Resígaro

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
rgr
Location
-2.48°, -71.36°
Notes
In close contact with Boran, Witotoan, and Andoke; 'People of the Center'.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Allin, Trevor R. 1976. A Grammar of Resigaro. High Wycombe, England: SIL Allin, Trevor R. 1979. Vocabulario resígaro. Documento de Trabajo, 16. Huber, R. and Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Seifart, Frank. 2011. Bora Loans in Resígaro: Massive morphological and little lexical borrowing in a moribund Arawakan language. Cadernos de Etnolingüística (Série Monografias, 2).


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location hiípó hiípó unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar apoᵰú apon̟ú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
all todo todos other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ókóniigiJíhú ókóniigiJíhú unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
at en, a em, a location -nú, -gí -nú, -gí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
back espalda costas body váᵰí ván̟í inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
belly barriga barriga body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
below abajo, debajo abaixo location hipóo hipóo unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
big grande grande quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bite morder morder body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
black negro preto colour missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
blood sangre sangue body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
blow soplar soprar body fóo-khú fóo-kʰú doubtful loan Witoto, but onomatopoeic See Language page Ana Paula B.
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kaavaí kaavaí doubtful loan, direction unknown Muinane káidʒɨno See Language page Ana Paula B.
bone hueso osso body aápí aápí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
breast pecho, seno peito body ó?kótáapígú óʔkótáapígú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
breathe respirar respirar body siku?-Jú sikuʔ-Jú unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
burn quemar queimar environment hoo-khú hoo-kʰú doubtful loan East Tukanoan; Tanimuca, Carapana ho'e, hoe See Language page Ana Paula B.
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body chakó?-khú chakóʔ-kʰú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
child niño, niña criança human missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
climb subir subir motion i?šú iʔʃú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
cold frío frio quality hi?píí?, taa hiʔpííʔ, taa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
come venir vir motion tsa?nú tsaʔnú loan Bora tsʰaá (plus inheritance form?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
cook cocinar cozinhar impact akú akú inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
cry llorar chorar mental kání kání unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kio?-khú (cut in a half), seu?-khú (cut small things), tuu-khú (cut big things) kioʔ-kʰú (cut in a half), seuʔ-kʰú (cut small things), tuu-kʰú (cut big things) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
day día dia time hee?kó heeʔkó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
die/be dead morir morrer state missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dig cavar cavar impact hí?žo híʔʒo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dirty sucio sujo quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
drink beber, tomar beber body i?dú iʔdú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dry seco seco quality makádú makádú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dust polvo poeira environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
ear oreja orelha body henákó henákó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
earth/soil tierra terra environment hihi hihi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
eat comer comer body a?mitú aʔmitú doubtful loan Boran See Language page Ana Paula B.
egg huevo ovo fauna eévé(ú) eévé(ú) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
eye ojo olho body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ii?šú iiʔʃú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fall caer cair motion ha?vanú, á?nú haʔvanú, áʔnú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
far lejos longe quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
father padre, papá pai kinship [-han]ígí (dp91) [-han]ígí (dp91) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fear miedo medo mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather pluma pena fauna tsíináhí tsíináhí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fire fuego fogo environment o?koná? (possessed form) oʔkonáʔ (possessed foɾm) unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish xx xx fauna ámoogí ámoogí loan Bora See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
flower flor flor environment giiví giiví inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fly volar voar motion adú adú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment iítshú iítsʰú unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
foot pie body hii?pú hiiʔpú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fruit fruta fruta flora niíkú niíkú unknown poss. inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
good bueno bom quality kasˇó? kaʃóʔ doubtful loan Nheengatú katu See Language page Ana Paula B.
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body híve?áǰii?ó híveʔádʒiiʔó unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
hand mano mão body -ké -ké inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
head cabeza cabeça body híveú híveú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hear oír ouvir mental hé?mú héʔmú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
heavy pesado pesado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
how? como como grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
if si se grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
intestines intestinos intestinos body ii?šákó iiʔʃákó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
kill matar matar impact kainée-khú, mótshó kainée-kʰú, mótsʰó unknown; doubtful loan Jivaroan, cf. Huambisa ma:tsa See Language page Ana Paula B.
lake lago lago environment húneú húneú loan Bora See Language page Ana Paula B.
laugh reír rir mental khoní kʰoní inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
leaf hoja folha environment apáná?aamí apánáʔaamí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body apá?mí?osí apáʔmíʔosí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion hepítakaá, tó?makaá hepítakaá, tóʔmakaá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment phédo?vakhoótsí pʰédoʔvakʰoótsí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
liver hígado figado body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
long largo comprido, longo quality tseinó? tseinóʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna netetshí?ó netetsʰíʔó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lung pulmón pulmão body váfó?ootsí váfóʔootsí loan Ocaina? See Language page Ana Paula B.
meat/flesh carne carne fauna gí?í gíʔí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
moon luna lua environment keégí keégí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship hanáva hanáva inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mouth boca boca body nó nó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
name nombre nome human iivú iivú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
near/close cerca de perto quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
neck cuello pescoço body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
new nuevo novo quality be?é beʔé loan Boran See Language page Ana Paula B.
night noche noite time naapí naapí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
no/not no não grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
nose nariz nariz body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
old viejo velho quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
one uno um number pa[topʰe] (dp91), sagú pa[topʰe] (dp91), sagú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
open/uncover abrir abrir other a?kó aʔkó doubtful loan Carib, cf. Ingariko aʔkoka See Language page Ana Paula B.
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body vakhá-jú vakʰá-jú unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
person/human being persona pessoa human ináavi?žaánigí ináaviʔʒaánigí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
rain lluvia chuva environment fá?voótsí fáʔvoótsí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
red rojo vermelho colour kedávií́? kedávií́ʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kaášo?osí kaáʃoʔosí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
road/path camino caminho manufacture aǰápó, éhuúhí adʒápó, éhuúhí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
root raíz raiz flora tébaké tébaké doubtful loan Boran, see also Zaparo See Language page Ana Paula B.
rotten podrido podre quality amaa?kátshí amaaʔkátsʰí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sand arena areia environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
scratch rascar rasgar impact khová?-khú kʰováʔ-kʰú missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
see ver ver mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
short corto curto quality matshó? matsʰóʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoulder hombro ombro body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sit sentar(se) sentar state ítshú, i?tsháká ítsʰú, iʔtsʰáká inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
skin piel pele body eémámíí?o, eémú eémámííʔo, eémú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sky cielo céu environment há?ihí háʔihí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
sleep dormir dormir body ímú ímú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
small pequeño pequeno quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
smoke humo fumaça environment iítshú iítsʰú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body mókhó mókʰó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact khova?-khú (split wood), khovakó?i-Jú kʰovaʔ-kʰú (split wood), kʰovakóʔi-Jú unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact a?naᵰú aʔnan̟ú doubtful loan, direction unknown Ocaina (Witoto) "ããɲi" See Language page Ana Paula B.
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
star estrella estrela environment hivíigí hivíigí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora aváanaí aváanaí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone piedra pedra environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
suck chupar chupar body soo?-khú sooʔ-kʰú inheritance similar forms shared with Bora and other languages; onomatopoeic See Language page Ana Paula B.
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
swell hincharse inchar body fóo-jú fóo-jú doubtful loan Boran/Witotoan See Language page Ana Paula B.
swim nadar nadar motion o?vápú oʔvápú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tail cola, rabo rabo body tshíipí tsʰíipí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
that ese/esa esse grammar unknown possibly Span loan See Language page Ana Paula B.
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality jíjaagí jíjaagí unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
thin delgado fino quality kha?gí? kʰaʔgíʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
think pensar pensar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
this este/esta este grammar gi?í/do?ó giʔí/doʔó unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
2sg xx xx grammar phá, phú pʰá, pʰú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
three tres tres number migaakú? sagú? migaakúʔ sagúʔ calque two and one (as elsewhere in region) See Language page Ana Paula B.
throat garganta garganta body naa?kápí (inside), ó?kótáapí (outside) naaʔkápí (inside), óʔkótáapí (outside) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
thunder truenos trovão environment eénó (R01) eénó (R01) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
tongue lengua lingua body e?héepé eʔhéepé doubtful loan Witoto See Language page Ana Paula B.
tooth diente dente body oné oné unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
two dos dois number migaakú migaakú loan Boran See Language page Ana Paula B.
vomit vomitar vomitar body i?kaᵰú iʔkan̟ú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
water agua agua environment hooní hooní inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wet mojado molhado quality patshánu? patsʰánuʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
what? que, qué que grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
when? cuando quando grammar hidee?tsí hideeʔtsí unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
where? donde onde grammar heᵰéé hen̟éé unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
white blanco branco colour hefíí? hefííʔ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
who? quien, quién quem grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
wife esposa esposa kinship -íní, iínó, máujˇé (wife of husband) -íní, iínó, máudʒé (wife of husband) inheritance; unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
wind viento vento environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
wing ala asa body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
woman/female mujer mulher human ináadó ináadó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
work trabajar trabalhar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha?agá?i-Jú haʔagáʔi-Jú unique compare Ayachucho Quechua hakapakuj, hanʎapakuj See Language page Ana Paula B.
yellow amarillo amarelo colour dogíiga?é? dogíigaʔéʔ doubtful loan Muinane gii- See Language page Ana Paula B.
bad mal mal quality matshíva?nú?́ matsʰívaʔnúʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar migí ' él, ese', eégí, tsó 'she, her', tsú 'he' migí ' él, ese', eégí, tsó 'she, heɾ', tsú 'he' unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
1sg yo eu grammar ó ó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
leg/foot pierna perna body íphíkuba, hii?pákuba ípʰíkuba, hiiʔpákuba unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
man/male hombre homem human atsáagí atsáagí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ú (ellos), mi?á ú (ellos), miʔá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar fa?á faʔá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar muu?á muuʔá loan Bora mɯɯ́ʔ-a See Language page Ana Paula B.
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ha?á, i- (imperative) haʔá, i- (impeɾative) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
bark corteza casca environment da?mí daʔmí unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
fingernail uña unha body hi?táví hiʔtáví inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
heart corazón coração body váfoú váfoú inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sun sol sol time há?í háʔí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
green verde verde quality ipogí? ipogíʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hot caliente quente quality ha?mo? haʔmoʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana phiigí pʰiigí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B.
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. enóogí, pí?ža?é enóogí, píʔʒaʔé unique Also píʔʒaʔé uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B.
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. phíi?tsí (dp91) pʰíiʔtsí (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. pegíinú pegíinú unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B.
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis hamaánú hamaánú doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW Central North Arawak Ramirez reconstructs; cf. other Arawak source loans for dolphin uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B.
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus hiigí (dp91), tyúukó hiigí (dp91), tʲúukó inheritance; loan Bora ohdako; Ocaina tsóraaxo missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B.
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora omáapí omáapí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae piíme piíme (H&R) loan Bora Bora pʰíímjɛpa, Muinane ɸíimo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) monóotsí (small), piígí monóotsí (small), piígí inheritance cognate M. tetradactyla (Ramirez 2001) Also monóotsí (small anteater) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B.
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ǰó?nó, tsa?i (dp91) dʒóʔnó, tsaʔi (dp91) doubtful loan Witoto e.g. Ocaina ñṍṍn̵õ. Also tsaʔi (dp91) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B.
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B.
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. šakoo?gí?ó ʃakooʔgíʔó unique no evidence that this is a Bora loan, cf. Seifart 2011 uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B.
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. pitshíigí pitsʰíigí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mápú, maápú mápú, maápú inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kó!píidú, adovíigí kóʔpíidú, adovíigí inheritance Central North Arawak Also adovíigí uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B.
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B.
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae patsoβiíté (Seifart2011) patsoβiíté unknown missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) nanapíitáʔó ('gourd') nanapíitáʔó ('gourd') missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B.
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B.
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata mané (Seifart11) mané (Seifart11) inheritance missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ho?bú hoʔbú loan Bora Bora oʔpa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum áñaahí?é áɲaahíʔé loan Bora áɲaáhɨ missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B.
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum áɲaahíʔé áɲaahíʔé unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. epíipí epíipí inheritance Shared Kabiyari; possibly related to Baniwa-Tariana dapa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B.
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca híibí?é híibíʔé loan - WW Bora? Shared in languages of People of the Center: Bora Muinane xííbi-(ʔo), Andoke híʔpíe, Koreguaje xipie, hipie; Witoto, e.g. Mɨnɨca Huitoto hí.ibi.ɛ WW %hibie uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B.
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria toodóhí toodóhí loan Bora Bora toorójɨ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu hapíitsú hapíitsú missing Proto-Arawak (North and South) Broader (peccary) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kapiítshi (dp91) kapiítsʰi (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) tshomaátshí tsʰomaátsʰí inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B.
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ipádoʔhí ipádoʔhí inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae tsii?tsi?ó tsiiʔtsiʔó loan, direction unknown (Bora?), Muinane síísi, Resigaro tsiiʔtsiʔo, Ocaina tʃitʃíʔo onomatopoeic Ocaina tʃitʃíʔo (no data for Bora) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kovíitsí; ʃóhó (H&R92) kovíitsí inheritance Central North Arawak ʃóhó (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus keé?šé keéʔʃé inheritance cf. southern Arawak forms uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris íiní íiní semantic shift from Proto-Arawak jaguar Also means 'jaguar' Broader (dog and jaguar) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B.
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae híhuuu híhuuu loan Bora Bora ɨ́juúu; probably also onomatopoeic uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. eniítsí, na?í, otsóomú 'edible larva' eniítsí, naʔí, otsóomú 'edible laɾva' unknown Also eniítsí, naʔí uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ámoogí ámoogí loan Bora (directionality unclear, but Seifart notes that it probably follows the general pattern of B>R) Bora amóópɛ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. konáapi konáapi inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B.
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ka?vátsí kaʔvátsí inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera heété heété loan Bora Bora έέtʰɛpa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B.
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) himiítsí himiítsí inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans déene?é déeneʔé loan Bora tééneʔe uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B.
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba ǰoimokó?to dʒoimokóʔto unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B.
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ∫óhó (H&R) ∫óhó (H&R) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi hutooba?žó? hutoobaʔʒóʔ doubtful loan - WW? %tuipa? uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B.
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae peegí (R01) peegí (R01) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens aatsʰíu aatsʰíu (H&R) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Arawak is thought to be source of Spanish ají uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B.
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] oovú oovú unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pí?mí píʔmí inheritance Central North Arawak Compare Tukanoan (E&W) forms mimi, etc. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. maañá?o maañáʔo loan - WW %maɲaʔo, cf. Bora/Yucuna Shared with Yucuna; see Bora and Ocaina, e.g. máányaʔo, mááñaho; Wanderwort - also borrowed into Kakua? WW %mañaʔo uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B.
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca íiní (dp91) íiní (dp91), dʒéeβí (dog) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also dʒéeβí (H&R, others) Broader (dog and jaguar) uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B.
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B.
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. dyuííšikó dʲuííʃikó loan Bora tʰóótʃí uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. jáku jáku inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B.
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. huduúgí huduúgí unique Also kófé (edible ones) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. anáadó anáadó (H&R) doubtful loan into protolg - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) %arara Wanderwort: see Cocama arara, Wanano daharo, Carib forms, Spanish ara, Portuguese arara WW %ara uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays veéká?ó veékáʔó doubtful loan - WW %bea (but not from Bora/Witoto?) Witoto, Bora shared forms bέdʒa WW %be uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B.
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. kapiníigí kapiníigí unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kaání kaání inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B.
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta káǰíigí kádʒíigí semantic shift? prob. from 'potato' Compare forms for 'potato' in Arawak lgs. Likely loan into Carib, see Makiritari kɨde:de, Pemon kanari uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B.
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa iteevi?é iteeviʔé inheritance? - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B.
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. haníi¢o (Payne91) haníitso (Payne91) inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tyó?otyóbú tʲóʔotʲóbú unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B.
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis husóodó husóodó unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae itsíigí itsíigí inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes popóogí popóogí inheritance - WW? onomatopoeic Central North Arawak %pupu; P-A *punpuli (Payne91) See similar forms in Tukanoan, Yagua, etc.; probably onomatopoeic uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) naápú naápú inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana kaádó kaádó inheritance Attested Yucuna, Resigaro uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B.
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ǰoódú dʒoódú loan Bora (Seifart 2011), but cf. loro forms May be Arawak in origin; see Achagua lora; Arawak source proposed for Spanish loro. Likely loan into Bora tʃoóra, Ocaina tʲóóra uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea haáǰabú, po?poóta?é haádʒabú, poʔpoótaʔé loan Bora aátʃa Also poʔpoótaʔé uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B.
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pipíigí pipíigí doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW Central North Arawak %pipiri uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus nanáana?ó, améetshaú nanáanaʔó, améetsʰaú loan - WW %nana Also nanáanaʔó uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae mepókó mepókó unknown may be loan? uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B.
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B.
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. evitsóogí?é, konóogí 'rubber' evitsóogíʔé, konóogí 'ɾubbeɾ' unique See also konóogí 'rubbeɾ' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B.
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones epíitshí (=axe) epíitsʰí (=axe) inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? Also means 'axe' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B.
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua ponaáma (R01) ponaáma (R01) missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B.
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. potsháadó potsʰáadó unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata sovidákó sovidákó loan Bora (cf. Seifart) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna oná?kó onáʔkó unique Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox onáʔkó onáʔkó (H&R) inheritance Central North Arawak Broader (snake in general) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B.
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae paagáú paagáú loan Bora Bora pʰaakwá uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae meníigí meníigí inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. bahí (Seifart2011) bahí (Seifart2011) loan Bora missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kaniídeú kaniídeú inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Uncertain as inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B.
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris aóogí aóogí unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kamaádú kamaádú inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kopáagí kopáagí inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae haagú 'perdiz', kádatú 'gallina' haagú 'peɾdiz', kádatú 'gallina' unique kadatu=chicken Also? kádatú 'gallina' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura todokáakú todokáakú loan Bora (Seifart 2011) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum niítsí?ó niítsíʔó doubtful loan cf. Yukuna Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B.
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria haádahí haádahí unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B.
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. beǰii?í; dʒíío (H&R92) bedʒiiʔí loan Bora/Muinane bárʲí- Bora perííʔyo, Muinane bárʲígai. Also dʒíío (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna aváana?é aváanaʔé inheritance Yucuna-Resigaro only; inheritance or loan? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B.
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae βatsóogí (H&R) βatsóogí (H&R) inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B.
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita haánimiínú haánimiínú inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari hapíitsu (dp91), aevíidógí hapíitsu (dp91), aevíidógí inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also aevíidógí (aevíi? 'many'); an̥eβíidógí (H&R92) Broader (peccary) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia kamhíi-do (R01) kamhíi-do (R01) inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B.
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae tshoófú 'large woodpecker' tsʰoófú 'laɾge woodpeckeɾ' unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B.
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. oϕíináú oϕíináú (H&R) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B.
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B.
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna íiní íiní semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna keé?sˇé keéʔʃé unique See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool noótsígú noótsígú loan Boran 'machete/metal' Simplex -gu "long, flat" classifier hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool epíitshi epíitsʰi inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kaʔmó Inheritance Proto Central North Arawak Alternate: míípakó (of a specific material), kamóʔ Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material hímíu hímíu unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material moó-tsi-hú moó-tsi-hú doubtful calque Bora ('sleep-?') Derived ímú = “to sleep”, -tsi = nominalizer, -hú = “long and flat, horizontal” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material i?tsoótshigú iʔtsoótsʰigú unique Derived root iʔtsoó (meaning?) + -tsi nominalizer, -gú “long and flat” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool vá?paánú, vá?paánahú váʔpaánú, váʔpaánahú inheritance Proto North Arawak Alternate: vápaánú Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool -jawi[thíapu] (hr01) -jawi[tʰíapu] (hɾ01) inheritance *tapo Proto Arawak Simplex arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material boto?khoótsíkooz?ú (sweep+?) botoʔ-kʰoótsí-kooʔú unique from 'sweep' Derived botoʔ = “to sweep,” -tsi object nominalizer”, kooʔú identified as “broom” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport hiítú hiítú inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation miishí miiʃí loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kádatú kádatú loan - WW %kara Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology keʔví- keʔví- unique Simplex But found in dictionaries with gender markers, e.g. -gí See Language page Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool avéana-í (stick) avéana-í (stick) semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B.
coca narcotics híibíʔé Loan Local Bora (e.g. Bora xííbi-(ʔo)); Andoke híʔpíe; Yagua xapatij; Koreguaje xipie; Witoto: Ocaina hiibiro; may be related to other 'coca' WW %patu WW %hipie Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food akú Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B.
dance (generic) culture-mythology adotú Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology vakéǰo?thoónagí (kéǰo?tú 'create') vakédʒoʔtʰoónagí unique Bora Derived kéǰo?tú 'create', -gí gender marker In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tapóní-katsí tapóní-katsí inheritance Proto North Arawak Looks like an inherited complex form, but could be calqued/innovated Derived taponi = “to sleep,” -ka-tsi = abstract nominalizer See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology koómobú koómobú semantic shift cf. signal drum Likely loan from Bora. Signal drum: Bora, Muinane, Resigaro, Yucuna, (Paez?); bench: ET: Macuna, Tukano, Tanimuca, Bará, Waimaja (also means 'benzador' in some of these lgs); canoe: ET: Bará, Carapana, Macuna, Yuruti, Siriano, Tanimuca, Waimaja (definitel WW %kumu Simplex kóomo = “drum,” -bú possibly “made of liana cord” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pho?khoótsí pʰoʔkʰoó-tsí loan Resigaro Payne gives hevo (inheritance) Derived pʰoʔkʰoó = “to shake,” -tsí = object nominalizer esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other itsítsó itsítsó inheritance Proto North Arawak donor for Cofan siʔtsi? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food o?domú oʔdomú unknown Compare Makiritare a:da:di Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ee?phi-khú eeʔpʰi-kʰú unique eeʔpʰi= “fish, to fish” See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool konáa-pi Inheritance Proto-Arawak? Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool opíitsí(kó) opíitsí(kó) Semantic shift Tariana/Baniwa cognates mean “strainer/sieve” (directionality could also be the opposite) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food maa?mú; peé-gí (R01) maaʔmú; peé-gí (R01) cassava (not necessarily bread) loan; inheritance/sem shift Bora Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food peégi (?also bread) peégi (?also bread) semantic shift manioc food' Also means starch; similar forms for 'manioc bread' in Tariana, Baniwa Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology fídodó fídodó inheritance? Yagua Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food tshoveení tsʰoveení animal (not domestic) unknown Proto Central North Arawak Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B.
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool nanapíitáʔó ('gourd') nanapíitáʔó ('gourd') unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool káasogú káasogú metallic grater (rallador metálico) loan Bora Simplex -gu "long, flat" classifier esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology nigínoo-mú nigínoo-mú loan direction unknown Bora Simplex mu is “tube-shaped” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool teí?iku teíʔiku unknown te- from Bora 'this' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ókóniigi-hú ókóniigi-hú calque from 'fire' Languages in region tend to have 'fire-stick' for 'gun' Derived ókóniigi = “fire, candle” -hú= “long and flat, horizontal” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material hamáakú, heté? hamáakú, hetéʔ inheritance, inheritance Proto Arawak Occurs in Arawak, Macaguan, Kakua (?), Urarina (?), Aguaruna. Taylor 1957 argues that origin is in Arawak 'sleep-NMLZ'; [Alternate: heté?] WW %amaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress ta?mhoótsi-hí taʔm̥oótsi-hí unique Derived -hi = "round and flat" classifier, but no entry for root See Language page Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kanívakáagí kanívakáagí witch doctor, shaman unique Alternate: naikogígí Simplex But found in dictionaries with gender markers In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food íímuʔopákó íímuʔopákó loan Bora Bora (íímuhojpácyo 'bee'); similar form also in Ocaina Witoto íímuʔo “honey”; pákó identified as “honey” classifier only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food #NAME? -min̥ápaví unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material va?agajá? vaʔagad͡ʒáʔ unique see 'machete' Derived see 'machete' See Language page Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material va?agú vaʔagú unique Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tho?khoótsií tʰoʔkʰoótsií inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation té?aamí téʔaamí unique formed from loan classifier from Bora something to do with writing/paper See Language page Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tho?khoótsií tʰoʔkʰoótsií inheritance Likely cognate Baniwa Derived tʰoʔkʰoó “to grind,” -tsi “object nominalizer” -í (-hi?) “round and flat” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material bo?otáhí boʔotáhí loan Bora Simplex -hi "round and flat" classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool akaká?, itá? (olla de barro) akakáʔ, itáʔ (olla de baɾɾo) clay pot unique; unique Alternate: akakáʔ, itsaaʔniʔíd͡ʒó (also mud pot), vatsʰoótsíʔohú (tin), akakáʔ (for making food) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology čhé?ke?ó, čhé?keú čhéʔkeʔó, čhéʔkeú maraca loan Bora xáá-ku in Muinane. Alternate: t͡ʃhéʔke-ʔó (round-shaped maraca, maraca-CL:round)] Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool maání maání inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food kanaamáʔo; iíwi (R01) kanaamáʔo; iíwi (R01) table salt loan; inheritance Bora Alternate: iiví (rock salt) ʔó = classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation té?aami-hú téʔaami-hú unique Derived téʔaami (related to writing/paper); -hú “long and horizontal” classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress hii?pa?-tsí?aa?dó hiiʔpaʔ-tsíʔaaʔdó doubtful calque Local See Bora, Yucuna Derived hiiʔpaʔ = “foot,” -tsíʔaaʔdó analyzed as a classifier meaning “shoe,” but this word is the only example given. See Language page Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material hipóonhe-hú hipóon̥e-hú unique Simplex -hu = "long and flat, horizontal" classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hada?phoótsihú hadaʔpʰoó-tsi-hú unique Derived hadaʔpʰoó = sing, -tsi = nominalizer, -hú is either a classifier or singular marker See Language page Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool noótsígú noótsígú loan Boran 'machete/metal' Simplex -gu "long, flat" classifier See Language page Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food peégí peégí semantic shift manioc food' same as manioc meal Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation iítshiíjihú iítsʰidᶚi-hú sugar unknown Alternate: iítsʰi-mú (sugar cane, sugar + “tubelike” classifier) d͡ʒihu a classifier; or perhaps -d͡ʒi (nominalizer) -hu (classifier/singular marker?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food maaʔgi maaʔgi loan from Boran 'manioc food' agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kaádó kaádó inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food pasoviíté, kaj-aákú pasoviíté, kad͡ʒ-aákú unknown; doubtful loan Muinane Alternate: pasoviíté (tipiti bora) Other complex “kad͡ʒ” looks like a root meaning “manioc,” (see entries for yuca, masato), “-aáku” some sort of classifier? word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B.
tobacco (native) narcotics niítsí Unknown Probably related to Yucuna litʃi; possible loan? Alternate: niítsíʔó (tobacco, tobacco+”longish and oval-shaped” classifier”) Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool tshídóogí tsʰídóogí inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material míípakó míípakó doubtful loan - WW %panaku See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture koómó koómó loan - WW %kumu Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology naikogígí naikogígí unknown Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology vedéemú vedéemú doubtful loan Bora kwáxjamɯ See Language page Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ižo iʒo unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport boe?khóotsí boeʔkʰóotsí doubtful loan Bora See Language page Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tshomaátshí-?o tsʰomaátsí-ʔó unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kaǰíigíbú, mééme?ó kadʒíigíbú, méémeʔó doubtful loan; loan Carib caxiri, via TG; Bora prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
house other paniítsí paniítsí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Allin, 1976, p. 58 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Allin, 1976, p. 58 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes /tʲ/, /dʲ/ /ty/, /dy/ Allin, 1976, p. 58 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Allin, 1976, p. 53-58 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Allin, 1976, p. 70-71 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Allin, 1976, p. 75 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no only /ʔ/ can be a coda Allin, 1976, p. 75 Ana Paula Brandao
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Allin, 1976, p. 77 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes 2 contrastive tones Allin, 1976, p. 72 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no not discussed as a suprasegmental feature Allin, 1976, p. 72 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no not discussed as a suprasegmental feature Allin, 1976, p. 72 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Allin, 1976: 42-75 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Allin, 1976: 95 Ana Paula Brandao
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no No indication of fusion. Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Person and aspect indicated by use of separate morphemes. Allin, 1976: 124 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes yes Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Allin, 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Allin notes that there may be some frozen reduplication, but this is not productive and the unreduplicated forms are no longer available. However, the verb phrase can be repeated in total (for simple VPs) or in part (complex VPs) to give a repetitive read Allin 1976: 113, 210 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Allin notes that there may be some frozen reduplication, but this is not productive and the unreduplicated forms are no longer available. However, the verb phrase can be repeated in total (for simple VPs) or in part (complex VPs) to give a repetitive read Allin 1976: 113, 210 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no No indication that nominals can be compounded productively at any level. Allin, 1976: 98-99, 109-115, 150-176, 223-235 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no No indication that verb roots or stems can combine productively at any level. Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109, 124-150, 204-223 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no No indication that verb roots or stems can combine productively at any level. Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109, 124-150, 204-223 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes khú (make, do); dʒú (be); tóʔ, vú (obtain) khú (make, do); ǰú (be); tóʔ, vú (obtain) At the verb "group" level, three verbs can take complements (verbal, adjectival, clausal). They seem to be fairly bleached, basically marking just the difference between transitive (causative?) and intransitive (inchoative?) variants. They fill the head s Allin, 1976: 206-207 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes iʔpí (go); tsáʔ (come); khú (habitual) iʔpí (go); tsáʔ (come); khú (habitual) Allin identifies three auxiliaries, which take person marking. However, the reflexive and privative markers are found on main verb. Allin, 1976: 214 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no The description of verb stems and roots do not contain a slot for a nominal root, although there are light-verb constructions that take a nominal complement. Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109 Aimee Lawrence
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no The description of a verb stem (or any other level) does not contain a slot for some other root (although there are light verb constructions that take adjectival or clausal complements). Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Allin's description of a noun phrase includes "concord" between a head noun and several dependents, however, the concord categories seem to be number, size, and classifiers, rather than gender or class. Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Ana Paula Brandao
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Noun classifiers trigger extensive agreement, but there can be multiple classifiers and not all nouns have them. Allin, 1976: 152-153 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter n/a Sex distinction in third-person pronouns, including incorporated pronouns that appear in the absence of a full NP subject, but these don't seem to be noun classes. Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates n/a No noun classes. Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes One classifier marks non-human animates (as well as human males). Allin 1976: 155 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes tsú (masculine), tsó (feminine) tsú (masculine), tsó (feminine) Allin, 1976: 100 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no The description of classifiers includes classifiers for male and female, the examples of shape classifiers do not include animates. Allin, 1976: 153-163 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes -ʔó, -ʔaamí, -ú -ʔó, -ʔaamí, -ú There are classifiers for "long and oval shaped," "arm-shaped," "leaf-like," "rope-like," "sperical," etc. Allin, 1976: 153-163 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no A classifier is not required. However, classifiers may be used to "singularize" nouns that are inherently plural, which is on rare occasions the same as the noun itself. Allin, 1976: Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no A "finger" classifier is used when counting without reference to a specific object. The classifier agrees with that used on the noun when specific objects are being counted. Allin, 1976: 200-201 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no From the examples, it looks as though verbs must first take a nominalizing suffix before the classifier can be added. Allin, 1976: 153-163 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes Some nouns are basically plural and can only carry number suffixes if they are first "singularized" by using a classifier. Allin, 1976: 151 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Both dual and plural markers. Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Plural marked on all nouns with classifiers, some of which are not animate. Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Allin, 1976: 116 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no No mention of associative among other dual and plural markers. Allin, 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no No articles, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no No articles identified, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no No articles identified, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes fú (inclusive), múu (exclusive) There only seems to be a distinction in "deictic" pronouns. Allin, 1976: 115-117 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no There seem to be both inclusive and exclusive pronominal roots, but only the inclusive pronominal root is identified as binding to the verb to indicate the subject. Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 hí (this), héʔe (that) hí (this), héʔe (that) Distal and proximate Allin, 1976: 199 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Demonstratives carry other affixes, but these are dependent on they noun they modify. Allin, 1976: 199 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Allin, 1976: 176 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Allin, 1976: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Dative NPs have a case marker, but it is bound morphology. Allin, 1976: 238 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 21 dative, purposive, benefactive, instrumental, concomitant: with, without, alone; 2 comparatives, conditional, adjunct marker, 3 directionals, 7 locatives Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no The dative case marker marks the recipient in a ditransitive. Allin, 1976: 238 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Allin gives lots of examples, there do not seem to be any restrictions. Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes All 21 case markers follow the NP Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no instrumental -gí, comitative -neé instrumental -gí, comitative -neé Allin, 1976: 250 , 252 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes sagú (one), migaakú (two) sagú (one), migaakú (two) These seem to be the only etymologically-opaque numerals, other numerals are based on shortened forms of these two, with several different classifiers, "three" is "two-one." Allin, 1976: 203, 236 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes The word for "five" is basic, but 6-9 ais along the lines of "from the other hand, one/two etc." Allin, 1976: 237 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Words for 11-19 are based on "from our foot" or "from the other foot." Allin, 1976: 237 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes sa-gí (one-CL.ANIM) sa-gí (one-CL.ANIM) Possibly base 20? 20 is sa-gí, or "one-man." Allin, 1976: 202 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes poʔtsáavá-gaahí (four, center finger) poʔtsáavá-gaahí (four, center finger) One' and 'two' seem to be basic, 'three' is two + one, but "four" refers to a specific finger on the hand. Allin, 1976: 202 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no The system counts at least up to twenty. Allin, 1976: 235-238 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no The system counts at least up to twenty. Allin, 1976: 235-238 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Adjective words and noun roots can be predicates, but these do not have slots for tense or aspect inflection. Allin, 1976: 285-286 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no In the examples, all subjects are expressed by free pronominals. In the discussion of pronouns, pronouns that are bound to nominals have a possessive meaning. Allin, 1976: 185-187, 285-288 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Pronoun stems, when bound to a noun root, take on a possessive meaning. Allin, 1976: 185-187 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Allin, 1976: 185-187 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no See discussion of "limiter" tagmeme under Noun Phrase. Allin, 1976: 225-227 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no See discussion of Limiter tagmeme under "noun phrase." When the possessor is referred to via a pronoun, this is fused to the possessed element, but these do not mark agreement when the possessor is referred to using a full NP. Allin, 1976: 225-227 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no The discussion of classifiers does not make this distinction, nor is it found under the discussion of a "limiter" tagmeme. Allin, 1976: 153-163, 225-227 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no From the examples, it seems as though possession of an inalienable noun is indicated simply by the use of another preposed nominal. Allin, 1976: 169-175 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Allin notes that this set of nouns takes a special morphological marker when possessed. Allin 1976: 175, 186 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Inalienable nouns have a deictic element if they are unpossessed. Allin, 1976: 225 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Allin, 1976; 165 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Allin, 1976: 166 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Nouns for humans are inalienably possessed, but do not have to occur with another noun. Allin, 1976: 165 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Allin says that adjectives contrast with other parts of speech, although he does note that they co-occur with nominal and verbal word-level suffixes. Allin, 1976: 193 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Adjectives show agreement with regard to all nominal suffixes, including classifiers. Allin, 1976: 229 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes (1) -´:ká-tsí, (2) -káa-tsí/mí (1) -´:ká-tsí, (2) -káa-tsí/mí (1) is used for verb and adjective roots, (2) only for verb roots, based on the subtype of verb. Allin, 1976: 111 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes -mináagí -mináagí Allin, 1976: 112 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes -´:tsí -´:tsí Allin calls this "concrete nominalization." The preceding vowel is lengthened and given a high tone. Allin, 1976: 109-110 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no All verbal derivation morphology derive verbs from verb roots. Allin, 1976: 106-107 Aimee Lawrence
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no No dicussion of NP coordination in section on noun phrases, suggests that this is achieved through use of concomitant phrases. Allin, 1976: 251-252 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Past-tense markers seem to be second-position clitics, so they are often phonologically attached to the subject marker. There is no indication of how regular they are, but they often show up in examples. Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes -mi (recent past), -ʔpe (remote past) -mi (recent past), -ʔpe (remote past) Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Only one future marker Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes -vá -vá Allin, 1976: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Allin, 1976:136, 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Progressive aspect is a suffix, tense markers are second-position clitics. Allin, 1976:136, 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Allin, 1976:136, 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Allin, 1976:136, 342 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes singular: pa- +tone, dual/plural: i- … -musi (m) or -mupi (f) +tone change singular: pa- +tone, dual/plural: i- … -musi (m) or -mupi (f) +tone change Distinct 2nd person prefix from declarative clauses, plus a tone change if the penultimate (and antepenultimate) syllables have a) short vowels and b) low tone. Allin, 1976: 99, 138 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Allin, 1976: 353-355 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes =maʔu (imperatives), níi (declaratives) =maʔu (imperatives), níi (declaratives) For a prohibitive, the negative marker in a regular declarative clause is "removed" and the negative imperative clitic is used instead. Allin, 1976: 354 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Allin notes that the subject of an imperative clause must be 2nd person. Allin, 1976: 353-355 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no No indication of such an affix in the discussion of verb stems or verb words. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no No indication of such a construction in the discussion of verb group, verb piece, or verb phrase. Allin, 1976: 204, 212, 219 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info No dicussion of a construction along these lines. Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no No indication of such an affix in the discussion of verb stems or verb words. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no No indication of such a construction in the discussion of verb group, verb piece, or verb phrase. Allin, 1976: 204, 212, 219 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info No indication of such an affix in the discussion of verb stems or verb words. Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no No indication of such an affix in the discussion of verb stems or verb words. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes =paʔ =paʔ Allin, 1976: 337 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -:ké -:ké Allin, 1976: 214-215 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no The discussions of the verb at various levels do not describe a morpheme/verb form of this type. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no The formulations of verb stems and verb words do not include this type of morphology. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no The formulations of verb stems and verb words do not include this type of morphology. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes -keé (to go to), -kí (to come from) -keé (to go to), -kí (to come from) adlative and ablative markers Allin, 1976: 132-133 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -tsá -tsá One of five second-position clitics. Allin, 1976: 336 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes There is one evidential, a reportive, which makes use of a verb affix. Allin, 1976: 336 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no The only evidential value uses an affix. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no The only evidential value uses an affix. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no The only evidential value uses an affix. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Allin 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SV and SOV Allin, 1976: 311, 318 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no SV Allin, 1976: 311 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Allin says that SOV order is "quite rigid" in transitive clauses. Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Allin says that SOV order is "quite rigid" in transitive clauses. Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Allin says that SOV order is "quite rigid" in transitive clauses. Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Case markers (clitics?) are all postpositions. Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Case markers (clitics?) are all postpositions. Allin, 1976: 238-279 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes "Limiter" corresponds to possessor, precedes noun. Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Dem no Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Num-Noun yes Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Num no Allin, 1976: 223 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes The relative clause fills the "modifier" slot. Allin, 1976: 368 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Allin, 1976: 368 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Allin, 1976: 368 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Allin, 1976: 368 Aimee Lawrence
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Not always, it seems as though most question words fill sentence-initial "slots," but when core participants are the questioned elements, these remain in situ. Allin, 1976:346-352 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no No case marking of SAO Allin, 1976: 290-291 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Allin, 1976: 290-291 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Allin, 1976: 290-291 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Allin, 1976: 290-291 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Allin, 1976: 290-291 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Subject pronouns can be fused with the verb, but object pronouns are not. Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Subject pronouns can be fused with the verbs, but these seem more like pronouns rather than agreement markers. Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Allin, 1976: 176 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Allin, 1976: 176 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no No person marking, only pronominal clitics, which do have both possessive and person-tracking functions. Allin, 1976: 176-179 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes -ké -ké The recipient of a ditransitive is marked with the dative case marker. Allin, 1976: 294 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Allin, 1976: 294 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Allin, 1976: 294 Ana Paul Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes -kakávú -kakávú Allin, 1976: 127 Ana Paul Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes -phaávú -phaávú Allin, 1976: 128 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Allin, 1976: 129 Ana Paul Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no A passive derivation is not discussed in the formulation of the verb at any level. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no An antipassive derivation is not discussed in the formulation of the verb at any level. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no No intransitivizing derivation is discussed as part of the verb stem. Allin, 1976: 105 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no No applicative is discussed as part of the verb stem. Allin, 1976: 105 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no No applicative is discussed as part of the verb stem. Allin, 1976: 105 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -tú -tú Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes khú khú khú (make, do), ooccurs with transitive verbs that have a causative meaning. However, Allin does not describe this as a causative process. Allin, 1976: 206-207 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no No other transitivizing derivation discussed in the formation of the verb stem. Allin, 1976: 105-106 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes The example given has a preposed negator. Allin, 1976: 302-303 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Allin, 1976: 302-303 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Allin, 1976: 302-303 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes nií nií Allin, 1976: 302-303 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes ma- ma- ma- is a "privative" auxiliary. Allin, 1976: 215-216 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Allin, 1976: 302-303 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no No indication that there is a separate strategy for negating an NP. Allin, 1976: 109, 150, 223 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Allin 1976 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes hapʰá haphá Allin calls these "corroborative," but all examples are polar questions. They use the same structure as basic declaratives, except for this preposed particle. Allin, 1976: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Polar ("corroborative") questions use the same stucture as a basic clause, plus a preposed interrogative particle. Allin, 1976: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Polar ("corroborative") questions use the same stucture as a basic clause, plus a preposed interrogative particle. Allin, 1976: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Polar questions use an interrogative particle. Allin, 1976: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Interrogative words remain in the "slot" for the element that is being questioned, although many of these are sentence-initial. (E.g. the word for "how" fills the "comparative" slot, which is a sentence-initial position.) Allin, 1976: 346-347 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Adjectives seems to appear in predicates with very little verbal morphology, seems more like a noun. Allin, 1976: 285 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes From information included, it seems as though both adjectives and nouns appear in very basic form and do not take any sort of verbal morphology. Allin, 1976: 285 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Examples of predicate nominals do not have a copula. Allin, 1976: 286 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Relative clauses do not seem to have heads-- the head function is indicated by a classifier. Allin, 1976: 361 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Relative clauses can modify an overt NP in the main clause. Allin, 1976: 362 (footnote 47) Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes A class marker follows the relativizing affix on the verb in the relative clause, as well as a portmanteau number/gender marker. Allin, 1976: 359-360, 363 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes -oví (subjects), -aání (objects) -oví (subjects), -aání (objects) The verbal marker changes depending on whether the subject or object of the relative clause is being relativized. Allin, 1976: 359-360 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Nominalizers are -´:tsi, -´:kátsí/-káami, -mináagí, while relative clauses are marked with -ní (object relativization) or -ví (subject relativization). Allin, 1976: 109-112, 359 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes =maʔu =maʔu Almost never with reference to second-person, usually with reference to first-person. Allin, 1976: 339 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Allin, 1976: 370-372 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Allin, 1976: 370-372 Aimee Lawrence
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no The difference between simultaneous and sequential clauses is marked with a difference of coordinators, rather than morphologically. Allin, 1976: 372-373 Aimee Lawrence


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
14 medium AG medium sedentary Riverine