Ritharrngu

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
rit
Location
-13.09°, 136.04°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar napuluŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar limalanha semantic shift Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngarra inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar nhuma semantic shift Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nhe inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar dhali unique Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location garrwar loan Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 2256 inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other warrpam' inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar 2092 inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body rdungurru loan Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body wakuy inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental gora inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment 1876 inheritance Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location 2966 inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body diltji inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality wakin semantic shift Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body walŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body gulun inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location dhirripi inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality dharpal loan Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body 824 inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour mul'mul inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body gulang loan Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bo'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality bambay Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body 4964 inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture gaḻigaḻi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamini inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngir-yu- inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment nhaara inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body X missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human jama inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion ngal'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment gurnung loan Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality 821 loan Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion rdap inheritance? Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact batha inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental X missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental nga:thi inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact ḻarr'ḻarryun unknown Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state 1802 Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact belama inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna rirrpi-rirrpi unknown Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality X missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental bukaway inheritance Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body mungdhun inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality barndany inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment burnulk loan Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body buthurru loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment gabaṉ unknown Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body rluka inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna mapu' inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mangutyi inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body dhurri' inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion galki inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality barrku inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body djukurr(') inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship baapa loan Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental gunydja'dhirri loan Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna burluk inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment gurtha inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna guya inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion rditjkurr'yun unique Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment dhangarra' inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion burt-dhu loan Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment gardany unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body rluku inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora dhakardatj loan Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality ngamakuli inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state dhamulng'kun inheritance Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body marra inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body guung inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body rliya inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental ngaama inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality gun.guy-yu unique Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion yurlurl'yun unique Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bu inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact dhuḻ'yun unknown Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other gatha inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar X missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar X missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 2015 unknown Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body dhurri inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body rde inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact bu inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 2263 inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment rnigar inheritance Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental dhurr-yun unique Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment manjarr' loan Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jarrpi unknown Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body baltharr Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion burlarr unknown Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment banayama' unique Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ngalthirr loan Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality 2986 unique Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna rdilmurr loan Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body warr'warr loan Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human 2254 Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dhäŋgu loan Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment gulkiya inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ngaarndi loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body dhaa inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human garrar unique Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body gupa inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality galki inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body gurluk unique Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality 1756 inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time makarl inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar may' loan Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body 2839 inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality baman inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number wirdipiyang' unique Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other ḻarr'yun unknown Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar wiripu inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human 2978 inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body bälim'bun unknown Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment nyalk loan Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour rlirrbuku loan Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body dhunupa inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture dhukarr inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora warndal' loan Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality barrpa inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment dhambur inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental wanga inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirryun inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nhaama inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality marltjarr unique Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact gurr-warryun loan Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality dhuburdu' loan Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body jarrwarlk inheritance Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body rerrk inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state nhiina inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body gurla' loan Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment X missing Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ngorra inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality ganyang unique Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body nhuman inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment X missing Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body dhupthun inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact barr'yun inheritance? Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact X missing Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact barrtjun inheritance Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state dhaarra inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment dhaparlk loan Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other balkmarama unique Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment rnuuka' loan Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body warnggun unknown Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time warlirr loan Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body wuburr unique Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body rdutthun unique Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion warryun loan Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body mirang unique Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar nguki inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ngutu' inheritance Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality binydjitj inheritance? Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental guyanga inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar yaku unique Claire Bowern
three tres tres number rlurrkun inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body gurak inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wurrdha'yun unique Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment X missing Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ṉiṉi'yun unknown Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body dhiilng loan Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body rlirra inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality dhunupa inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other birrirri'yun inheritance Claire Bowern
two dos dois number bulal' inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body rlurrdja'yun unique Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion X missing Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment gutjark loan Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality djali' loan Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nhaa inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nhaathang inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar rning'ngara unique Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour mirlitj unique Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar wara inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship galay inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment nganda unique Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body warna semantic shift Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human dhiŋ' loan Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other wark loan Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body X missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour buthalak inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ḏe' rdapurrurru7 unique underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing weṯi(') inheritance 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae yarrŋga ŋa:rti(7) unknown Dhuwal, Gumatj, Gupapuyngu have cognates simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus gaḻagaḻk garlagarlk loan Rembarrnga reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora ŋaḻawiḻi ŋarlawirli inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia warngurra7 warngurra7 loan direction unknown Ngandi WW %warnkurra 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer mirritji balin inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna djikay(') dyikay(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon bundul bundul loan direction unknown Ngandi missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae bebik bebik inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing gunuŋu(7) loan direction unknown Ngandi missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri munydjutj munydyuty inheritance 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae maḻamaḻ marlamarl unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species gurrmuḻu' gurrmurlu7 loan Rembarrnga/Ngandi simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii garraba7 garraba7 inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda baṉami barnami loan direction unknown Ngandi/Ritharrngu simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus malawiḏiwiḏi malawirdiwirdi loan Gupapuyngu 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula barrandji' barrandyi7 unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius guwiḻuŋ' guwirluŋ7 unique 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis walpurruŋgu' walpurruŋgu7 loan Ngandi 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing gulparuŋ7 loan direction unknown Ngandi missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota rluthay inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera dhapalany(') dha:kurdak unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) missing manbiri inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda djaṯam dyartam inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes rla:parr rla:parr loan direction unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species wurraṉ wurrarn loan Dhalwangu Darter 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus baṉbalŋu barnbalŋu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo wärraŋ wa:rrang inheritance “wa:rraŋ” also Ritharrngu for dingo reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris waṯu wartu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae muthali(') muthali(7) inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong djunuŋguyaŋu dyunuŋguyaŋu inheritance 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta rdalmark bi:ny unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrpaṉ wurrparn inheritance simplex 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna guya guya inheritance Northern Yolngu? 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) burgu(7) burgu(7) semantic shift pollen 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera wurruḻuḻ(') wurrurlurl(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gaṉguypa warrnyu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing ŋa:w(7) inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni mämbal dya:rrgirt inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla wilikwilik unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) girirri' girirri7 unknown simplex 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp wukutj wukuty inheritance 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) mulmu mulmu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera rdapurrurru7 unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis djurirr' dyurirr7 loan direction unknown WW %tyurwirr simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata garanaŋga(') garanaŋga(7) inheritance 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus djuku dyuku inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae barrir7barrir barrir7-barrir loan direction unknown Rembarrnga Would wirrir-wirrir (e.g., Gupapuyngu) be close enough to barrir-barrir? WW %parrir’parrir reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic ṉirriṉirri' buwat doubtful loan cf “buwata” Gupapuyngu and Gumatj Australian Bustard, Yan-nhangu tree species simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus gandyi(7) inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae weṯi(') werti(7) inheritance 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda meṉḏuŋ mernrduŋ inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata gurrumba gurrumba unknown also a Gooniyandi word for “paperbark,” unlabeled language word for “white man” simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera gaṉamu garnamu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus barkuma(') barkuma(7) inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya dhulgu barrukala(7) inheritance 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gurlutuk, gurlututuk gurlutuk loan direction unknown WW %kurutuk simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca biḏiwiḏi birlkpirlk unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis gurruwuḏuk gurrtyirt semantic shift cf “gurrtyirtyir”, Djinang for hawk, kite, goshawk simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species garrbululuk garrbululuk unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis ngalangga’ ŋalaŋga7 loan direction unknown missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi ḏarrabiya' rdarrabiya7 loan Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Rembarrnga Re simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing ŋatpan7 loan direction unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus barraḏuka' barrarduka7 unique 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones ŋarrambali' ŋarrambali7 doubtful loan Rembarrnga cf Rembarrnga “ŋarrampal” centipede 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna ŋaraka ŋaraka inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djirrŋama' dyirrŋama7 inheritance 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae gärr' ga:rr7 inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species djälŋ dya:lŋ loan direction unknown Ngandi simplex 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia garrala garrala spoonbill inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna maṉḏatja marnrdatya unique 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ḻiyamunyan bardikan inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea nyekurr' nyekurr7 unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides dhuḏuthuḏu dhurduthurdu loan direction unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera yarrŋga yarrŋga inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wa'wa wa7wa inheritance 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) bololo dharpa inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma dhatam(') dhatam(7) inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis baḻarra(') barlarra(7) unique 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax ḏamala rdamala inheritance 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys djirrimitjirrimi dyirrimityirrimi inheritance reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) gämuruŋ ga:muruŋ inheritance simplex 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna bololo loan Rembarrnga Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ngaarti' inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna (warrakan') inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna maḻamaḻ unknown Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna wartu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna mulmu inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna weṯi(') inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna dharlarra loan Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna ga:rr inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology dhawal missing Claire Bowern
armband dress dyarli inheritance Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool gapamarda unique Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material ganybu inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool mordu7 loan direction unknown Rembarrnga Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology burluk inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool garligarli(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport barrawu loan Makassar Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology mim7pu inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology makpar unique Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
cook food food ruwam7bun inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food gandirri unknown Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology rlambu7yun unique Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool bätju(') inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology bukaway inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology wirrdyi7 unique Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology yirdaki inheritance Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool dhurruman(7) semantic shift Claire Bowern
fire-saw other marlarrk unique Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other ba:l loan direction unknown Rembarrnga Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool rdiltthun unique Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food gar(-)dyarr7yun unique Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool garnrda7yun unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food dha:ŋgu inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mokuy inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool galanyin(7) inheritance Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food guruk loan English Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress ba:guru unique Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food rirrbal7 unique Claire Bowern
house (European) other wa:ŋa semantic shift Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ŋupan inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology rdak inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ŋambi inheritance Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool rlimbik unique Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport ŋurrkiny7tyun unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology dhuni unique Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology rdil7yun unique Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology gamuruŋgu unique Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food missing Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool gami unique Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool makurr inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool murruku7 unique Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material balku inheritance Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other marnrdatya inheritance Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool ganybu inheritance Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation missing Claire Bowern
corpse food dharra7 inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology dharra7 semantic shift Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology gurluty unique Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food dyambarl inheritance Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation missing Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress missing Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture balku inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture 817 unique Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool ba:tju' inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture X missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture maal' inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool murruku' loan Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool gami loan Claire Bowern
house other waanga semantic shift Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes 9 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Yes 9 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme No 10 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no 74 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes Yes 9 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Yes 85 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection No 85 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Yes 85 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Maybe 85 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs No 60-64 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment No 60-65 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns No 60-66 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun Yes /-waĉ/ 29 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system Yes 49 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Yes 50 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix No 62 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 Yes 246 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Yes 246 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Yes 246 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 74 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg No 232 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Yes 216 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Yes /-Na/ 77 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Yes /-Na/ + PROP /-miri/ 79 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb No 77 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Yes 60 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' Yes 82 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Yes /-n/ 65 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) Yes /-ru/ future 65 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix Yes 65 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion No 68-71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Yes 104 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction No 104 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking No 104 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking Yes 111 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Yes 94 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Maybe 75 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' No 104 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Yes 74 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order No 103 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject Yes 103 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses Yes 103 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object Yes 103 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject No 103 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Dem-Noun Yes 140 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Dem Yes 140 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Num-Noun no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Noun-Num no info Done-Amalia x
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies Yes 111 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies Yes 111 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' Maybe 111 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause Yes 57 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects Yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. Yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes No 24, 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Yes 37 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives No 37 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently No 37 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb Yes /-mi/ 61 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info 61 Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info 61 Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info 61 Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Yes /-marra/ 61 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Yes 101 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Yes /-_x0008__x0008_ʔmayʔ/ 101 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Yes /yaka/ 101 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Yes /yaka-ŋu/ 102 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase No 101-2 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle Yes 56 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only Yes 56 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Yes 103 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position No 97 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position Yes 97 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) Yes 97 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Yes 111 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause N/A 111 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Yes /-ŋu/ 111 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Yes 74 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Yes 108 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence No 110-111 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? Yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? Yes 104 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? No 104 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? Yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) Yes 79 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? Yes /-mañjiʔ/ 29 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? Yes /-waĉ/ 29 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes Yes clause-initial 103 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info 103 Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) No 97 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. Yes 61 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? Yes 73 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no info 61 Done-Amalia x
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? Yes /-ti/ 60 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? Yes zero or /-ni/ 71 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? Maybe 75 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? Maybe 75 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? No 220, 224 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? Yes 83 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? No 96 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? Yes 71 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? No 102 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? No 103 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column No 9 Done-Amalia 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG dense mobile yes