Reflexive pronouns

Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories
e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no The pronouns can be intensified using -naa (nuyánaa: I, myself) Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 25 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info There is no evidence of reflexive pronouns in the section on reflexivity on pgs. 38-39 Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes The "middle voice" marker is attached to personal cross-referencing prefixes in true reflexive constructions. Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes They are formed using regular pronoun and common element. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 297 Ana Paula Brandao
Yavitero no Mosonyi identifies "reflexive" pronouns on page 41, but these seem to be emphatic possessive prefixes ('his own.') Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no info Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no There is one morpheme that marks intransitivization, but reflexive interpretation is only found with three verbs. Aikhenvald, 2003: 177, 266-267 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 510 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Only reflexive affixes. Payne 1981:32 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Regular object pronouns are used Duff-Tripp 199781, :61-8 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p262 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes The verbal person markers + -kiro are used to make reflexive pronouns. They don't have plural forms and can be in either topic or argument position. Michael, 2008. p. 377 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no does not seem likely Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Use verbal affix instead. Seifart - 2005: 59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 37, 85 Melody Ann Ross "expressed by means of the detransitivizer verb prefix"- Ex S on 85 shows a pre-position refl marker
Eñepa no Based on examples Thomas Payne 1989:40 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes is this really a pronoun (like 'himself') or a reflexive marker? If it's a PN, is te used for all persons as a kind of generic pronoun? de Armellada 1999: 35 Shannon Dardis This is actually a prefix, but my source calls it a pronoun.
Guna no a coreferential na particle appears before noun/pronoun Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes 1 reflexive pronoun Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no However, the adjective kingui "same" is used after the subject to indicate reflexivity. This can be used with subject pronouns too. Frank ?:25 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes The suffix /-ara/ is added to the personal pronouns to form the corresponding reflexive pronoun. Alphonse 1956:9 Daniel Valle
Damana no data in spanish translates reflexives (i.e. se rie), but the Damana data doesn't seem to bear this out --> probably not direct translation Daniel Valle
Sikuani no only an affix is used de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:206 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no there exists only a reflexive verbal prefix Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:154-61, 311-13 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info depending on the context, can be an infix [-ri-] or [-ra-] (noted in data) Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240-1 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 96-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no It seems that reflexive sentences are formed by not adding a object marker in the verb and the addition of the reflexive suffix. Perroud 1972:116 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes These are formed out of a pronoun plus a reflexive suffix /-gɨ/ on the pronoun Montes 2004b:54 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Waunana no There are possessives and allatives pronouns but there are not reflexive pronouns Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no double person marker preceding the definite verb Giron 2008: p231 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Gomez 1992: 71, 72 Shannon Dardis There is instead a verbal suffix that indicates that the action is reflexive
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no The passive impersonal, or passive reflexive, may be indicated by certain suffixes. (chapter 18) Minor and Minor 1982. p.10, 87 Christopher Clack There are six classes of pronouns in huitoto: the personal, the indefinite ones, the possessive ones, the demonstrativos, relative and the interrogatory ones.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no verbal prefix Weir 1984:107 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes formed by adding 'basi' self to personal pronouns Miller 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes formed by the possive adjective follwed by the word "baxu" Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 81 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35 Chris Clack Macuna contains personal, interogative, demonstrative, indefinite, and reflexive pronouns.
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993 31-33 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding bãsu 'self' to the personal pronouns Jones & Jones 1991, p.31 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no The only overt method to express a reflexive is to use poʔia 'body' as the object. Strom 1992, p.133 Chris Clack Overtyly marked reflexives are rare in Retuarã. Instead, when the subject receives he action of a verb that could be transitive, the absence of an object noun phrase makes the reflexive implicit.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:141-142 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes reflexive pronoun basi/basu Ramirez 1997: 250 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 101-105, 209-222 Kelsey Neely no mention of reflexive pronoun in discussion
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990, p.43-44 Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):2 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Based mainly on examples. It seems that reflexive verbs take the intrasive marker /-ɨ/ and the object marker in the verb is refers to the same person as the subject Everett 2006:448 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no reflexive prefix on verb Cruz 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:134-5 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:201-213 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms7, 105-6 done 0
Garrwa yes 61-2c done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no s163-4 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 73 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 78 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 123 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 64-5 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 13 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 70 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 110-111 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 47 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 28 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi Yes 374 Y 1
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 120-121 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 123, 126 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 14 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 150, 190-2 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 53-54 done 0
Martuthunira no cf (10.60), 256 done 0
Marrgany No 303 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 88 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 398 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna yes 10 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no 86-7 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 96 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 345 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 83 0
Dyirbal No 89-91 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 87 done 0
Djinang No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung maybe 37 done 1
Bularnu yes 49 Done-Austin 1
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 106, 127 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 116 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 82 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 81 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 52-3 done 0
Katthang no 83 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 160 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 29 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no info cf 223 done-Dan x
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 15 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 93 Done- 1
WesternTorres no? K85b 63 done 0
Wakaya yes 103 done 1
Yindjilindji yes done 1
Bandjalang No 78 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 61 done 1
Arrernte No 208 0
Kokatha No 48 0
Karajarri No 234 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 126 1
Ritharrngu No 62 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 867 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 37 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 54 1
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 80 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No info 36 x
Wajarri Yes 81 1
Warungu yes? 521 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no a coreferential person marker on verb Payne and Payne 1990:275 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps