Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process

Morphology - Incorporation
Verb contains nominal segment


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no The description of verb stems and roots do not contain a slot for a nominal root, although there are light-verb constructions that take a nominal complement. Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 150-180, 235-268 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no No mention of incorporation processes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No discussion of incorporation in chapter on verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 125 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no The verb template does not include a slot for incorporated elements. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800-801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no The overview of predicate structure does not describe any incorporation processes. Aikhenvald 2003: 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes seems to be limited to a certain set of nouns, but no information on the size of that set; classificatory nouns are incorporated in an anaphoric way Facundes, 2000: 298 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:96 Daniel Smith
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes But this is restricted to body-parts and nominal classifiers Duff-Tripp 1997:171 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Incorporation of nouns into verbs is present, however, it is unclear if this process yields an intransitivized verb Danielsen 2007: p98-100 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Only inalienably-possessed nouns, and, of those, only “part” terms--no nouns for manufactured items (e.g., “bow.”). Happens with verbs, adjectives and numerals. Michael, 2008. p. 327 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965:78 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:62-65 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no "While noun incorporation occurs in De'kwana, it does not appear as a currently productive process." Hall 1988: 323 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Carson 1982:105 Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no There is object incorporation into the verb in Panare but the resulting verb remains transitive, it does not become intransitive Thomas Payne 1995:299, 2012:330 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 262 Shannon Dardis The suffixes ma, te and pa derive transitive verbs from nouns and other parts of speech
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no However, it seems that some nouns have been incorporated into verbs of "putting" (Frank 1989:24-25 Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-145 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Can even be used in transitive clauses. Queixalós 1998:191 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes example: wi-kán, "meat-eat", "eat meat" Buenaventura - 1993:51 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:269-72 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:60 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes It is not clear if this process is productive but it is possible in the language Holman:62-3 Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses yes Only for body part nouns. These nouns get reduced when incorporated into the verb Fleck:342 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.195-6 Daniel Valle The object is attached right after the verb and then verbal morphology is atached as in a "normal" verb.
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:135 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p244 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no not likely since verb does not have many morphemes Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.29 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes quite productive and complex incorporation Weir 1984:272 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Some noun classification but generally appears to be minimally productive Martins 2004:182 Patience Epps
Desano no Nouns are considered to be incorporated when they form one stress group with the verb and when nothing comes between the noun and the verb. Miller 1999, p. 108 Amanda Novak The change in meaning and the fact that this process is no longer productive indicates that noun incorporation has been lexicalized in Desano.
Cubeo yes The direct object of a verb may be incorporated into the verb. (the incorporated noun appears in generic form) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 70-72; Chacón 2012:202 Chris Clack; Daniel Smith While the incorporated noun does not carry any inflectional affixes, it may bear a derivational affix such as a classifier.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2007:242 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43-47 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.79-80 Chris Clack verbalizer on noun creates a verb
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.25 Chris Clack Barasano has only one verb with an incorporated object that does not occur with marked objects and is considered to be instransitive.
Tanimuca yes Sometimes objects and instruments are incorporated into the verb. The incorporated constituent directly precedes the verb root. Strom 1992, p.100 Chris Clack The incorporation of the object may can reduce the valence of the verb to make it grammatically instransitive.
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Yanomami yes doesn't have the effect of intransitivizing Ramirez 1994: p.221 Kelsey Neely various examples of this and other incorporation of nouns throughout book.
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely I disagree with the way Goodwin-Gomez analyzes some constructions that could actually involve incorporation
Sanumá yes doesn't intransitivize. Borgman analyzes this as "Verb Head compounds" (N and V compound). This structure is more or less identical to N incorporation in Yanomami Borgman 1990: p.207-208 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:223-95 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011: Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Not sure if it is very productive Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:146 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms11.4.1 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 82-83 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 174 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info 53 Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 96 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 48-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 39 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 56-60 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 100 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 405 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 14 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no 221 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 319 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 246 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 85-88 done 0
Djinang No 169 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 161 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 38 done 0
Bularnu yes 63 Done-Austin 1
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 85 done 0
Mathi-Mathi yes 99-101 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 89-91 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 53-63 done 0
Katthang no 73 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 153-156 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 22 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 113 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji yes 513 done 1
Bandjalang yes 84 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 113 0
Kokatha No 40 0
Karajarri No 114 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 7 0
Ritharrngu No 60-65 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:413 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps