: 380 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -nipe (habitual/repetitive), =hyuna (habitual/prescribed) -nipe (habitual/repetitive), =hyuna (habitual/prescribed) Aikhenvald, 2003: 325 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes =da (visual apprehensive), =ñhina (non-visual apprehensive) =da (visual apprehensive), =ñhina (non-visual apprehensive) There is both a verbal clitic and a complex predicate construciton that convey this meaning. Aikhenvald, 2003: 384 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no No discussion of realis/irrealis distinction in chapter on mood/modality morphology. Aikhenvald, 2003: 371-399 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no No discussion of affect markers in chapter on mood/modality morphology. Aikhenvald, 2003: 371-399 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no The description of predicate structure does not include any directional elements. Aikhenvald, 2003: 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes -naka (present), -ka (recent past), -na (remote past) -naka (present), -ka (recent past), -na (remote past) Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes -mha (present), -mahka (recent past), -mhana (remote past) -mha (present), -mahka (recent past), -mhana (remote past) Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes There are both generic inferred and specific inferred morphemes. Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -pida (present), -pidaka (recent past), -pidana (remote past) -pida (present), -pidaka (recent past), -pidana (remote past) Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no In the description of predicate structure, there is no such bound morphology. Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes There is a tendency toward verb-final. Aikhenvald, 2003: 507 Ana Paula Brandao
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Aikhenvald, 2003: 507 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Aikhenvald, 2003: 507 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Aikhenvald, 2003: 507 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Aikhenvald, 2003: 507 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 139-140 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 562 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no From the examples, it looks as though the possessor precedes the possessum, except when the possessor is mentioned as an afterthought. Aikhenvald, 2003: 123 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes All adjectives can be used both before and after the head. Aikhenvald, 2003: 475 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes All adjectives can be used both before and after the head. Aikhenvald, 2003: 475 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Demonstratives always precede the NP head. Aikhenvald, 2003: 475 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Dem no Aikhenvald, 2003: 475 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Num-Noun yes Numerals can be both pre- and post-head. Aikhenvald, 2003: 475 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Num yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 475 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Relative clauses can either follow or precede the head noun. Aikhenvald, 2003: 479 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Relative clauses can either follow or precede the head noun. Aikhenvald, 2003: 479 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Aikhenvald, 2003: 479 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Aikhenvald, 2003: 537-538 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 503 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes -nhe/-ne (nominative), -nuku, naku (accusative) -nhe/-ne (nominative), -nuku, naku (accusative) A small subset of intransitives (verbs of physical states) require accusative-marked subjects. Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Verbs of physical states take O-marking, although Aikhenvald says that Tariana is "basicaly nominative-accusative." Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes -ne -ne Pronouns with a human referent mark object case. Aikhenvald, 2003: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Aikhenvald, 2003: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Aikhenvald, 2003: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Aikhenvald, 2003: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Aikhenvald, 2003: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive yes Personal cross-referencing is used to mark A/Sa on verbs. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Pronouns seem to have special restrictions on their placement, usually preceding the predicate. Aikhenvald, 2003: 565 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Aikhenvald, 2003: 203 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Aikhenvald, 2003: 203 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Aikhenvald, 2003: 203 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 565 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Active intransitive verbs take nominative person-marking. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122, 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 122, 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122, 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no di- (fem.), du- (masc.), na- (pl) di- (fem.), du- (masc.), na- (pl) Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a No object person marking. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122, 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Person and number are fused in pronouns and cross-referencing prefixes. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes di- (fem.), du-(masc.) di- (fem.), du-(masc.) In third-person pronouns and cross-referencing prefixes. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Aikhenvald, 2003: 236 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Both the theme (gift) and recipient receive accusative case marking. However, Aikhenvald does note that only the theme can be the target of a passive operation. Aikhenvald, 2003: 236 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Aikhenvald, 2003: 236 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Aikhenvald, 2003: 263-266 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Aikhenvald, 2003: 263-266 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes -kaka -kaka However, this is no longer productive. Aikhenvald, 2003: 263-266 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes ka-…-kana ka-…-kana Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Aikhenvald, 2003: 258 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Aikhenvald, 2003: 268 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -i/-ita -i/-ita Aikhenvald, 2003: 268 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Aikhenvald, 2003: 268 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Several constructions, often use verbs -a "do, say", -iɾa "order," and -pala "put", as well as a periphrastic construction using -ni "make." Aikhenvald, 2003: 274 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no "Indirect causation" is achieved by a serial verb construction. Aikhenvald, 2003: 278 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no "Indirect causation" is achieved by a serial verb construction. Aikhenvald, 2003: 278 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no The causative morpheme -i/-ita has other functions when applied to most transitive verbs. Aikhenvald, 2003: 279 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes ma-…-kade ma-…-kade Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no The prefix ma- (see predicate negation marker ma-…-kade) can be used to express lack of body part/kinship relation (seemingly only with inalienable nouns). Aikhenvald, 2003: 400, 410 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes hãida hãida Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Aikhenvald, 2003: 502 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes Interrogative mood, fused with tense-evidentiality. Aikhenvald, 2003: 311, 502 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Aikhenvald, 2003: 502 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Aikhenvald, 2003: 502 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Question word is usually sentence-initial. Aikhenvald, 2003: 503 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes When adjectives are used as predicates, they take the same morphology as stative verbs, but nouns do not. Aikhenvald, 2003: 76 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no When adjectives are used as predicates, they take the same morphology as stative verbs, but nouns do not. Aikhenvald, 2003: 76 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no All types of copula clauses take a copula verb. Aikhenvald, 2003: 488 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Aikhenvald mentions that "headless relative clauses are constituents of the main clause," suggesting that there are headless relative clauses. Aikhenvald, 2003: 537-538 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Aikhenvald, 2003: 537 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes The relative takes classifiers to agree with an inanimate common referent, if that referent is the S of both clauses, or if it is O in the main clause and S in the relative clause. Aikhenvald, 2003: 541 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes ka- ka- The negative version is ma-. This element is prefixed to every verbal element when the relative clause predicate is a serial verb construction. Aikhenvald, 2003: 460 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes The relativizer can also be used as an agent nominalizer. Aikhenvald, 2003: 461 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no No mention of a desiderative in mood/modality morphology. Aikhenvald, 2003: 373-399 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 516 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes The same/different subject markers are also differentiated to distinguish between prior and simultaneous clauses. Aikhenvald, 2003: 516 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes Fused with switch-reference markers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 516 Aimee Lawrence


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
1500 medium AG medium sedentary Riverine Linguistic exogamy