Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes)

Morphology - General
Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Person and aspect indicated by use of separate morphemes. Allin, 1976: 124 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes? not sure which categories are fused; perhaps this refers to tense/aspect? Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Person, aspect, and mood all indicated with verbal affixes. Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain, 2000: 800-801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 66 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Tense, mode, person, number, gender Payne 1981:12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:37-42 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:69-124 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p88 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes aspect, mode, number, gender are possible Patte 1989:47-52 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005: 58 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes "Verb stems are composed of verbal or nominal roots, thematic affixes and transitivity markers. Verb stems are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect mood and negation. Transitivity affixes mark reflexive, reciprocal, passive and causative forms. Sub Hall 1988: 331 - 335 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 113 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes e.g. person, tense/aspect, modality, epistemic categories Payne 2012:152 - 153 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes tense, aspect, relative clause, some modals de Armellada 1999: 105-134 Daniel Smith
Guna yes aspect, mood, evidentials, adverbial suffixes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1985:60-87 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:99-145 Daniel Valle
Damana yes duration, negatives, tense, volition, info sourcing (witnessed/heard ab action) Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes tense, aspect, person (object) prefixes; mood and person (subject) suffixes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 207:271 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1974, 1976, 1978 Daniel Valle
Matses no TAM morphemes are obligatory on the verb. Person-marking morphemes are not obligatory but can be attached to the verb Fleck:394-5 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.111, 113 Daniel Valle one morpheme for mood and one for person/number
Páez yes Rojas: 59 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2004b:45-54, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 179 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p218 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 89 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no TAM marked by particles Silva 2011:104 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes verb may be marked for person/number, negation, 'want' form, etc. Minor and Minor 1982. p.19-27 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004:125 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The obligatory elements in the main verb are the verb stem, a tense-evidential suffix, and a suffix which carries subject agreement. In between these can occur almost any number of modal, aspectual, and other markers, including the negative. Miller 1999, p. 63 Amanda Novak The verb morphology of the language is quite extensive with suffixes expressing emphasis, direction of movement, causation, benefaction, negation, contraexpectation, as well as evidentiality, aspect, tense-mood, and person-number. Miller,p.6
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.15-19 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes aspect, modal, negation, clausal Stenzel 2007:486 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-35 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.53 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.5,45 Chris Clack The verb morphology is quite extensive.
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.5 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:138-174 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes tense, aspect, person/number/gender/animacy, evidentials, directionals, negation, and others West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: p.236 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes but, modal and aspectual morphemes don't cooccur Goodwin-Gomez, p.93-99 Kelsey Neely many examples with synthesis
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: p.164-186 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples with multiple verbal suffixes denoting aspect, tense, or other categories
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:223-95 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no a lot of grammatical information expressed by clitics and particles Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes person/number affixes, voice and tense can appear together in the verb Zarratea 2002:86-120 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no language is isolating Vallejos 2010:143 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes done 1
Garrwa yes 58 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes n40 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes cf 104, irrealis example done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 125 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 36-45 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 74 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 47, 96 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 33 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r12-14 done 1
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 175 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 201 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 167 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 336 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 126 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 60 done 1
Martuthunira yes 136-164 done 1
Marrgany yes 317 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 66 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 87 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 386, 407 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 16 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 82-90 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 295 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 74 1
Dyirbal yes 246 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 70 done 1
Djinang Yes 169 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 80-82 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes 54-56 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 42, 45 done 1
Bularnu yes 104 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 34 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes done-Jessica 1
Batyala Yes 3 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 130 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 49 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 79 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 97-98 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 69 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 46 done 1
Katthang yes 75, 79 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 167-177 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 118-158 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 326 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 126 Done- 1
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang yes 82 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 32 done 1
Arrernte Yes 196 1
Kokatha Yes 28 1
Karajarri Yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 65-75 1
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 70 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 73 done 1
Tharrkari No 41 0
Wajarri Yes 91 1
Warungu yes 260-1 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:383 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps