Cupeño

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
cup
Location
33.31°, -116.52°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location -ve'aw [vəɁaw] inheritance H&N* Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar hanaka [hanəkə] unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other pata'ama [pəˈtaɁəmə] unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar me [mə] inheritance Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body -xuchi [xutʃi] unknown Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -kwal'a [kwalɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment weshki-sh [wəʃˈkiʃ] unique Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -'aw [Ɂaw] inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body -xutaxwi [xutaxʷi] inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 'elel'i-sh [ɁəlˈəlɁɪʃ] loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body -$ha'i [șaɁi] inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location te- [tɨ] inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 'ay'ani-sh [ɁaiɁanɪʃ] unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body qe'-0 [qeɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tul- [tul] inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body -'ew [Ɂɨw] inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puw-in [puwin] inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body tachiw-yax [tatʃiwyax] unknown Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body -ti'i [tiɁi] loan Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body -pi [pi] inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body qusa'-0 [quˈsaɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment sex-in [səxin] inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body sakom-in [sakomin] unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human -na'aqwa [na'aqwə] loan Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion chaway-in, -yax [tʃawayin], [tʃawayax] inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment tempe-yax [təmpə-yax] inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality yuy [yuy˳] inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion -neq [nəq] inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact sixn-in [sɪxnin] inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality icha:/m [Ɂitʃáam] inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental tekwin-0 [təˈkʷin] unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental ngang [ˈŋaŋ] ~ [ŋəŋ] inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ngeti-0 [ŋəti] unknown Jane Hill
day día dia time tami-t [tamɪt] inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state qaawi-0, [qa:wi], unique Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact wal-in, [walin], [ʎawin], [mul] unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna 'iswe-t [Ɂɪswət] inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality silynyina-yax [siʎˈɲinəyax] inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental tu'uyu-0 [tuɁuyu] unknown Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body pa-0 [pa] inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality waxi-sh [waxɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality navunavu'i-sh [navuˈnavuɁɪʃ] unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment tew- [tɨw-] inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body -naq [naq-] inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment Tema-l [təˈmal] loan Jane Hill
eat comer comer body kwa-0 ['kʷa], [qʷə] inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna panyi'a-t [panyiɁət] inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body -push [-puʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body -wish, wichi-ly [wɪʃ], [witʃiʎ] unknown Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion xalew-yax (singular subject) [xaloyax] unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wawam [wawəm] loan Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wi-ly [wiʎ̥] inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -na [-na] inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental yekwin-0 [yəˈkʷin] inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna wiki-ly [wikiʎ̥] inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ku-t [kut] inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna qeyul [qəˈyul] inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion ya'-yax [yaɁyax] inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment -$he'e [șɨɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion yal-yax [yalyax] unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kwitaxi-sh [kʷitaxɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body -xuchi [xutʃi] unknown Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora pipily “strawberry”? inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 'achi'a [ɁatʃiɁa] inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state wel-0 [wəl] inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -yu [-yu] inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body -ma [-ma] inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar pe' [pɨɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body -yu [-yu] inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental naqma-0 [naqmə] inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality wim-yax [wɪm-yax] inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion wily-yax [wiʎax] unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact paq-in [paqin] inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other hewin-0 [hɨˈwin] inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar mixanuk [mixənuk] inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ne' [nəɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar chinga [tʃɪŋə] unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -nga [-ŋa] inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body - $ha'i [-şaɁi] inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ke'e-yax [kəɁəyax] inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact meq-0 [məq] inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hiwchu-0 [hiwtʃu] inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pa-l kam-yax-we [pal kamyəxwə] unique Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental $hem-0 [şəm] inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment -pel'a [-pəlɁa] loan Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body 'i$hva- [Ɂɪşˈva] inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body -xuchi [xutʃi] unique Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion kwiv-yax [kʷivyax] inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment taw$henve'et pewaq'a [tawşənvəɁət pəˈwaqɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body qusa'-0 [quˈsaɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body -nema [nəmə] inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality wawa$hi-sh, wava$hi-sh [wawəşɪʃ], [wəˈvaşɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ala'a-t [ɁaləɁət] inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body -qiqilyve [qiqiʎvə] unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human naxani-sh [naˈxanɪʃ] loan Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna wa'i-sh [waɁɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment meni-ly [məniʎ] inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -ye [yɨ] inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body -tam'a [tamɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human -tew'a [tɨwɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body -qily'a [qiʎɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality 'ami'an [ɁamiɁən] inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body -pava [pavə] inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality pangi-sh [paŋɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time tukmu-t [tukmut] inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar qay [qay] inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body -mu [mu] inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 'ayxa-t [Ɂayxat] unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number suli-t [sulɪt] inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other kapel-in [kapəlin] inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar supul [supul] inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body qaawi-sh (singular subject) [qa:wɪʃ] unique Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 'atax'a [ɁəˈtaxɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact pux-0 [pux] inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment 'aweweni ['əˈwɨwəni] inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour kwatikwati'i-sh [kʷatiˈkʷatiɁɪʃ] loan Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pilya- [piʎə] inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pi-t [pɪt] inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora -wala [walə]~[wəˈla] inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pisa'i-sh [pɪˈsaɁɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment haxa-l [haxal] inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental yax-0 [ˈyax], [yəx] inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact salakw-in [səˈlakʷ] inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental tew-0 [tɨw] inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ngava'i-sh [ŋavəɁɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact muha-0 [muha], inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality mutimuti'i-sh [mutiˈmutiɁɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body -$hek'a [şɨkɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hamani-sh [həˈmanɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state nach-0 [natʃ] unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body -pelki [pɨlki] inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukva'a-sh [tukvəɁəʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body kup-0 [kup] inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 'akulyi [Ɂəˈkuʎi] loan direction unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment mi'a-t [miɁət] inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body huva'-0 [huˈvaɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body chux-in [tʃuxin] inheritance Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact nget-0 [ŋət] unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kwich-0, kwis-0 [kʷitʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tax-in [taxin] inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state hiwe [hiwə] unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment su'u-l [suɁul] inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other Itu'-0 [ɁiˈtuɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kelawa-t [kəˈlawət] inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment qawi-sh [kəˈwɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body chum-in [tʃumin] inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body e'we [ɁɨɁwə] inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body ming-yax [miŋyax] unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion way-yax [wayax] inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body -qwa$ [qʷəş], [ˈkʷaş] inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar 'axwe-sh [Ɂəˈxʷə˃ʃ] unknown Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pem [pəm] inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tewxi-sh [tɨwxɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality mingi-sh [mɪŋɪʃ] unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental wey-yax [wɨyax] inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 'I'i [ɁiɁi] inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar e' [ɁəɁ] inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pah [pah] inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body -pava [pavə] inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact hamech/hemech-in [hamətʃin]/[həmetʃin] unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment taw$henve'et [tawşənvəɁət] inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact sul-0, -in [sulin] inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body -neng'a [nəŋɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body -tam'a [tamɁə] inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wax-yax [waxyax] inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number wih [wih] inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body ngina:-yax [ŋinayax] unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nenewe [nənəwə] inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa-l [pal] inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar chem [tʃəm] inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar chem [tʃəm] inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality yu'i-sh [yuɁɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hi-sh [hɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar mi-pa [mipə] inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar mivi- [miˈvi-] inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour xwayaxwene-t [xʷayəxʷənət] inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar hax [hax] inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship -nawik'a [nəˈwikɁə] loan Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment seve-l [səˈvəl] inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body -wek'i [wəkɁi] inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human nawika-t [nəˈwikət] loan Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tevxa'-0 [təvˈxaɁ] loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body kape:-yax [kapəyax] inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kenekene'e-sh [kənəˈkənəɁəʃ] unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar em [Ɂəm] inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae anat ʹʔanat ant, red ant inheritance *ʔalɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) broader (both red ants and generic for ants) other complex ʹʔana-t ant-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 0 ant ordeal for boys 0 probably larvae eaten no info probably bites used therapeutically outside of ordeal gathered (wild) men live ants saved for ordeal 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana tun'-nil ˈtəniʎ Antelope inheritance *tɨn(nV)- Northern Uto-Aztecan S52 (Stubbs 2009:45), the *tɨm(V)nV- possibility is worth considering. May be a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan. same other complex ˈtəni-ʎ pronghorn-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 255 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 western North America open areas no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hunal ˈhunal badger inheritance *hula- Uto-Aztecan S105 (Stubbs 2009:53) same other complex ˈhuna-l badger-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:156 no info 2 1 perhaps eaten; Cahuilla thought was tasty no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America chaparral, woodlands yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus pa7mush ˈpaʔmuʃ a water bird inheritance *pamu7- Cupan Luiseño pam7ush “bald eagle”, Cahuilla pamu7ish “bald eagle”; not in Stubbs same other complex ˈpaʔmu-ʃ bald.eagle-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals not a mukikmal as far as I know Hill & Nolasquez 1973:167 no info 1 killed in Eagle Ceremony; skirts for dance made of eagle feathers 2 probably not eaten; Luiseño, Cahuilla did not eat no info hunted men eaglets captured and raised, eagle killed by suffocation at dance, feathers plucked for skirts, headdresses, wands 0 1 eagle feather regalia bought and sold North America Prefers habitat with large areas of water; this is a fishing bird no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata mah-hah-ō-wit maˈxa:wət (?) Band-tailed pigeon inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126). The augmentative -wɨ suffix is not part of the protoform. same derived maˈxa:-wə-t dove-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 259 no info 0 1 no info but no indication of taboo on this tasty bird no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas Oak and pine forests, feeds on acorns no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp machi$at ˈmaʧişat bat unique same other complex machi$a-t bat-non.possessed.noun (npn); root may have derivation -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals no info Hill & Nolasquez 1973:161 no info 0 bats are usually significant but I find no mention 1 I doubt they were eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp sisqingily ˈsisqiŋiʎ stinkbug inheritance *siski(Nki)- Californian S312 (Stubbs 2009?83) with the usual anachronistic reconstruction; surely Tub. shikkol “lizard sp.” is also in this set. broader (beetle but prototypically focused on stinkbug) other complex ˈsisqiŋi-ʎ stinkbug-npn (root surely derived, perhaps involving si- “urine”, -qingi- “varmint” (for beetles habit of spraying) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171, and see 192 for correct spelling no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global diverse habitats no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus si'ish siˈʔiʃ tule, Scirpus sp. inheritance *siˈʔi:- Californian Gabrielino se'-e (Merriam), Tubatulabal shi'īpül same other complex siˈʔi-ʃ tule-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:172 no info 2 faces of images at burning were stuffed with this (Strong 1929:267) 1 green shoots, roots eaten no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all mainly for matting, roofing, etc.; no info on preparation as food 0 0 California and southern US into Mexico wetlands no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tekwel ˈtəkʷəl skunk inheritance * -tɨkʷɨ Cupan S1984 (Stubbs 2009:275); Luiseño paalukut “big skunk” and tukyaspal “spotted skunk” should be included here. Proto-Yuman *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) needs to be considered as source. same other complex ˈtəkʷə-l skunk-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:174 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus iswet ˈʔiswət wolf inheritance *ʔisa-wɨ- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112); this particular derivation for “Wolf” restricted to Takic same derived ˈʔis-wə-t coyote-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:157 iswetim, A lineage of the Cahuillas, also used for Cahuillas in general 1 mentioned with Coyote, “their homes to the north”, in mourning song at Burning (Hill & Nolasquez 1973:42) 2 probably not eaten; Luiseño, did not eat no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis pa'at ˈpaʔat mountain sheep inheritance *paʔaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S204 (Stubbs 2009:67); may be a Proto-Kiowa-tanoan loan into Proto NUA same other complex ˈpaʔa-t bighorn-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:167 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 western North America steep slopes, cliffs no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna mukikmal muˈkikmal bird (any kind) unique rarely wikikmal is heard; mukikmal is probably analogy with -muk “beak” same derived muˈkik-ma-l bird-diminutive-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals no info Hill & Nolasquez 1973:163 no info 0 depends on species 0 depends on species no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 depends on species, feather objects traded Americas diverse habitats no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger ku$inval kuˈşinval small black ant inheritance *kusin(pa) Cupan S48 (Stubbs 2009:44) suggests O'odham 7uhimal “large velvet-covered ant”, which seems unlikely. Cahuilla has a metathesis tp kuvisnil same derived kuˈşin-va-l take.away-agent-npn (should be transparent; these are the kitchen ants that carry off crumbs, sugar, etc.) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:159 no info 2 0 these are very small no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus hunwet ˈhunwət bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ˈhun-wə-t badger-big-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:156 no info 1 shamans become bears 2 not eaten by Lu; for Ca., only elderly and shamans can eat no info hunted men mainly for claws, pelt 0 0 claw regalia perhaps traded, no info western North America chaparral, woodlands yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus su'ish ˈsuʔiʃ jackrabbit inheritance *suuʔit Uto-Aztecan S1713 (Stubbs 2009:243); I give Manaster-Ramer's reconstruction same other complex ˈsuʔi-ʃ jackrabbit-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:172 no info 2 a monster jackrabbit lived at Su'ish Peki and announced earthquakes 1 su'cham, kawlam, the prototypical food source no info hunted men diverse preparations; skins used for blankets 0 0 blankets probably traded Americas flat open areas no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus pipily ˈpipiʎ strawberry inheritance *pi(kwa-) Takic S182 (Stubbs 2009:64); assignment perhaps dubious. I don't like Stubbs' Chemehuevi form pipikura, probably a loan, but it does show the reduplication. Cu has lost the second syllable. Resembles the Numic -pi “fruit of” classifier broader (includes diverse fruits of this blackberry/raspberry type) other complex ˈpipi-ʎ berry-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:168 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women and children eaten ripe, or dried and stored 0 0 western North America foothills, transitional zones no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tukut ʹtukut wildcat inheritance *tuCkuC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1306 (Stubbs 2009:200). This is a California Wanderwort; Great Basin forms giving NUA are surely loans. But loan may be early because Hopi has regular vocalism. WW %tuku same other complex tuku-t wildcat-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:176 totem of Wildcat Moiety (the junior moiety) 1 ceremonial couplet tukwet, temevish (H&N p. 80 2 “no taboo on eating flesh of moiety animal” (Strong 1929:235) no info hunted men skins for quivers 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera malval ˈmalval butterfly inheritance *mal- Cupan note Cahuilla malmal same other complex ˈmalva-l butterfly-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:161 no info 2 0 larvae eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 global diverse habitats no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus yungaviwet juˈŋaviwət condor inheritance *juŋa:pi- Takic S336 (Stubbs 2009:87). This is probably juŋ -a-pi where *a is the ablaut vowel induced by -pi. But I don't know what *juŋ- means! Elliott 1999 has junga “archaic word for “to dance”) same derived juˈŋavi-wə-t vulture-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals not a mukikmal as far as I know Hill & Nolasquez 1973:180 no info 1 substituted for eagle in eagle ceremony in Lu (not confirmed for Cu) 2 see eagle no info hunted men for feathers only 0 1 feathered headdresses, skirts, and wands were traded U.S. Southwest rocky scrubland, woodland (they like cliffs) no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? cha'ish ˈʧaʔiʃ bluejay loan into protolanguage *chaʔi- Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown S209, Central Numic, Tubatulabal, Takic, always “blue jay” (Stubbs 2009:68) and widespread areally, probably originally a California-origin loan WW %chaj same other complex ˈʧaʔi-ʃ blue.jay-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:152 no info 2 1 eggs surely eaten, and acorn caches used no info no info no info no info 0 0 throughout western North America (distributions from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) scrublands, woodlands (Habitats from Wikipedia unless otherwise noted) no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? toRɛkikim toˈɾɛkikim Yellowhammer (see species notes) loan Luiseño or Gabrielino loan because of /o/, /r/; word not recorded for Lu. Note Gabrielino teroki “to break, romper”; see Kawaiisu word same underived note no npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:176 no info 2 woodpecker at “Bird's Church” (Creator's funeral) 1 eggs surely eaten, acorn caches used no info no info no info no info 0 1 Southern Oregon, California, south to Colombia oak woodlands no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pa$al ˈpaşal Chia inheritance *pasa/i Californian S1599 (Stubbs 2009:233). Only Numic is Tumpisa Shoshone, almost certainly a loan from Tubatulabal. This shows up in Chumash, Salinan, may be an old Californianism. WW %pasv same other complex ˈpaşa-l chia-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:167 no info 1 1 most important edible seed source no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds for mush 0 0 California and Southwest Below 6000 feet in dry open areas, extensive stands in chaparral no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota sekwikwina səˈkʷikʷina swallow (bird) inheritance *sik-wiwi(k)- Cupan Note Lu. taywiiwikal (Sparkman), Cahuilla(Wanikik, Palm Springs) sik-kwe-kweh-net (Mountain) sik'-wis-kwe'-nil, Merriam). This may be wikik “bird” reduplicated, with diverse increments(?). Could also have to do with mud (*kwiLa) But note Central Sierra same underived perhaps sound imitative -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 2 they have their own song, which I assume they sang in creation time 1 songbirds eaten by Cahuilla, Luiseño so surely also by Cupeño no info hunted all roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 global open country, breeds today in man-made structures, must have lived in rocks in old days in California with no walls! no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana moo'-kul 60-265 ˈmukal (?) Coot, Fulica sp. inheritance *muk- Takic mukal “beaked one”. This is probably a nickname; cf. song: wisayne pumuknele “I am wisay, his beak am I”; S1497a (Stubbs 2009:222) same other complex ˈmuka-l beak-npn (?) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 265 no info 2 has his song 1 water birds a favorite no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Americas wetlands, open water no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tisixat ˈtisixat cottontail rabbit inheritance *tosa-kammu Northern Uto-Aztecan S1709 (Stubbs 2009:242) compound -- white-jackrabbit. I doubt this analysis although “white” is OK. same other complex ˈtisixa-t cottontail-npn (root etymologically contains word for “white”) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:176 no info 2 1 no info hunted men diverse preparations; skins used for blankets 0 0 blankets probably traded North America diverse habitats no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. avaxat ʔaˈvaxat cottonwood tree, tree inheritance *ava:xa-t Cupan S544 (Stubbs 2009:111), possibly Yaqui avaso??? broader (can be used for leafy green trees in general) other complex ʔaˈvaxa-t cottonwood-npn (root may be derived) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 2 figures in many stories as a background element 0 no info gathered (wild) all mainly for wood and bark, inner bark yields fiber 0 0 Southern Canada south to Mexico moist areas below 6500 feet no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans isily ˈʔisiʎ coyote inheritance *ʔisa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S552 (Stubbs 2009:112) same other complex ˈʔisi-ʎ coyote-npn (perhaps from a verb “to tell lies”, or perhaps that verb means “to coyote-ize”) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:157 Totem of Coyote Moiety (the senior moiety) 1 2 “no taboo on eating flesh of moiety animal” (Strong 1929:235) no info hunted men no info 0 0 North and Central America diverse habitats no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos alwet ˈʔalwət crow loan into protolanguage *ʔata-wɨ-ta Northern Uto-Aztecan Yokuts S582 (Stubbs 2009:116); Loaned into Yokuts or maybe from Yokuts?? WW %alwut same derived ˈʔal-wə-t crow-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 2 crow calls, raven calls as signal to give 3-day manit ceremony (Strong 1929:259) 1 eggs surely eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii manit ˈmanit toloache, Datura meteloides inheritance *manit Takic may be a loan; S1639 (Stubbs 2009:235) WW %mani broader (includes plant and drink, latter also called naqtemela'ash other complex ˈmani-t Hill & Nolasquez 1973:161 no info 1 used in boy's initiation ceremony 1 probably not eaten, poisonous no info gathered (wild) men plant parts ground in ceremonial mortar and mixed with water 1 0 U.S. Southwest, California, Mexico “sandy, gravelly, open areas below 4000 feet throughout Southern California” (Bean & Saubel 1972:60) yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus suqat ˈsuqat deer inheritance *suCkaC- Uto-Aztecan S621 (Stubbs 2009:121) WW %sok same other complex ˈsuqa-t deer-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:172 no info 2 mentioned in Mukat Death songs 1 most important game animal no info hunted men hunter did not eat own game, taken to net's house and shared, diverse preparations 0 0 western North America diverse habitats no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana wichuxat ˈwiʧuxat Pinyon, pinyon nut unique perhaps from *wok-chuxa-, speculating broader (includes both tree and nuts) other complex ˈwiʧuxa-t digger.pine-npn (wi- probably *wo- from *wokoN “pine”, but derivation is obscure). Hill & Nolasquez 1973:178 (spelling corrected as per p. 80) no info 2 Guarded Creator's funeral pyre (Hill & Nolasquez 1973:8), ceremonial couplet wexit'it, wichuxet (H&N p. 80) 1 source of pine nuts no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 Southern California and Baja California Pinus coulteri is generally above 4000 feet no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris awal ʔaˈwal dog inheritance *awa:-la Takic S670 (Stubbs 2009:125) same other complex ʔaˈwa-l dog-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals (oddly, missing in Hill & Nolasquez1973 dictionary; see p. 71, sentence 9) 0 0 probably eaten as famine food no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas with humans no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum wish ˈwiʃ bowstring, willow fiber, willow sp. inheritance *wi(k)- Uto-Aztecan S1796 (Stubbs 2009:253); means Apocynum only in NUA broader (includes plant, fibers, and string/rope product) other complex ˈwi-ʃ fiber-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:178 wichu'at “fiberstring”, a nickname of the “Northerner” lineage (Strong 1929:186) 2 bracelets of wish put on girls at initiation ceremony (Strong 1929:257) 1 probably not eaten, most plant parts poisonous no info gathered (wild) women for fiber 0 Plant does yield atropine but literature doesn't mention use of psychotropic properties 0 Southern Canada to Mexico open wooded areas, hillsides, ravines no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura maxily maˈxiʎ dove inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan S676 (Stubbs 2009:126). The augmentative -wɨ suffix is not part of the protoform. same other complex maˈxi-ʎ dove-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:162 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 southern Canada to Mexico prefers open areas, avoids dense forests no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae paatu ˈpa:tuʔ duck loan Spanish WW %pato same underived -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:166 no info 0 figure in Coyote upbringing stories as Coyote prey 1 water birds a favorite no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 global wetlands, open water no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus ku'ut ˈkuʔut elderberry, Sambucus sp. inheritance *kuʔu/kuhu- Californian S179 (Stubbs 2009:64) broader (includes both plant and fruits) other complex ˈkuʔu-t elderberry-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:159 no info 2 1 berries, flowers 1 flowers cooked for fever, cough (Hill & Nolasquez 56) gathered (wild) all berries eaten ripe or dried and stored, flowers boiled, also important wood plant 0 0 North America below 4500 feet in moist areas no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna qeyul qəˈjul fish inheritance *kɨcuC- Uto-Aztecan S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) same other complex qəˈju-l fish-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:170 no info 0 figures in Coyote and Flood story 1 no info hunted all killed by poisoning 0 0 Americas water no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera mekwash məˈkʷaʃ flea inheritance *mu-ku'a: Cupan S892 (Stubbs 2009:152) same other complex məˈkʷa-ʃ flea-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:162 no info 2 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global diverse habitats no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. tavish ˈtaviʃ red bird with spots on breast inheritance *tapi- Uto-Aztecan S210, for large bird (Southern reflexes are for “hawk”) (Stubbs 2009:68) same other complex ˈtavi-ʃ -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:174 no info 2 cut hair in mourning; ceremonial couplet tavish, puwish (H&N pp. 78,109) 1 eggs surely eaten no info no info no info no info 0 1 throughout Americas diverse habitats no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ku'al ˈkuʔal fly, bedbug inheritance *kuʔa- Takic S893 (Stubbs 2009:152), and see “flea” with same root broader (includes other annoying insects -- but maggots in Cu. are sivuyel, not ku'al) other complex ˈkuʔa-l fly-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:162 0 Fly opens the Underworld for dead bodies (Hill & Nolasquez 1973:2) 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global diverse habitats no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei panaal paˈna:l Yucca sp. inheritance *panaa- Cupan S2547 (Stubbs 2009:340). broader (includes plant, stalk. Flowers are -$evey'et, head is 'uwet (?)) other complex paˈna:-l yucca.sp-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:167 no info 0 1 stalk, head, flowers eaten no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all stalks roasted, ground, made into cakes, or boiled like squash. Blossoms boiled. Head roasted in pit, ground, stored 0 0 Southern California, Baja California chaparral and oak woodlands, 300-2500 m. no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon kawisish kaˈwisiʃ fox inheritance *kawosi- Uto-Aztecan S556 (Stubbs 2009:113) WW %kaw same other complex kaˈwisi-ʃ fox-npn (root may be complex) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:158 no info 2 2 no info hunted men skins for quivers 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waxachily ˈwaxaʧiʎ frog inheritance *wakaC-ta Uto-Aztecan S940 (Stubbs 2009:157); Tarahumara 7awaka seems OK in this set same other complex ˈwaxaʧi-ʎ frog-npn (root contains unproductive diminutive) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:177 no info 2 bewitched creator and caused his death (Strong 1929:269) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas wetlands, lakes, ponds, streams no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ashwet ˈʔaʃwət eagle inheritance *ʔasa-wɨ-ta Californian S719 (Stubbs 2009:131); this is possibly a Yuman loan, Proto-Yuman is something like *ashpa same derived ˈʔaʃ-wə-t pet-big-npn (although this is controversial, Kroeber thought this was correct for Luiseño) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals not a mukikmal as far as I know Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 1 killed in Eagle Ceremony; skirts for dance made of eagle feathers 2 no info hunted men eaglets captured and raised, eagle killed by suffocation at dance, feathers plucked for skirts, headdresses, wands 0 1 eagle feather regalia bought and sold North America They like cliffs, tall trees for nesting no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. tukchikal ˈtukʧikal currants unique possibly *tuk-chi7a-ka black-berry-? ??, cf. Northern Paiuge muguciabui “gooseberry”, but note Gab. kucha:r “currant, suggesting tuk-kuchV-ka- same other complex ˈtukʧika-l currant-npn (root almost certainly derived) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women and children eaten ripe, or dried and stored 0 0 California coast ranges http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ribes-californicum likes shady spots, canyons, forest edges no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer pō'-kow'-wit ??, but note Luiseno pikawut “snake species”, should yield Ca. pikawet, but Merriam is consistent about po-. Perhaps pukawet? Gopher or bull snake inheritance *piCka-wɨ Cupan Cannot be S2013 (Stubbs 2009:280) which yields paxa, not paka same derived puka-wə-t snake.sp-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 267 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern Canada to Mexico diverse habitats no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) saval saˈval grass unique same (unlike samat, does not include herbs, weeds, as far as I can tell) other complex saˈva-l grass-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 0 0 seeds no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds for mush 0 0 Americas depends on species no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera wi'et ˈwiʔət grasshopper inheritance *woʔV- Uto-Aztecan S1034 (Stubbs 2009:167) same (seems to be generic) other complex ˈwiʔə-t grasshopper-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:179 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all swarms scooped into pits and orasted 0 0 global diverse habitats no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. qingish ˈqiŋiʃ squirrel inheritance *koŋi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2092 (Stubbs 2009:288) same other complex ˈqiŋi-ʃ varmint-npn (see ethnobiological notes) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:170 no info 2 1 no info hunted men diverse preparations 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. sekawet səʹkawət chipmunk loan into protolanguage *sika-(wV) Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown S2094 (Stubbs 2009:288); may be very early loan into NUA WW %sik same derived səʹka-wə-t tree.squirrel-augmentative-npn (may be bogus analysis) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 2 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 western North America woodlands no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muut mu:t owl (any large owl) inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan S1542 (Stubbs 2009:227), do NOT include Raramuri form with mo- same other complex mu:-t owl.sp.-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal (?) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:163 no info 1 owl feathers used in chiyat, eagle-down and eagle-feather headdress (Strong 1929:258) 2 eggs surely eaten no info hunted men feathers plucked (no information on whether bird is eaten; eggs presumably eaten) 0 1 feathered headdresses and wands were traded Americas diverse habitats (less common in desert areas) no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis hunwet ˈhunwət bear inheritance *huna-wɨ-ta Californian S132 (Stubbs 2009:59). This is “big badger”; badger, *hura(p), is UA etymon. But only means “bear” in California. broader (includes all bears) derived ˈhun-wə-t badger-big-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:156 no info 1 shamans become bears 2 not eaten by Lu; for Ca., only elderly and shamans can eat no info hunted men mainly for claws, pelt 0 0 claw regalia perhaps traded, no info western North America chaparral, woodlands yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae chalaka ʧaˈlaka horned lizard inheritance *ˈʧalaka Cupan S1332(Stubbs 2009;202). This may be a loan word. Serrano chilyaaqu “lizard sp.” and Kitanemuk ciruku' are clearly resemblant but not regularly so. Not found in Yuman. same underived note no npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:152 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Western U.S. and Mexico hot, dry, sandy areas no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kavaayu kaˈva:ju horse loan unknown same underived -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:157 no info 0 0 (may have been eaten early on) no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global with humans no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae tuchily ˈtuʧiʎ hummingbird inheritance *tuʔca- Uto-Aztecan S1180 (p. 185). I agree with Stubbs 2009:185 that the Cora word is cognate. same other complex ˈtuʧi-ʎ hummingbird-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:176 tushvikinvatim “hummingbirders”, a Wildcat lineage at Welaqal of supposed Cahuilla origin (Strong 1929:186) 0 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pivat ˈpivat tobacco inheritance *pipaC- Uto-Aztecan S2290 (Stubbs 2009:310) narrower (includes only the wild Nicotianas, not commercial tobacco) other complex ˈpiva-t tobacco-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:168 no info 1 “ceremonial smoking accompanied all serious ceremonies...(Strong 1929:267) 1 most parts of plants poisonous 1 at least in shamanic curing, other uses as well, but no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all crushed with lime for chaw, smoked, brewed into decoction 1 0 Americas diverse habitats yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic no special term unique unknown 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp kusaanem chiip kuˈsa:nəm ˈʧip Junco unique May not be the correct word but Merriam lacks same phrase kuˈsa:n-əm ˈʧip take.away-plural sound.imitation -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:159 no info 0 trick Coyote in a story that is widespread in NUA so not Spanish 1 songbirds eaten by Cahuilla, Luiseño so surely also by Cupeño no info hunted all roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 throughout North America coniferous and mixed forests, often forage in flocks in winter no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica yuyily ˈjujiʎ Fir inheritance *juwiN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1580 (Stubbs 2009:231) same other complex ˈjuji-ʎ conifer.sp-npn (may be derived from yuy- “snow”) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:181 no info 2 mentioned in creation account as killed by first bow and arrows 1 berries eaten no info gathered (wild) all no info, but used for wood as well as berries 0 0 North America dominant in life zone 3000-4500 feet no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ala'at ˈʔalaʔat head louse inheritance *ʔatɨC- Uto-Aztecan S1357 (Stubbs 2009:205) narrower (head louse only) other complex ˈʔalaʔa-t head.louse-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 nickname for the Kaval lineage (“garra”, “laws”) 2 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 global in human hair no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos qewisa'ily kaˈwisaʔiʎ duck sp. inheritance *kawi-sa7i- Cupan *sa7i/*saya S217, 710 (Stubbs 2009:130); kawi- is “mountain, rock”, specific to Cupeño form same derived ka-ˈwisaʔ-iʎ ?-duck-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:170 no info 2 1 water birds a favorite no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 global wetlands, open water no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. kelel ˈkələl manzanita, Arctostaphylos sp. inheritance *kɨta- Takic S1635 (Stubbs 2009:235), revised to accomodate Kitanemuk ˈkɨʧraʧr same (berries have their own name, tatxa'ash) other complex ˈkələ-l manzanita-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:158 no info 2 1 berries eaten no info gathered (wild) women and children berries eaten ripe in water as “lemonade”, or dried and stored, 0 0 western North America In chaparral, oak chaparral, in lower canyons no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa wichusel ˈwiʧusal milkweed inheritance *wi(k)-chu Cupan S1796 (Stubbs 2009:253); word for fiber, plus morphology that may be unique to Cupeño broader (includes chewing gum from sap of plant) derived ˈwi-ʧu-sa-l string-make-?-npn (should be synchronically evident given wichu'at “rope”, wichu “to twist string”, etc. Hill & Nolasquez 1973:178 no info 2 1 used for chewing gum no info gathered (wild) women and children sap from plant boiled into gum and colored with flowers; fiber also used 0 0 Califoria, Baja California, Nevada prefers dry areas no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus seyily ˈsəjiʎ Juncus sp. inheritance *sɨji- Takic S1735 (Stubbs 2009:246) same other complex ˈsəji-ʎ juncus-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 2 Sacred bundle perhaps made from this; Bean and Saubel disagree 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women mainly for basketry 0 0 Americas moist areas no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos tamawet taˈmawət mockingbird inheritance *tama-wɨ-ta Cupan S215 (Stubbs 2009:68); Gabrielino tamávut “hechicera” is same word same derived mouth-big-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:173 2 1 songbirds eaten by Cahuilla, Luiseño so surely also by Cupeño no info hunted all roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America diverse habitats (they like habitats with high places to perch, and don't like pine trees) no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera mum'-mo-kel'-lem ˈməməlkʷəlim (?) note memelkwet “fly-like creature in Creation Account) Mosquito inheritance *muwa Uto-Aztecan S88, S890 (Stubbs 2009:151); S gives these words only for SUA but they are also clearly in California. Perhaps a loan from somewhere? Vocalism is wrong same other complex ˈmə-məlkʷə-l-im dup-mosquito-npn-plural -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 269 no info 0 this is the specific insect that is involved in creator”S bewitchment and death 0 no info no info no info no info 0 0 global dominant in life zone 3000-4500 feet no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor temevish ʹtəməviʃ mountain lion loan no information almost certainly a loan, perhaps from same source as Mono, NP “tunu-wɨ, perhaps Yokuts same other complex ʹtəməvi-ʃ mountain.lion-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:174 no info 1 ceremonial couplet tukwet, temevish (H&N p. 80) 2 if wildcat eaten, surely this too no info hunted men skins, claws 0 0 Americas diverse habitats (prefers uplands) yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kaxawet kaˈxawət mountain quail inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. Proto-form does not include augmentative suffix WW %kaka same derived kaˈxa-wə-t valley.quail-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:158 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 US west of Rockies and Baja California chaparral no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata qinxat ˈqinxat shell money inheritance *koroka Uto-Aztecan S1461 (Stubbs 2009:218); a semantic shift, also means just “beads, necklace” WW %xene broader (the shell, and the strings of beads) other complex ˈqin(a)xa-t beads-npn (note -qinax-'a beads-possessed.noun) nemxat “treasure” Strong 1929:263 exchanged among lineages at burning ceremonies 2 deployed in rituals 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 obtained from coast, perhaps from Gabrielino; received in trade, hence the N/As to the left Pacific Coast British Columbia to Baja California sandy substrate in tidal and intertidal zones, bays no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kayvel ˈkajval Crested Jay loan Yokuts (perhaps from Serrano as intermediary) This form is Ca-Cup. Similar forms in Gab., Kit.: Kitanemuk ˈhajhaʔj; Proto-NimYokuts *xay “Crested Jay” (Golla 1964:61); Southern Sierra Miwok kayka'jahnt, so Yok-Utian word, perhaps. WW %kaj same derived kaj-va-l hang-agent-npn (maybe) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 259 no info 2 one of the birds that cut hair in mourning for creator 1 eggs surely eaten, acorn caches used no info no info no info no info 0 0 western North America Foothills where pinyon groves occur no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tevat ˈtəvat conifer sp. inheritance *tɨpat Northern Uto-Aztecan S1583 (Stubbs 2009:231). This is probably a loan into Proto-NUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan (Hill 2008 broader (includes tree and nuts) other complex ˈtəva-t pinyon-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:175 no info 2 1 This is never mentioned in texts, it's always wichuxat. Tevat nuts may have been obtained only in trade. no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all collected in green cones, roasted to release nuts, parched, stored or eaten fresh 0 1 Cahuilla had a big stand at Pinyon Flats but Cupeno didn't, as far as I know Southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico In pinyon-juniper woodland, 3500-9000 feet (for P. monophylla), 2500-8000 feet (for P. quadrifolia). Rocky hills and slopes. no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys meet mə:t gopher inheritance *mɨjɨN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1009 (Stubbs 2009:164) same other complex mə:-t gopher-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:161 no info 2 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum eyal ʔəˈjal poison oak, Rhus diversiloba inheritance *ʔɨjaa-la Californian S1506 (Stubbs 2009:224) Huasteca Nahuatl iyatl “tobacco”is ridiculous. Kitanemuk ʔɨycič, Gab. oa:r attest to first vowel. same other complex ʔəˈja-l poison.oak-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:154 eyal-mu “to speak Iipay 'Aa” 2 2 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Pacific coast Canada to Baja California Likes damp, shady areas, chaparral yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. sewet ˈsəwət rattlesnake inheritance *sɨwɨn- Takic S2011a (Stubbs 2009:280); not Stubbs' reconstruction, but Kitanemuk, Serrano are conservative in retaining these nasals. same other complex ˈsəwə-t rattlesnake-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 1 Mukat's handsomest son (Strong 1929:269) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southern Canada south diverse habitats yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp anat ʹʔanat ant, red ant inheritance *ʔalɨN- Uto-Aztecan S44 (Stubbs 2009:44) broader (both red ants and generic for ants) other complex ʹʔana-t ant-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 1 used in boy's ant ordeal 0 probably larvae eaten no info probably bites used therapeutically outside of ordeal gathered (wild) men live ants saved for ordeal 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus paxanish ˈpaxaniʃ Blackbird inheritance *paakoŋa- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Cupan *paaxiŋi-sh, Kitanemuk ˈpakoŋjat; Southern Paiute pagatcaqapI; Tumpisa Shoshone pakkwatoppe same other complex ˈpaxani-ʃ blackbird-npn (root may be derived) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:167 no info 2 1 songbirds eaten by Cahuilla, Luiseño so surely also by Cupeño no info hunted all roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North and Central America Open grassy areas, prefers wetlands, but also found in dry upland meadows no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwah'-ahl ˈkʷaˈʔal Red-tailed hawk inheritance *kwaʔa- Uto-Aztecan S716 (Stubbs 2009:131); there are similar Yuman words but this seems to be a good UA word same other complex ˈkʷaˈʔa-l hawk.sp-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals not a mukikmal as far as I know http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 257 no info 2 2 probably not eaten; Luiseño, did not eat no info hunted men feathers for fletching arrows 0 0 Americas mixed forest and field no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus puwish ˈpuwiʃ roadrunner inheritance *puhi/*puʔi/*puwi (all proposed) Uto-Aztean I agree with Stubbs 2009:250 that Yecora Piman pu7i “roadrunner” fits here. S1776. In all Takic. WW %pu: same other complex ˈpuwi-ʃ roadrunner-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:169 no info 2 cut hair in mourning; ceremonial couplet tavish, puwish (H&N pp. 78,109) 1 eggs surely eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 Southwestern US to Central America desert areas no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis wisina ˈwisina wood duck inheritance *weesa- Cupan S211 *wosa (Stubbs 2009:68) is anachronistic because only in Cupan, Munro's *weesa-l (Lu. weesa-l “white brant”) same underived note no npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:179, 182 (for full definition) no info 2 1 water birds a favorite no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America lakes and ponds, winter in coastal wetlands no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica wikut ˈwikut juniper (see species notes) inheritance *wikwa-t Takic S1606 (Stubbs 2009:233 -- with the usual anachronistic reconstruction); See Kitanemuk wikwat, perhaps a different plant same other complex ˈwiku-t sage.herb-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:178 no info 2 tea given to girls at initiation (Strong 1929) 2 brewed in tea 1 tea given to induce menstruation gathered (wild) women leaves brewed for tea 0 0 California, Baja California Chaparral and “dry foothills communities” no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? mulyak ˈmulyak lizard sp. inheritance *mulyak Cupan only in Cupeño, Cahuilla broader (seems to be generic for “lizard”) underived note no npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:163 no info 2 Mulyak spies on frog as he bewitches creator (Hill & Nolasquez 1973:3); ceremonial couplet mulyak $evalchangish (H&N p. 80) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
small bird flora-fauna no special term missing unknown 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum suxuxul ˈsuxuxul (a Faye recording) soaproot loan Yokuts Note Gabrielino $u:har “amole, escobete”; Proto-Nim-Yokuts (at least) *ThoxoTh Golla 1964:65 WW %svkv same other complex ˈsuxuxu-l soaproot-npn (root may have reduplication) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:173 no info 2 1 probably as pot herb, but mainly for soap, fiber no info gathered (wild) women bulbs chopped for lather, fibers around bulbs used for brushes 0 0 Southwest Oregon, California rock bluffs, grasslands, chaparral no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata se'evish ˈsəʔəviʃ a basketry plant used for the warp inheritance *sɨʔɨvV Northern Uto-Aztecan Luiseño $ooval, Hopi sɨɨvi “sumac”'; not in Stubbs??; S. Paiute cɨɨvɨ, Chemehuevi səˈhəvI same other complex ˈsəʔəvi-ʃ basketweed-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:171 no info 2 1 berries eaten no info gathered (wild but closely managed) women berries eaten ripe, or dried and stored; mainly a basketry plant 0 0 western North America “common to chaparral regions up to 3,500 feet” (Bean & Saubel 1972:132) no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco keyeyekmal kəˈjɛjɛkmal night hawk loan *kɨlɨ- Cahuilla vowel in Cupeño is /ɛ/, and /y/ is non-correspondent to /l/ in Cahuilla, Luiseño words. same derived kəˈjɛjɛk-ma-l sparrow.hawk-diminutive-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals not a mukikmal as far as I know Hill & Nolasquez 1973:158 no info 2 2 probably not eaten; Luiseño, did not eat no info hunted men feathers for fletching arrows 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kukat ˈkukat Black Widow spider inheritance *kukkaC- Northern Uto-Aztecan S2057 (Stubbs 2009:285); Hopi form is definitely good broader (both Black Widow and prototypical spider) other complex ˈkuka-t Black.Widow-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:158 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 western North America diverse habitats (reclusive) yes
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tuk'-wil pal-lă-kul 60-253 ˈtəkʷəl ˈpalukal (?) cf. palukla “Place near Soboba” Spotted Skunk, Spilogale inheritance * -tɨkʷɨ Californian A phrase , probably nonce formation, on S1984 (Stubbs 2009:275) same phrase ˈtəkʷəl ˈpalukal I'll bet this is a nonce formation -- probably means “skunk spotted” or something like that. -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 253 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 western North America diverse habitats no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) avaxat ʔaˈvaxat cottonwood tree, tree inheritance *ava:xa-t Californian S544 (Stubbs 2009:111), possibly Yaqui avaso??? narrower (really used only for leafy green trees, and clearly centered on prototype of cottonwood) other complex ʔaˈvaxa-t cottonwood-npn (root may be derived) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 0 0 see “cottonwood” no info no info no info no info 0 0 global diverse habitats no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera henuvat həˈnuvat Yucca sp. inheritance *hɨnuva- Cupan plus Gabrielino S2548 (Stubbs 2009:340) same other complex həˈnuva-t yucca.sp-npn (root may be derived) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:155 no info 2 1 flowers, pods eaten no info gathered (wild) women pods eaten, but mainly for soap, fiber (fiber used in sandals) 0 0 Southern California (mainly Mojave Desert) rocky slopes, creosote flats, 300-1200m (rarely up to 2500m) no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura yungavish juˈŋaviʃ buzzard inheritance *juŋa:pi- Cupan Cahuilla S336 (Stubbs 2009:87). This is probably juŋ -a-pi where *a is the ablaut vowel induced by -pi. But I don't know what *juŋ- means! Elliott 1999 has junga “archaic word for “to dance”) same other complex juˈŋavi-ʃ vulture-npn (root may be complex) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals not a mukikmal as far as I know Hill & Nolasquez 1973:180 no info 2 figures in Coyote stories that are not Spanish 2 I can't imagine they were eaten no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 Americas diverse habitats no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ayily ˈʔajiʎ desert tortoise, turtle inheritance *ʔayaC Uto-Aztecan S2359 (Stubbs 2009:316) broader (includes tortoise-shell rattle) other complex ˈʔaji-ʎ turtle-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals; if rattle, no classifier Hill & Nolasquez 1973:152 no info 2 tortoise shells used to make rattles 2 no info hunted all shells retained (Lu. did not eat the animal, Cahuilla dia 0 1 ritual paraphernailia traded California and Southwest diverse habitats no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wi'awlat wiˈʔawlat Live Oak sp. (see species notes) inheritance *wi'aN- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507b (Stubbs 2009:224); one of diverse derivations on this base for “oak” broader (includes tree and acorns) derived wiˈʔa-wala-t Q.agrifolia-base/greatgrandparent-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:179 groves owned by lineages 2 Ceremonial couplet wi'at, wi'awlet (H&N p. 80 1 no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns hulled, ground, leached, made into cakes, mush, soup 0 1 California west of Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County to Baja California; only coastal live oak Concentrated in valleys and on lower hills below 3000 feet no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata kwinily ˈkʷiniʎ Black Oak, Quercus kelloggii, or its acorns inheritance *kwini/*kwiyi- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1507a (Stubbs 2009:224). This is probably a loan into PNUA from Proto-Kiowa-Tanoan broader (includes tree and acorns) other complex ˈkʷini-ʎ black.oak-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:160 groves owned by lineages 2 Guarded Creator's funeral pyre (Hill & Nolasquez 1973:8) 1 “acorns like butter”, the most important food source no info gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns hulled, ground, leached, made into cakes, mush, soup 0 1 Southwest Oregon and California except in deserts Found in high hills up to 8,000 feet, especially on slopes facing away from the desert no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kaxal kaˈxal valley quail inheritance *kakaC- Uto-Aztecan S1702a (Stubbs 2009:241); 1702b is a different word, a Californianism. Proto-form does not include augmentative suffix WW %kaka same other complex kaˈxa-l valley.quail-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal Hill & Nolasquez 1973:158 no info 2 1 no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 Far west North America to British Columbia open woodlands, chaparral no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis keret kəʹɾət wild goose loan Luiseño loan because of /r/; Munro, Stubbs lik to Lu qaruut “sandhill crane”. same other complex kəʹɾə-t wild.goose-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:160 no info 0 they have their own song, which I assume they sang in creation time 1 water birds a favorite no info hunted men roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America wetlands, open fields no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus qeyuwet qəˈjuwət whale inheritance *kɨcuC- Uto-Aztean S864 (Stubbs 2009;147) narrower (California Gray Whale) derived qəˈju-wə-t fish-augmentative-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:170 no info 2 1 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 1 whale-vertebrae stools from beached whales found far inland Eastern Pacific Coast (breed in Gulf of California) ocean no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica swanewet ʹswanəwət wild grapes loan Chumash S188 (Stubbs 2009:65) has this in Cahuilla, Cupeño, Mono seenowa “elderberries”, and Tumpisa Shoshone isawana “plant sp.”. Maybe Yokutsan??. I like Chumash /suwan-/ “hanging, earrings”!! WW %sonot broader (plant and fruit) derived ʹswanə-wə-t grape-augmentative-npn (this word is so odd that this analysis is probably bogus) Hill & Nolasquez 1973:172 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women and children eaten ripe, or dried and stored 0 0 Southwest Oregon and California common along streams and in canyon bottoms below 4000 feet no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) avɛɛna ʔaˈve:na oats loan Spanish WW %avena same underived Hill & Nolasquez 1973:151 no info 2 1 seeds no info gathered (wild) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds for mush 0 0 Americas (in California since 1830s at least) diverse habitats no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica u$al ˈʔuşal wild rose hips, fruit of elderberries inheritance *ʔusa-la Takic Not in Stubbs; note Luiseño 7ush-la, Cahuilla ʔúšal, Kitanemuk ʔucuč, Gabrielino ochu:r broader (includes both plant and fruits) other complex ˈʔuşa-l wild.rose-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:177 no info 0 mentioned in founding account as something Kisily Pewish's wives could make for his mother 1 no info gathered (wild) women flowers, fruits eaten 0 0 Oregon, California, Baja California “commonly found in moist places such as cienegas or swamps and along streams” Bean and Saubel 1972:133 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) pa'aqily ˈpaʔaqiʎ sunflower inheritance *(pa)ʔaʔka Uto-Aztecan S2191 (Stubbs 2009:299) broader (includes both plant and seeds) other complex ˈpaʔaqi-ʎ sunflower-npn (root etymologically includes pa- “big/water” Hill & Nolasquez 1973:177 no info 0 1 edible seeds no info gathered (wild) women seeds parched, mixed with other seeds for mush 0 0 North America diverse habitats no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. pashkavish ˈpaʃkaviʃ pussy willow inheritance *-saka- Uto-Aztecan *pa:-saka-vi “water-willow-?-; S1023 (Stubbs 2009:166) same other complex ˈpaʃkavi-ʃ black.willow-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:167 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) women mainly for basketry 0 0 Southwestern US and presumably Mexico (plants.usda.gov) along streams, mainly below 2000 feet (??) no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kawel ˈkawal woodrat inheritance *kawa- Northern Uto-Aztecan S1423 (Stubbs 2009:242) same other complex ˈkawa-l woodrat-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:157 no info 2 part of the game caught by baby culture hero 1 su'cham, kawlam, the prototypical food source no info hunted men special stick for digging out of burrows; diverse preparations 0 0 Western U.S. diverse habitats no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper peyaxat pəˈjaxat caterpillar sp. inheritance *piʔakɨC Northern Uto-Aztecan S2527 (Stubbs 2009:338) narrower (this is a species of caterpillar) other complex pəˈjaxa-t edible.caterpillar-npn -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:168 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 Mojave and Colorado Deserts appear on floor of desert after warm spring rains no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. $e$e'ngimi ˈşəşəʔŋimi yellowjacket inheritance *saŋa- Takic S160 (Stubbs 2009:62); what happened to Cu. vowels? same other complex ˈşə-şəʔŋ-im-i dup-yellow.jacket-plural-? (looks like an object form, but was volunteered as “the name”) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals Hill & Nolasquez 1973:172 no info 2 0 larvae eaten? no info no info no info no info 0 0 Americas diverse (depends on species) no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia kah-nav'-vē 60-261 kaˈnaviʎ (?) Yellowbird (Astragalinus, Western Goldfinch) inheritance *kanavily Cupan only in Cupeño, Cahuilla same other complex kaˈnavi-ʎ (root may be derived) -ʔaʃ "pet" possessive classifier for animals mukikmal http://www.archive.org/stream/bancroft_chartmerriam_1556_60#page/n251/mode/2up, p. 261 no info 0 1 songbirds eaten by Cahuilla, Luiseño so surely also by Cupeño no info hunted all roasted, stewed, eggs eaten 0 0 North America; the relevant subspecies is west of Sierras and in deserts and Baja California in winter open country no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum saankat ˈsa:nkat Yerba santa unique same other complex ˈsa:nka-t Yerba.santa-npn Hill & Nolasquez 1973:170 no info 2 1 1 drink for cold (Hill & Nolasquez 48) gathered (wild) women brewed in a tea 0 0 Oregon, California, Baja California plants from mountainous areas thought to be most efficacious no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ana-t [Ɂanət] inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna mukikma-l [muˈkikməl] unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ku'al [kuɁəl] inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 'awa-l [Ɂəˈwal] inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna sava-l [səˈval], [samət] unique Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna suqa-t [suqat] inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna sewe-t [sɨwɨt] inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna kuka-t [kukət] inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (116)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food wiwish acorn mush inheritance *wiw Takic Stubbs 2011,1557 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
ball game food qawpi7ily the shinny game, shinny stick unknown in Cahuilla, Cupeno only, look for source for elements other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology telmekish land of the spirits, underworld, "Hell" inheritance *tyL-mukki Cupan Stubbs 2113 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
feather headband dress pah-lut flicker headband unknown the pah or pax element in Cupan, but otherwise Cupeno -lut, Gab -mut. A loan from somewhere? Maybe cog with Stubbs 1797? other complex Merriam 48: Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool huyal arrow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other yeywela'ash arrow straightener inheritance *jyw Cupan Stubbs 2011 2227 derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation εskwεεla school loan Spanish WW %escuela simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material nee'et nü:'üt basket inheritance *nyhaC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 120 has only as Takic but see T. Shoshone form other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material tivi'mal small round basket unknown Cupeno, Cahuilla only derived, other complex has diminutie suffix Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material yuma'at hat inheritance *yumu/a Cupan Cupeno, Cahuilla only but from NUA *yu 'hair' derived, other omplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool kutapish bow inheritance *kuCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 278, from 'wood'? derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool ikat carrying net inheritance *iCkaC Cupan Stubbs 2011 1519 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papεεl paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology net chief of lineage, 'captain' inheritance *nyC-ta Cupan other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pawxan (poss) bat, club unique is this related to waqal 'spear'?? simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress nawilyqam'a (possessed form), also wilyqamal front apron of string inheritance *nawi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 385; Merriam gives as "breechclout" 48:495; I suspect this is woman's apron compound, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
cook food food sexne to cook inheritance *soka Takic Stubbs 2011 525, might be loan from Lu; sixne? simplex root Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
corpse food qaawish dead unique I believe attested as "corpse"; Merriam has qaawish atax7a (48:511) other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology tan-in to dance inheritance *tani Cupan Stubbs 637; also in Lu, might be loan derived root plus thematic suffix Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology chem-yu'at God inheritance *ya7u Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1803 -- easy to do metathesis across the *7 phrase, other complex our-head-ABS' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool walilya'ash digging stick unique the obvious interpretation of Merriam's form from wal-in 'to dig'; I think real word was naxat, but no evidence… derived, other complex wali 'dig' Merriam 48:503 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool imilya'ash dipper unique im-in 'to dip up' derived, other complex imi 'to dip' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tu'uyu to dream inheritance *ty7a Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1798 simplex root Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology wetilya'ash drum unique wet-in 'to beat, thresh' derived, other complex weti 'to beat' Note Nim-Yokuts *woTh(o) 'to beat' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation pooyu chicken loan Spanish WW %pollo simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
earring other chiyu'at earring inheritance *cVLu Takic Cahuilla & Cupeno, Serrano cha-hoom (CHM), Kit. chahuch, not regular, perhaps a loan from somewhere other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology pi'mukish ghost, spirit, devil unique contains *muk 'die' compound, other complex pi7 'bewitch', muk 'die sg' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool mo-hoo'-ne fire drill unique made from meveraxpish H&N 162 derived Merriam 48:501 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology tekwe'va'ash fire tender inheritance *ta-*ku Uto-Aztecan Hill 1985 (?) Hamp festschrift derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kelawet firewood, stick inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food $awish acorn bread loan into protolanguage *saw- Takic Wintun Stubbs 2011 266c; see discussion with Cahuilla WW %saw other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
wheat food triiwa wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing tashlyala'ash? CHM 48:517 has xwayaxwenet and tulaxwenet for the pion sticks Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology pi'mukish ghost, spirit, devil unique compound, other complex pi7 'bewitch' muk 'die' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology yuv-vēl-yahsh yevilya7ash grave unique derived, other complex Merriam 48: Jane Hill
alcohol food pa7la7ash whiskey unique on 'drink' derived, other complex FIND ATTESTATION Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics manit Datura meteloides, toloache drink loan *manit Takic Gabrielino really just Gab-Cupan, and might be a Gab loan into Cupan WW %mani other complex Hll & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puul Indian doctor, shaman, wizard inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food piske'nish honey, sugar, sweet unique maybe sweet-bite-cause?? other complex old compound, not retrievable, pisa-ke7na Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
house other kish house inheritance *ki: Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1214 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food amu to hunt inheritance *7amu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1233 simplex root Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology manit pa'ni-in to initiate boy (cause to drink toloache) unique pa7ni is 'cause to drink' and good Cupan and etymological but unique combo phrase Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology ewlu'-ni initiate girl unknown Cupeno and Cahuilla only, means 'cause to bleed' derived Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wah-ken-vish stone knife unknown maybe related to the spear word and the club word? other complex Merriam 48:501 Jane Hill
mat culture-material kooku yucca fiber mat, saddle blanket loan Spanish Probably Spanish "coco", but Merriam has kaw-kah, perhaps not a loan (48:499) simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ilyapal mortar unique contains *paha (Stubbs 2011 1085); I had as 'bedrock' but Merriam has tă-pah'-wish for bedrock and this as portable other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
necklace other qinxat necklace, strings of shell beads inheritance *koLoka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1505 WW %xene other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool ivish awl inheritance *7opi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 92 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pah-o (possessed) pestle inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085; see discussion with Cahuilla simplex Merriam 48:501 Jane Hill
pinole food peyish pinole inheritance *pyji- Cupan other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other ichish pipe unique other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
pitch food saanat pitch, gum inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kava'mal olla inheritance *ka-pam Uto-Aztecan Hill 2012 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hukily quiver unknown *huk(w)i only Cu, Ca - contains hu- 'arrow' other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ayi (possessed form) tortoise-shell rattle inheritance *(pa)-7aya-la Cupan Stubbs 2422 but in 'rattle' meaning onlyTakic simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology te'xat red face paint inheritance ty7ka Cupan Stubbs 2011 1777; Merriam has mo-oos'-vel (48:495), my mu'ushvel 'red powder for paint' (from iron-bearing algae, see Lu. Section) other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food yewal salt unique Merriam confirms 48:511 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool chaymal coarse scoop-shaped tray of openwork inheritance *cay Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 123; this word shows up in Obispeno Chumash chaya "basket" and may have gotten there by way of California Spanish??? WW %chaj2 derived, other complex diminutie? Merriam 48:505 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology hisexvel clothing, goods inheritance *ysy© Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 248 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool choo-ken-ah see Cahuilla word bow unknown Cupeno and Cahuilla only other complex Merriam 48:501 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material elat skirt, eagle feather dance skirt inheritance *ylaC Cupan Stubbs 2011 498 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool chakwilya'ash trap unique Merriam has lă-pă'-che-las 'any trap' 48:501 derived, other complex from 'catch' Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hawinily song unknown Cupeno and Cahuilla only derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool waqal spear unique is this related to pawxan 'club' above? other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
stirring stick food ivel stirring paddle inheritance *ipa Cupan Stubbs 2011 1596 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wish bowstring, willow fiber inheritance *wik-tiwa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kunily sack inheritance *kuna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 114a other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
string of shell money other mōk-yet, wampum inheritance *koyo Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2015; what is the mo-? other complex Merriam 48:497 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asuukar sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
sweathouse other ha$la'ash sweathouse inheritance *hashla Cupan Stubbs 2011 2252 derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology a'alxi to tell history inheritance *7a7al Californian (Takic plus Tubatulabal) Stubbs 2011 1873b simplex root Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology $e$xa to cremate loan Luiseno Stubbs 2011 525, from Takic *soka reduplicated Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pivat tobacco inheritance *pipaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2348 other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology tewalaxat white clay for face painting, hair washing inheritance *typaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 757 with some kind of stress-shifting increment other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material lyevat'imal large flat basket, winnowing basket unique derived, other complex has diminutive suffix Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress waq'a (possessed form) shoes inheritance waCci(kaC0 Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1955 has parens around the first C, curse excel other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics tingela'ash medicine inheritance *tonga Cupan Stubbs 2011 1161 derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material pexal cradle, first cradle unique other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation soldaadu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
corn food maayis corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
beans food verxool beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation gaatu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation patilya7ash gun unique derived, other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress yuma7at hat inheritance inheritance *yumu derived, other complex Stubbs 2011 1148 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material te:cho [te:tʃo] loan Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wichu'e-t [witʃuɁət] inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture
bottom grinding stone manufacture mala-l [məˈlal] inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture mala-l pe-ma [məˈlal pəmə] inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool waqat [waqat] inheritance Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool kutapish “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool huyal [hujal] inheritance Jane Hill
house other ki-sh [kɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium sedentary no