Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5

Nominal Categories - Numerals
e.g. two = 'eye-quantity'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes One' and 'two' seem to be basic, 'three' is two + one, but "four" refers to a specific finger on the hand. Allin, 1976: 202 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no info Galindo (2002) notes that there are different roots for the numbers 1-4, but not whether these are transparent. Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 49-50, Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 78 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes 5 = whole hand (with 1, 2, 3, and 4 meaning respective number of digits of the hand) Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Captain, 2005 (numerals database) Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Four is a calque from Tucano, something along the lines of "the one who has a companion." Aikhenvald, 2003: 217 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no info epi-epi-hãtu-kapanu 'five' is often translated as 'a handful' but this seems to be more due to the complexity of the phrase. No discussion of other numerals. Facundes, 2000: 359-360 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:31 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no info Duff-Tripp Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no info Michael, 2008. p. 311-312 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes 5 - one hand Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989:57-58 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:130-131 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes 5 = one hand Hall 1988: 303; Escoriaza 1959:13 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks "two" functions as a postposition meaning 'with' in the sense of accompaniment, the word for zero occurs as a sentence-level negation marker.
Makushi no Carson 1982: 68-73 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon yes sak-ne-ne "4" would come from sak-ne "2" as meaning two times 2 de Armellada 1999: 67 Shannon Dardis mia and yenna both mean hand
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no But based on the list of 1-10 numbers, it seems that there is not etymological transparency. Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:91-3 Daniel Valle
Damana no info no data observed so far Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes five 'hand', four comes from 'accompany' Queixalós 1988 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes For numeral 4: ipak usumtɨt "8finger used to) paint with annato (e.g. index figer) Overall 2007:163 Daniel Valle From 4 up to 10
Northern Emberá yes Only the numeral for five is etymological transparent: "hand all" Aguirre 1999:83 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974:40 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info apparently no Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes The number for 2 can be related to the verb "help" Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 212 Shannon Dardis The first five numbers correspond to the five toes, but I don't think that that is reflected in the actual word.
Kakua yes one=one, two=two+be.accompanied, three= two+three Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Hup yes 2 = 'eye-quantity'. 3 = 'rubber-tree-seed quantity'; (in Umari Norte dialect) 'without sibling' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes rubber tree seed' = 3 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins:2005:391. part of the word for 'three' is etymological transparent with the 'totalizador' marker wap Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes five= 'one hand' Miller 1999, p. 46 Amanda Novak yuhu 'one', bõhõtõ-ki-bãhã- 'hand'
Cubeo yes Amanda Novak pɨka 'two'(p74)
Kotiria yes five means 'one hand; Stenzel 2004, p. 189 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.39 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.42-43 Chris Clack
Barasano no The word for 'five' is koho-bõ-kõ-rõ (one-hand-count-NOM) Jones & Jones 1991, p.36 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.50 Chris Clack
Siona yes 5 = "hand" Wheeler - 1970:79; Wheeler - 1987:119 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes 5 = one hand Huber and Reed Kelsey Neely based on comparing forms to other words listed in Huber and Reed Swadesh list
Yanomami no Mattei-Muller 2007 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Migliazza 1972, IDS list Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Migliazza 1972 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Only for 5 ɨj pɨt "our hand" Everett 2006:315-7 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Ayala 1996:103-4 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:264 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra no ms9.1 done 0
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 82 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no Breen dictionary Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no 96 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 70 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H Dictionary 23 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 424 Y 0
Paakantyi no 84 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no d50, dWordlist done 0
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 73 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 84, 334 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 198 done 0
Martuthunira no 190 done 0
Marrgany No 371 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 85 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 65 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 477 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 20 wordlist done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 192 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 176 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no 38, 65 Done-Amalia 0
Gumbaynggirr no 277 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 155 0
Dyirbal No 240 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 40 done 0
Djinang no info Done-Amalia x
Djabugay done
Diyari no 56 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 130 done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no 103-5 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 159 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 144, 146 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 73 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 151 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 40 done 0
Katthang no 72 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no word list, O: Adjectival Nominals done 0
Ngarinyeri No 22 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 371 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 200 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 151 done 0
Arrernte No 81 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 92 0
Ritharrngu No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 131 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no 176 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no 26 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 159 Y2 0
Narungga No 56 done 0
Tharrkari No 18 0
Wajarri No info 36 x
Warungu no 159 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes four, five Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps