Alignment of verbal person-marking: split

Simple Clauses - Alignment
More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 27 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes While the two systems can mostly be used interchangeably and synonimously, there is an obligatory use of erg/abs when referring to non-terminal actions or non-specific subjects. Payne 1983:2025 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:21-23 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes The subject or a relative clause does not tirgger verbal cross-referencing. Duff-Tripp 1997:72 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:174-178 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 343 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Makushi no "Macushi has an ergative case-marking system that operates in both main clauses and subordinate clauses." Abbott 1991: 83 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa yes Gildea 1989:116 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1985:11 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-146 Daniel Valle
Damana yes absolutive marks both agent of intranstive clauses and patient of transitive clauses, but "agentive" is marked for agent in transitive clauses Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:328-31, 361-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:21 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes It seems that defineness and referentiality play a roll in the alignment system. No referential or indefinite objects do not get accusative case-marking. Thus, the aligment is neutral in these instances. Levinson 1978:7 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.125; Zúñiga 2006, p. 114-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Faco Soares 1993:93; Montes 2004:129-45; Montes 2004:165-166 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43-46 Chris Clack (possible/likely; but provide evidence/example)
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.89-99 Chris Clack may want to re-examine this
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes ergative-absolutive is primary for person-marking, but if one argument is 1st or 2nd person it can exhibit hierarchical, and if both are 1st/2nd there are special forms to denote which is ergative and which is absolutive (There is only split marking in th Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):2 Daniel Smith
Karitiana yes it seems that intransitive verbs show the ergative pattern whereas transitive verbs show a neutral patter. However, transitive may take the agreement markers when taking some other morphology. Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002 :83-5 Daniel Valle
Aché no Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 28, 76, ms11 done 0
Garrwa n/a done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a done-Dan 0
Yidiny N/A done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 91 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha n/a Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 41 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 352 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta N/A Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang N/A done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 89-90 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira n/a 136-152 done 0
Marrgany N/A 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 148 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 399 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 27 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no? 68-9 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr n/a done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal N/A done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a done 0
Djinang No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 32 done 0
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 81 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima n/a 169 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 43 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 21 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen N/A Done- 0
WesternTorres n/a K85c 82-3 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 55 done 0
Arrernte No 186 0
Kokatha N/A 3 0
Karajarri No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 22 0
Ritharrngu No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra n/a Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 65 Y2 0
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 20 0
Wajarri No 77 0
Warungu n/a 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no unlikely Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps