Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process

Morphology - Incorporation
Verb contains nominal segment


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992
Resígaro no The description of verb stems and roots do not contain a slot for a nominal root, although there are light-verb constructions that take a nominal complement. Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 150-180, 235-268
Yukuna no No mention of incorporation processes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524
Yavitero no No discussion of incorporation in chapter on verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 125
Wayuu no The verb template does not include a slot for incorporated elements. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800-801
Tariana no The overview of predicate structure does not describe any incorporation processes. Aikhenvald 2003: 253-254
Apurinã yes seems to be limited to a certain set of nouns, but no information on the size of that set; classificatory nouns are incorporated in an anaphoric way Facundes, 2000: 298
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:96
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47
Yanesha' yes But this is restricted to body-parts and nominal classifiers Duff-Tripp 1997:171
Kinikinau no info
Baure yes Incorporation of nouns into verbs is present, however, it is unclear if this process yields an intransitivized verb Danielsen 2007: p98-100
Nanti yes Only inalienably-possessed nouns, and, of those, only “part” terms--no nouns for manufactured items (e.g., “bow.”). Happens with verbs, adjectives and numerals. Michael, 2008. p. 327
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no info Launey 2003
Yine yes Matteson 1965:78
Añun no Patte 1989
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:62-65
Makiritare no "While noun incorporation occurs in De'kwana, it does not appear as a currently productive process." Hall 1988: 323
Makushi yes Carson 1982:105
Eñepa no There is object incorporation into the verb in Panare but the resulting verb remains transitive, it does not become intransitive Thomas Payne 1995:299, 2012:330
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 262 The suffixes ma, te and pa derive transitive verbs from nouns and other parts of speech
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika no However, it seems that some nouns have been incorporated into verbs of "putting" (Frank 1989:24-25 Frank 1985:60-104
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-145
Damana yes
Sikuani yes Can even be used in transitive clauses. Queixalós 1998:191
Macaguan yes example: wi-kán, "meat-eat", "eat meat" Buenaventura - 1993:51
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:269-72
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:60 Catío
Waorani yes It is not clear if this process is productive but it is possible in the language Holman:62-3
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b
Matses yes Only for body part nouns. These nouns get reduced when incorporated into the verb Fleck:342
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.195-6 The object is attached right after the verb and then verbal morphology is atached as in a "normal" verb.
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:135
Urarina no info
Waunana no info
Andoke no info
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p244
Central Aymara no info
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no not likely since verb does not have many morphemes Silva 2011
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.29
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes quite productive and complex incorporation Weir 1984:272
Dâw no Some noun classification but generally appears to be minimally productive Martins 2004:182
Desano no Nouns are considered to be incorporated when they form one stress group with the verb and when nothing comes between the noun and the verb. Miller 1999, p. 108 The change in meaning and the fact that this process is no longer productive indicates that noun incorporation has been lexicalized in Desano.
Cubeo yes The direct object of a verb may be incorporated into the verb. (the incorporated noun appears in generic form) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 70-72; Chacón 2012:202 While the incorporated noun does not carry any inflectional affixes, it may bear a derivational affix such as a classifier.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2007:242
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43-47
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.79-80 verbalizer on noun creates a verb
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.25 Barasano has only one verb with an incorporated object that does not occur with marked objects and is considered to be instransitive.
Tanimuca yes Sometimes objects and instruments are incorporated into the verb. The incorporated constituent directly precedes the verb root. Strom 1992, p.100 The incorporation of the object may can reduce the valence of the verb to make it grammatically instransitive.
Siona no info Wheeler 1987
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 no evidence of this
Yanomami yes doesn't have the effect of intransitivizing Ramirez 1994: p.221 various examples of this and other incorporation of nouns throughout book.
Ninam no info I disagree with the way Goodwin-Gomez analyzes some constructions that could actually involve incorporation
Sanumá yes doesn't intransitivize. Borgman analyzes this as "Verb Head compounds" (N and V compound). This structure is more or less identical to N incorporation in Yanomami Borgman 1990: p.207-208
Surui no info
Karitiana no Everett 2006:223-95
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Not sure if it is very productive Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:146
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri no 0
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra no ms11.4.1 0
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no 0
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no 0
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi yes 82-83 1
Yidiny yes 1
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha yes 174 1
Yalarnnga no info 53 x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 96 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 48-50 0
Warumungu No 39 0
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 364 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 201 0
Pintupi no info x
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa no info x
Ngayawang No 15 0
Muruwari no 0
Mayi-Yapi No 56-60 0
Martuthunira no 0
Marrgany No 314 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 11 0
Kuku Yalanji no 100 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 405 0
Kaurna No 14 0
Kalkatungu no info x
Jaru no 221 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 319 0
Gugu-Badhun no 0
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 246 0
Duungidjawu no 85-88 0
Djinang No 169 0
Diyari no 161 0
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 38 0
Bularnu yes 63 1
Biri no 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana no info x
Alyawarr no info X
Nyikina no 0
Yulparija No 35 0
Wathawurrung no 85 0
Mathi-Mathi yes 99-101 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 89-91 0
Thanggati no 53-63 0
Katthang no 73 0
Panyjima no 153-156 0
Ngarinyeri No 42 0
Kurrama no info x
Yingkarta no 0
Githabul No 22 0
Gunya No 329 0
Kunjen No 113 0
WesternTorres no info x
Wakaya yes 1
Yindjilindji yes 513 1
Bandjalang yes 84 1
Ngaatjatjara No 71 0
Arrernte No 113 0
Kokatha No 40 0
Karajarri No 114 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 7 0
Ritharrngu No 60-65 0
Warrgamay No 45 0
Warluwarra no info x
Warnman No 45 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 0
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 0
Narungga No 73 0
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:413
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001