Baure

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
brg
Location
-13.13°, -64.18°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Baptista, Priscilla and Ruth Wallin. 2007. Baure. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/ Danielsen, Swintha. 2007. Baure, an Arawak language of Bolivia. CNWS Publications. (Doctoral dissertation.)


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location a'ni-ye a'ni-je inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
and y e grammar ač atʃ See Language page Anissa Capuccino
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment po'ip (pl) po'ip (pl) unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
at en, a em, a location See Language page Anissa Capuccino
back espalda costas body 'čipi tʃipi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bad mal mal quality me'hewokon me'hewokon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
belly barriga barriga body he-ki; ničo'koki (stomach) he-ki; nitʃo'koki (stomach) unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
below abajo, debajo abaixo location pai-; poe- pai-; poe- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
big grande grande quality čo- tʃo- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
black negro preto colour hamkon hamkon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
blood sangre sangue body 'iti iti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bone hueso osso body 'opi opi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
breast pecho, seno peito body šo-n ʃo-n inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
child niño, niña criança human mo mo inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cloud nube nuvem environment roeamokonoe' roeamokonoe' unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cold frío frio quality tokonokon tokonokon inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
day día dia time se-s; ṛ̌o'sesokonoeṛ̌ se-s; ṛ̌o'sesokonoeṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dirty sucio sujo quality topop'kon topop'kon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dry seco seco quality moro- moro- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality maseror maseror See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dust polvo poeira environment kopo'eṛ̌; poi-p kopo'eṛ̌; poi-p unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
ear oreja orelha body čoko-n; senoki tʃoko-n; senoki inheritance; inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
earth/soil tierra terra environment yinir, poewok yinir, poewok unknown; inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
egg huevo ovo fauna na' na' unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
eye ojo olho body i'ki; ni-'kis i'ki; ni-'kis inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
far lejos longe quality a'βe- a'βe- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fat/grease grasa gordura body eskiap eskiap unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
father padre, papá pai kinship -i'a; čač i'a; tʃatʃ unknown; doubtful loan Quechua See Language page Anissa Capuccino
feather pluma pena fauna e'sis e'sis unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fire fuego fogo environment 'ya-ki ja-ki unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
flower flor flor environment čomomoe' tʃomomoe' unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment top top See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fruit fruta fruta flora #NAME? #NAME? unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
good bueno bom quality 'heni 'heni unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -ča-; ni-'čahaih tʃa-; ni-'tʃahaih inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hand mano mão body -wo-; ni-'wohi-s -wo-; ni-'wohi-s inheritance S. Arawak lgs See Language page Anissa Capuccino
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ṛ̌o-'ti; ṛ̌i-'ti ṛ̌o-'ti; ṛ̌i-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
head cabeza cabeça body ni-'poʔe ni-'poʔe unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
heavy pesado pesado quality -'hi-no-; kohino-kon -'hi-no-; kohino-kon inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
how? como como grammar missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
1sg yo eu grammar ni-; n-ti ni-; n-ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
if si se grammar See Language page Anissa Capuccino
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location #NAME? je unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
intestines intestinos intestinos body etis etis inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
lake lago lago environment 'č-aki tʃ-aki unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
leaf hoja folha environment e-pono'e e-pono'e inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body 'sa-pi 'sa-pi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
leg/foot pierna perna body ni'pes ni'pes inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
liver hígado figado body -e'pe-ṛ̌on -e'pe-ṛ̌on unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
long largo comprido, longo quality  'pero  'pero inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna i'no-k i'no-k inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
man/male hombre homem human hi-ṛ̌ hi-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
meat/flesh carne carne fauna n-eš n-eʃ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
moon luna lua environment ki'he-ṛ̌ ki'he-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship n-en (possessive) n-en (possessive) inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
mouth boca boca body ni-'noki ni-'noki inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
name nombre nome human woiy woij unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
near/close cerca de perto quality a'ne-kon a'ne-kon inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Anissa Capuccino
neck cuello pescoço body pi-h; ni-'pi-h; -ča'no-ki pi-h; ni-'pi-h; -tʃa'no-ki inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
new nuevo novo quality missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
night noche noite time yoto'e-ṛ̌ joto'e-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
no/not no não grammar 'onkaw 'onkaw unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
nose nariz nariz body -'si-ri; ni-pa-'siṛ̌i si-ri; ni-pa-'siṛ̌i inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
old viejo velho quality či-n tʃi-n unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
one uno um number po'noš po'noʃ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
other otro outro grammar poki poki inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body mavi' mavi' unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
person/human being persona pessoa human 'či-n-ti; čonoe- tʃi-n-ti; tʃonoe- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
rain lluvia chuva environment so'won so'won inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
red rojo vermelho colour moro'sero- moro'sero- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
right/right hand derecha direita location/body koyan kojan unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
road/path camino caminho manufacture šo-'no-; ša'no-ki ʃo-'no-; ʃa'no-ki inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
root raíz raiz flora ṛ̌eki'ton ṛ̌eki'ton unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
rotten podrido podre quality poshe; posok poshe; posok unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sand arena areia environment ha'hap ha'hap unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ko-'se-ro ko-'se-ro inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
short corto curto quality mohi- mohi- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
shoulder hombro ombro body ni-'powosi; -'powos ni-'powosi; -'powos unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
skin piel pele body č-om; ni-'čom tʃ-om; ni-'tʃom inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sky cielo céu environment a'ni-ye a'ni-je inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
small pequeño pequeno quality či; 'mičokiṛ̌i; ti'ʔa-ci tʃi; 'mitʃokiṛ̌i; ti'ʔa-ci unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
smoke humo fumaça environment kotiso'kon kotiso'kon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
star estrella estrela environment wa'his wa'his unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yakis jakis inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
stone piedra pedra environment kohi kohi unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tail cola, rabo rabo body i'ho-s i'ho-s inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
that ese/esa esse grammar ten (m); tin (f) ten (m); tin (f) unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar no-'ti no-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality šo'po- ʃo'po- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
thin delgado fino quality haročkon harotʃkon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
this este/esta este grammar teč; tič tetʃ; titʃ unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
2sg xx xx grammar pi-'ti pi-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
throat garganta garganta body soropi soropi unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
three tres tres number m'po-n m'po-n inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
thunder truenos trovão environment ṛ̌o'čoṛ̌eow ṛ̌o'tʃoṛ̌eow unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bite morder morder body komorok- komorok- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
blow soplar soprar body 'haβi-ko-w 'haβi-ko-w unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
breathe respirar respirar body aher- aher- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
burn quemar queimar environment a'haṛ̌ow a'haṛ̌ow unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body hik- hik- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
climb subir subir motion aroč- arotʃ- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
come venir vir motion piko-w piko-w unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cook cocinar cozinhar impact išoera- (int.) iʃoera- (int) unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cry llorar chorar mental ya ja inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ašok- aʃok- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
die/be dead morir morrer state -e'pe-; ṛ̌e'pen -e'pe-; ṛ̌e'pen inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dig cavar cavar impact -'saho-kia- -'saho-kia- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
drink beber, tomar beber body er; -e'ro- er; -e'ro- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
eat comer comer body ni-; ni-'kow ni-; ni-'kow inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fall caer cair motion nesta'paika nesta'paika inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fear miedo medo mental pi-; 'ni-piko-w pi-; 'ni-piko-w inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
flow fluir fluir motion pini'ikia-? pini'ikia-? unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fly volar voar motion ar- ar- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hear oír ouvir mental som-; ṛ̌i-'somopoek som-; ṛ̌i-'somopoek inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hit golpear, pegar bater impact nesta'kaβiyar nesta'kaβijar unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other a'mo a'mo unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
kill matar matar impact ikomorik- ikomorik- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental čo-; -tiṛ̌i tʃo-; -tiṛ̌i unknown; inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
laugh reír rir mental 'ko-ka- 'ko-ka- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion košpoe- koʃpoe- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body čo-'ko- tʃo-'ko- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
open/uncover abrir abrir other 'βe-ha 'βe-ha unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Anissa Capuccino
say decir dizer mental 'k-ičo k-itʃo inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
scratch rascar rasgar impact torič- toritʃ- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
see ver ver mental hinok- hinok- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact etipok- etipok- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sit sentar(se) sentar state hirik- hirik- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sleep dormir dormir body -i'mo; -mo'ko-w -i'mo; -mo'ko-w inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hišhik- hiʃhik- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
spit escupir cuspir body hanek- hanek- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact piria; epiri piria; epiri unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact 'ko-piti-; su'ipistakapa 'ko-piti-; su'ipistakapa inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state šom ʃom inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
steal robar roubar other wohik- wohik- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
suck chupar chupar body hi-'ko- hi-'ko- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
swell hincharse inchar body hawok- hawok- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
swim nadar nadar motion haviak- haviak- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
think pensar pensar mental hino'inok hino'inok unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ehwe- ehwe- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other šoporiporik- ʃoporiporik- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
vomit vomitar vomitar body ewso'in- ewso'in unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
walk caminar, andar andar motion yo'no jo'no unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
work trabajar trabalhar other koto- koto- inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
yawn bostezar bocejar body aw'in- aw'in- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tongue lengua lingua body -pe-n; epenene pe-n; epenene inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tooth diente dente body ni-'se-ṛ̌ ni-'se-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
two dos dois number m-a'pi-n m-a'pi-n inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
water agua agua environment in in inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar viti' viti' inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
wet mojado molhado quality po'to- po'to- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
what? que, qué que grammar woyikowon; kon wojikowon; kon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
when? cuando quando grammar kaeerapoka kaeerapoka inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
where? donde onde grammar oypoka; ṛ̌a'βiyowon? oypoka; ṛ̌a'βijowon? inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
white blanco branco colour kotipo'pin kotipo'pin inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
who? quien, quién quem grammar kon to 'woyokon kon to 'wojokon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
wife esposa esposa kinship ne-'yon ne-'yon inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
wind viento vento environment βiṛ̌ βiṛ̌ unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
wing ala asa body tosi tosi unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
woman/female mujer mulher human e'ton e'ton inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 'ya-s-ko- ja-s-ko- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yi-'ti ji-'ti inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
foot pie body ni'poih ni'poih inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
all todo todos other pon pon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
lung pulmón pulmão body ta'ha ta'ha unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sweat sudar suor, suar body kamoki- kamoki- unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bark corteza casca environment ečopi etʃopi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fingernail uña unha body n-i'tip n-i'tip unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
heart corazón coração body neto'koʔin neto'koʔin inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sun sol sol time se-s se-s inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
green verde verde quality ver ver loan Spanish See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hot caliente quente quality kopirokon kopirokon unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. βi'te-ṛ̌ βi'te-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna aren aren unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Anissa Capuccino
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Anissa Capuccino
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae missing See Language page Widespread Anissa Capuccino
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes sorisori sorisori unique See Language page Widespread Anissa Capuccino
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica lor lor doubtful loan from Span 'loro', or Arawak > Span See Language page Widespread Anissa Capuccino
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae missing See Language page Widespread South America Anissa Capuccino
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pohi pohi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America Anissa Capuccino
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae tatasoe tatasoe unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kove kove unique See Language page Not native; widespread Anissa Capuccino
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) missing See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Anissa Capuccino
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kopir kopir inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kahire kahire inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Anissa Capuccino
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus horompi horompi unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna him; koβes him; koβes inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura si'poṛ̌i si'poṛ̌i unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Anissa Capuccino
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata kotis kotis inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ki'woṛ̌; 'peropi ki'woṛ̌; 'peropi inheritance S. Arawak See Language page Anissa Capuccino
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Anissa Capuccino
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria so'pi-ṛ̌ so'pi-ṛ̌ inheritance See Language page Widespread Anissa Capuccino
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis howe howe unknown See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Anissa Capuccino
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Anissa Capuccino
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Anissa Capuccino
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Anissa Capuccino
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Anissa Capuccino
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Anissa Capuccino
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Anissa Capuccino
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Anissa Capuccino
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Anissa Capuccino
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ka'ha-weš ka'ha-weʃ inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Anissa Capuccino
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Anissa Capuccino
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Anissa Capuccino
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea kirikiri kirikiri See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus moeiš moeiʃ unknown See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Anissa Capuccino
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. 'apoe 'apoe loan, direction unknown Kwaza apara, Movima pere, Moseten peʔre, Baure 'apoe, Trinitario apu, ?Chacobo karapɨ See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Anissa Capuccino
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. či'čoṛ̌op tʃi'tʃoṛ̌op loan cf. other southern lgs See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) es'hiwok es'hiwok unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays čoro tʃoro unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Anissa Capuccino
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum son son unknown See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ewokoe ewokoe inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Anissa Capuccino
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Anissa Capuccino
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana palt palt See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Anissa Capuccino
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Anissa Capuccino
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Anissa Capuccino
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Anissa Capuccino
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Anissa Capuccino
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Anissa Capuccino
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. siringa siringa See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Anissa Capuccino
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Anissa Capuccino
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Anissa Capuccino
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ka'ha- ka'ha- inheritance? See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Anissa Capuccino
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ka'ha- ka'ha- missing bitter/sweet not distinct? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Anissa Capuccino
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Anissa Capuccino
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas mamis, sere mamis, sere unknown; cf. Carib sere 'manioc' See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Anissa Capuccino
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Anissa Capuccino
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. kopitiek kopitiek unknown See Language page plant Anissa Capuccino
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Anissa Capuccino
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Anissa Capuccino
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Anissa Capuccino
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Anissa Capuccino
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Anissa Capuccino
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ko'ši-ri ko'ʃi-ri IDS list notes: *Mojo form is *ka'či-ru. *Maipuran form is *kʰaši (from Payne 91) See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis yomo'ep jomo'ep unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria čomorr tʃomorr inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Anissa Capuccino
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera to'tikop to'tikop unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera a'ro a'ro unknown cf. TG meru See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Anissa Capuccino
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ni ni inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tiš tiʃ unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ane ane inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda čoris tʃoris loan - WW %tʃuru See Language page Anissa Capuccino
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae čapak tʃapak unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca šowekon ʃowekon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. peri peri inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus kahaš kahaʃ inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae košas koʃas unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris som som inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kahaw kahaw inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kowoiy kowoij See Language page Anissa Capuccino


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material hokan hɔkɔn unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bed cama cama culture-material kam kam loan Spanish See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material wotoki wotoki unknown cf. Suya kweteké (but no contact?) See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
canoe canoa canoa transport ya'šoṛ̌; pkore ja'ʃoṛ̌; pkore unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Anissa Capuccino
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology weričon weritʃon inheritance? In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Anissa Capuccino
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology weričon weritʃon Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ra'roni (male) ra'roni (male) unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ečosoe etʃosoe doubtful loan, direction unknown Siriono etarõsa may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
firewood leña lenha other ya'kis ja'kis unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Anissa Capuccino
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wopičon wopitʃon unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology vekiyiti (god) vekijiri (god) unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Anissa Capuccino
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
knife cuchillo faca culture-material hikoč hikotʃ doubtful loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) See Language page Anissa Capuccino
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool po'e po'e unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Anissa Capuccino
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kori kori inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Anissa Capuccino
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bow arco arco subsistence tool tipo'pok; -tipo tipo'pok; -tipo inheritance arco See Language page Anissa Capuccino
paddle/oar remo remo transport 'haβi 'haβi unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
plate plato prato culture-material nikirok nikirok unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool 'hopi; keheβi 'hopi; keheβi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material baniador (big bowl) baniador (big bowl) loan Spanish See Language page Anissa Capuccino
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
honey miel mel food mie mie loan Spanish 'miel' only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Anissa Capuccino
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ni-'ro- ni-'ro- unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material čipi tʃipi unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
school escuela escola acculturation eskoeči eskoetʃi See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bottle botella garrafa acculturation votel votel See Language page Anissa Capuccino
paper papel papel acculturation hamerok hamerok unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
chicken gallina galinha acculturation 'tipoṛ̌ek tipoṛ̌ek unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Anissa Capuccino
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ko'te-n ko'te-n See Language page Anissa Capuccino
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sopot sopot See Language page Anissa Capuccino
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Anissa Capuccino
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
cat gato gato acculturation misi misi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Anissa Capuccino
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology rom rom unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Anissa Capuccino
salt sal sal food 'čobi ~ 'čobe tʃobi ~ 'tʃobe inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Anissa Capuccino
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
hunt cazar caçar food kasačo kasatʃo See Language page Anissa Capuccino
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Anissa Capuccino
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Anissa Capuccino
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Anissa Capuccino
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture marok marok unknown prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Anissa Capuccino
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food šep ʃep unknown agriculture See Language page Anissa Capuccino
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Anissa Capuccino
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food etip etip unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Anissa Capuccino
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Anissa Capuccino
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Anissa Capuccino
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Anissa Capuccino
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool siriamok siria'mɔk See Language page Anissa Capuccino
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Anissa Capuccino
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Anissa Capuccino
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Anissa Capuccino
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Anissa Capuccino
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Anissa Capuccino
house other pa-ṛ̌i; -'we-ṛ̌; -den-pe-n 'pa-ṛ̌i; -'we-ṛ̌; -den-pe-n inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Phonetic pre-nasalized variants Danielsen 2007:2009 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Danielsen 2007: p39-49 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no not contrasted but appears in stops /k, t/ Danielsen 2007: p55 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Danielsen 2007: p33 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Danielsen 2007: p39-49 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Danielsen 2007: p61 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Danielsen 2007: p61 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Danielsen 2007: p61 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no info more likely not Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Danielsen 2007: p64 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Danielsen 2007:57-8 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Danielsen 2007: p67-68 Mitz Perez
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Danielsen 2007: p73 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes "The degree of fusion is extremely low in Baure." Danielsen 2007: p83 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Danielsen 2007: p88 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Danielsen 2007: p89 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Danielsen 2007: p89 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Danielsen 2007: p89 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes This is especially common in nouns, "particularly animal names"; "found on verb, adjective, and some adverbial stems for intensification or emphasis" Danielsen 2007: p96 Mitz Perez
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Danielsen 2007: p96 Mitz Perez
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Danielsen 2007: p96-98 Mitz Perez
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Danielsen 2007: p31 Mitz Perez
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Danielsen 2007: p96-98 Mitz Perez
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no "There are no auxiliaries in Baure. Instead there are free verbal particles in addition to the affixes attached to verbs for TMA marking" Danielsen 2007: p269 Mitz Perez
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Incorporation of nouns into verbs is present, however, it is unclear if this process yields an intransitivized verb Danielsen 2007: p98-100 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Danielsen 2007: p98-100 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Danielsen 2007: Table 4.15 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. approx 21 "The majority of bound nouns can function as classifiers, in addition to the approximately 21 grammatical classifier roots." Danielsen 2007: p101 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes "Gender is an inherent category in Baure, and it is mainly biological, not grammatical." Danielsen 2007: p100 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes "Only feminine animates are considered grammatically feminine, and all other nouns are masculine."; "Inanimates are always referred to by unmarker masculine, while animates can also be unmarked for gender." Danielsen 2007: p116-117 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no "There is no clear distinction of human versus non-human or animate versus inanimate nouns in Baure, even though there remains the subgroup of human nouns with slightly different plural marking." Danielsen 2007: p116-117 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no "There is no clear distinction of human versus non-human or animate versus inanimate nouns in Baure, even though there remains the subgroup of human nouns with slightly different plural marking." Danielsen 2007: p116-117 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Danielsen 2007:145 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes Danielsen 2007: p447 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no "In his terms Baure has "numeral classifiers"... Classifiers which are "obligatory in many expressions of quantity" (Allan 1977:286). Baure classifiers attach to numerals and adjectives; they are part of nouns and incorporate into verbs." Danielsen 2007: p138 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no There is a suffix which can nominalize a verb however it isn't a classifier, it isn't used with every verb, and "cannot be considered to be very productive". Danielsen 2007: p191 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes suffix -nev for any countable non human noun after CVCV; human plural -anev Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun yes an extra -o is added before the plural marking if word ends with a consonant Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Danielsen 2007:317 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no "The article does not mark definiteness. It is generally used with proper names and heavenly bodies.." Danielsen 2007: p312 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no te = DEM1m (this [one]); tetʃ = DEM2m (that [one]) Danielsen 2007: p313 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes "[The article] is generally used with proper names and heavenly bodies... and nouns that refer to weather phenomena." Danielsen 2007: p312 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no No discussion, but based on what I have seen in the examples the answer is NO. Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Danielsen 2007:174-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 ten/tin/to nen can also mean disapproval and absence. When used with an NP, "it generally moves the argument further away from the speaker and hearer" Danielsen 2007: p315 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes "In the singular all demonstratives are distinguished for gender, just like personal pronouns." Danielsen 2007: p311 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes "In these pronouns and clitics gender is only distinguished in 3SG" Danielsen 2007: p116 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Danielsen 2007: p116 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Danielsen 2007: p116 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no info more likely not Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Danielsen 2007: p262 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no "Baure, a language that does not have adpositions..." Danielsen 2007: p429 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6 Danielsen 2007: p116, 443-444 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes POSS, NOM, LOC, DIST, ABS Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic yes PRIV Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Danielsen 2007: p116, Figure 4.2 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info no formal INSTR marking (applicative is closest); however, the word -ina- 'use[/with]' is the closest example Danielsen 2007 p429 Mitz Perez
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Danielsen 2007:158 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Danielsen 2007:158 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Danielsen 2007:158 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Danielsen 2007:158 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Numerals are only up to 3 Danielsen 2007:158 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Numerals are only up to 3 Danielsen 2007:158 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Tense is not marked in verbs either Danielsen 2007:273 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Danielsen 2007:179 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Danielsen 2007: p87 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Danielsen 2007: p87 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Danielsen 2007:125-27 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Danielsen 2007:125 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Danielsen 2007: p118 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Danielsen 2007: p118 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Inalienable nouns are always possessed. So, it is not possible to have an unpossessed inalienable noun which may or may not show a default marker. Danielsen 2007:119 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Danielsen 2007: p122 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Danielsen 2007: p119 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) yes adjs*** Danielsen 2007: p120 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Danielsen 2007: p156 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes There are three classes of roots: 2 of which show agreement. Danielsen 2007: p156 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes derived by -pi; derives abstract nouns Danielsen 2007: p192 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes suffix -no (this suffix also marks the verb of a relative clause); "the product nominalizer -ri... derives nouns as products of verbal action" Danielsen 2007: p88, 190 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes suffix -no (this suffix also marks the verb of a relative clause) Danielsen 2007: p190 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes suffix -si attached to nominal root Danielsen 2007: p89 Mitz Perez
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no "We have to bear in mind that there is no tense marking in Baure."; "Since there is no tense marking in Baure, the interpretation of a situation as past or present depends on the verb's meaning and time adverbs in the clause." Danielsen 2007: p273, 175 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no "We have to bear in mind that there is no tense marking in Baure."; "Since there is no tense marking in Baure, the interpretation of a situation as past or present depends on the verb's meaning and time adverbs in the clause." Danielsen 2007: p273, 175 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no "We have to bear in mind that there is no tense marking in Baure."; "Since there is no tense marking in Baure, the interpretation of a situation as past or present depends on the verb's meaning and time adverbs in the clause." Danielsen 2007: p273, 175 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Danielsen 2007: p272-275 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Danielsen 2007: p253-267 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Danielsen 2007: Table 6.2 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Danielsen 2007: p253-267 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no there are a few particles used to signal the imperative and they each have their own connotations (ʃi, pa, ta) Danielsen 2007: p297 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes "irrealis marker -ʃa used for suggestions and more polite requests" Danielsen 2007: p347 Mitz Perez
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Danielsen 2007:339 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes {ʃi} It is a preverbal particle Danielsen 2007:291 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes [-pik} It indicates direction towards. It is a verbal suffix. Danielsen 2007:264 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes {=hi} Danielsen 2007:377-8 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Since tense is not grammaticalized as a verb category Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Danielsen 2007:331-6 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Danielsen 2007: p333 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Danielsen 2007:332-3 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes ** Danielsen 2007: p333
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes ** Danielsen 2007: p333
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes ** Danielsen 2007: p333
Word Order Preposition-Noun no It seems that the language does not have adpositions Danielsen 2007:301-29 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix no It seems that the language does not have adpositions Danielsen 2007:301-29 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no Danielsen 2007:125 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Danielsen 2007:105 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Danielsen 2007:104 Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes "The position of a determiner is always NP initial." Danielsen 2007: p310 Mitz Perez
Word Order Noun-Dem no "The position of a determiner is always NP initial." Danielsen 2007: p310 Mitz Perez
Word Order Num-Noun yes Danielsen 2007:105 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no Danielsen 2007:105 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Danielsen 2007:399 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Danielsen 2007:399 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Danielsen 2007:397-412 Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Danielsen 2007:348-72 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no The only case is the locative one. Subjects and objects do not show case. Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Danielsen 2007:174-178 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Danielsen 2007:174-178 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Danielsen 2007:174-178 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Danielsen 2007:174-178 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Danielsen 2007:92-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Danielsen 2007:174 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Danielsen 2007:174 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Personal clitics are attached to the verb as well to other word classes. Proclitics are attach as subject agreement to the verb whereas enclitics occur as object agreement in the verb Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Danielsen 2007:92-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Danielsen 2007:92-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Danielsen 2007:95 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Danielsen 2007:173-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Danielsen 2007:92-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes Only for third person Danielsen 2007:92-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Danielsen 2007:331-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info However, it seems that this is a "double object" language since it seems that no formal difference distinguishes the objects of a ditransitive verb Danielsen 2007:331-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Danielsen 2007:331-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes {-koko} Danielsen 2007:244 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes {-po} This suffix has the same form as the perfective suffix Danielsen 2007:262 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Danielsen 2007:244 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes ** ,-si Danielsen 2007: p218 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes *** Danielsen 2007: p218 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes {-ino} It is a benefactive applicative Danielsen 2007:252 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb yes i(mo)- Danielsen 2007: p218 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Danielsen 2007: p218 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Danielsen 2007:250-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Analitycal construction. The verb meaning "to send" is used in this construction Danielsen 2007:251 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info more likely not Danielsen 2007:250-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info more likely not Danielsen 2007:250-2 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Danielsen 2007:338 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Danielsen 2007:338 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes mo- as a privative prefix Danielsen 2007: p338 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes preverbal particle /nka/; "used for general negation of a predicate" Danielsen 2007: p338 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Danielsen 2007: p338 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes Danielsen 2007:342 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Danielsen 2007: p370 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Danielsen 2007: p370 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Danielsen 2007: p370 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes "Polar questions can only be distinguished from declarative clauses by the rising intonation at the end of the clause." Danielsen 2007: p370 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no "One thing that all interrogative clauses... Have in common, is the fact that the predicate of a clause appears in a nominalized form." Danielsen 2007: p350 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Danielsen 2007:105 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Danielsen 2007:196 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Danielsen 2007:193 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Danielsen 2007:398 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. yes Danielsen 2007:398 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info more likely not Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Relative clauses are made out of sentence nominalizations in which the nominalizer is a verbal morpheme which may be also described as a relativizer Danielsen 2007:398 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Relative clauses are made out of sentence nominalizations in which the nominalizer is a verbal morpheme which may be also described as a relativizer Danielsen 2007:398 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes {-ʔino} However, this suffix is called subjective in this grammar. Danielsen 2007:231 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Danielsen 2007: p412 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no "As there are no other switch-reference markers, the position of the subject os the pragmatic means of marking the change of the subject." Danielsen 2007: p333 Mitz Perez
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes There is a verbal suffix marker meaning "before" which conjoins two clauses in a temporal relation of sequence. Danielsen 2007:418 Daniel Valle