Bardi

Family
Nyulnyulan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
bcj
Location
-16.50°, 122.93°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar arr- arr- inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar arridil XXngl cf Mcgregor's idea that the -il might be related to the -bili of Ya. arridil inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngay(u) ngay(u) inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ar-, ara- ar-, ara- inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar ju ju inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar irr irr inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location galbu kalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar belai belayi inheritance Claire Bowern
alive gardi XXgl still kardi inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other bunyja bunyja inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar agal akal inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body miilygu miilyku inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ninganyburr ninganyburr inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental rarrjin rarrjin inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gajurd, gajurdu kajurd, kajurdu inheritance Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -gun; -on; -un -kun; -on; -un inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body niya; [-ga] XXngl niya; [-ka] inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality aleg alik inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body nungu [-ngu] nungu [-ngu] inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location baybirri baybirri inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality burdij, irrgadarr burdij, irrkadarr inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body -bundarra- ~ -ondarra- -bundarra- ~ -ondarra- inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour maanka maanka inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body lamar; lamarr; inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality buna buna inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body gaanyji kaanyji inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture irrgil; jiiwa XXngl cognate of irrgil is Jukun yirragulu 'wattle' irrkil; jiiwa inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamarna ngamarna inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment -marra- -marra- inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body -lungguma- -lungkuma- inheritance Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human baawa baawa inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion daab -joo- daab -ju- inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ardan ardan inheritance Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality inkurr inkurr unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion jamarda XXgl coming this way (adv) jamarda inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact laalbiidi laalbiidi inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental -jinbinbin- XXngl think of something/someone -jinbinbin- inheritance Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental anggoorrgoon -ni- XXgl be in tears angkurrkun -ni- inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact bawaninbawin -(i)nya- bawaninbawin -(i)nya- loan Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state -ji(i)(m)bi- -ji(i)(m)bi- inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact m-aḷbon m-arlbon unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna gurrid kurrid inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality ngoonyba ngunyba inheritance Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental buwarra buwarra inheritance Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body -ibi- -ibi- inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality dalbun dalbun inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment jurdun jurdun unique Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body laaba XXgl earwax laaba inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body -(a)rli- -(a)rli- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna lagurr ~ lagorru lakurr ~ lakorru inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body niimi niimi inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body burrm -julung- XXngl gut sth. burrm -julung- loan Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion -jalgu- -jalku- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality mara mara inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body beng beng inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship gōl kōl inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental -jargi- -jarki- inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna jolo jolo unique Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment noorroo inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna aarli aarli inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion djoror jorrorr inheritance Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment bo""b buub inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion dumbarr -(i)nya- dumbarr -(i)nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment goorrbil kurrbil unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body jambal XXngl hind flippers of turtle jambal inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mayi mayi inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality gorna korna inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state -jarrngV- -jarrngV- inheritance Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body muuwarn; muwarn muuwarn; muwarn inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body nimarl(a) nimarl(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body nalma nalma inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental -lamanka- -lamanka- inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality rambin rambin inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion -jalgi- -jalki- inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -ngayidima- -ngayidima- inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact roorrb inimbigal rurrb inimbikal inheritance Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other -badi- XXgl be satisfied -badi- inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar nyirroogoord nyirrukurd inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar gorror(o) korror(o) unknown Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location gadin kadin inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body bulg bulk inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body jabijab XXgl itching (adj) jabijab inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact -bu- ~ -o- ~ -bi -bu- ~ -o- ~ -bi inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental +moonggoon +mungkun inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [absent] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental -gama- (A/P) -kama- (A/b) inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment bilil(i) bilil(i) inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ngalganjordonyi niimarl ngalkanjordonyi niimarl loan Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body midi midi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion m-algon m-alkon inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment birdbag XXgl sheet lightning birdbak inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body gawir kawir inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality niiwandi XXngl possessed form of garndi on top? niiwandi inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna muulu muulu inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body aalarn aalarn inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human wamb wamb inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna baangga XXngl meat without bones baangka inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment guwidi XXngl also month kuwidi inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship birrii birrii inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body nilirr nilirr inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human ninga; irrnga ninga; irrnga inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body boda boda inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality djamad jamad inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body boda boda inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality gorna korna unknown Claire Bowern
night noche noite time idanngurru idanngurru loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar arra arra inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body niimal XXngl cf nimarl `hand' niimal inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality djabolj jaboly inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number aranjan, ara, ariny aranjan, ara, ariny inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other lambard -(i)nya- lambard -(i)nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar aralga XXngl another time aralka inheritance Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ararr ararr inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human ambooriny amburiny inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body banded banded inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment oola -ma- ula -ma- inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour erer erer inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body joorroongganyi niimarla jurrungkanyi niimarla inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture morr XXngl this should go back to |fv{magurr}. morr inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora niimunggul(u) niimungkul(u) unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality biini biini inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment gaara kaara unique Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ar ar inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wirr -joo- (tr) wirr -ju- (dr) inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental -jala- -jala- inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality garrya karrya inheritance Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact bany -ma- bany -ma- semantic shift Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality ngaada ngaada inheritance Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body langana langana inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state -ni- -ni- inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body rolrol -(i)nya- rolrol -(i)nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment gurrwal kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ma-molgan, ma-molgen, ma-molgon ma-molkan, ma-molken, ma-molkon inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality doln_ dolng inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body m-olman m-olman inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment gunkurd kunkurd inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body barrja barrja unique Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact lara -joo- lara -ju- inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact duly -ø- XXgl open a boil or sore duly -ø- XXkl oben a boil or sore inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact goorrgoorr kurrkurr unique Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state gandarr ? kandarr ? inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment gubala kubala loan Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other laanybi -(i)nya- laanybi -(i)nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment gulbu kulbu unique Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body djonj jony inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time aalga aalka inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body noondoorr XXgl Nouns nundurr inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body boorrooboorr -ganyi- burruburr -kanyi- inheritance Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion boombool -inya- XXgl hit water with a splash bumbul -inya- inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body niyala niyala inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality boordiji unknown Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality inbal inbal unique Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental -barra- ~ -warra- XXgl dream -barra- ~ -warra- inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar jarri jarri inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number irrjar irrjar inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body nimanyi [-manyi] nimanyi [-manyi] inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact -ngulu- -ngulu- inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment jiidam(u) jiidam(u) inheritance Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact mibad -ar- mibad -ar- unique Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body niyangal(a) niyangal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body jarrangg(u) jarrangk(u) inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality darrgal darrkal inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other dirrayi -banyi-; dirrayi -ar-; -midurdu- dirrayi -banyi-; dirrayi -ar-; -midurdu- unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number guyarra kuyarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body -ganybu- -kanybu- inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion roowil -(i)nya- ruwil -(i)nya- inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment uula uula inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality ooly -ma-/-ar- XXgl rain uly -ma-/-ar- inheritance Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar anggi inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar -gar -karr inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar djanaba janaba inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour bulgar bulkar inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar anggaba angkaba inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship malarr malarr inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment jurur jurur inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body Jalmbarn XXgl Place Jalmbarn inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human orany oorany inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other moorrgoolon -gal- murrkulon -kal- inheritance Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body bilirl -ar- bilirl -ar- unique Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ber%al berral inheritance Kimerley areal Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis wawulmarra wawulmarra loan underived? 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae booy booy inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus jalingmarr jalingmarr inheritance underived? 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii bayalbarr bayalbarr inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora ambool ambool inheritance cf yambool in Nyikina underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia paŋkayi paŋkayi loan 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba wiraj wiraj loan Marrngu? underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer iingalan iingalan loan Worrorra underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp lirinbiny lirinbin unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris oonbi oonbi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna garrabal garrabal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae aralal aralal unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus baninybooroo XXgl carpet python baninybooroo XXgl carpet python inheritance underived but looks like it might have once been a compound 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis warranda warranda loan not found in Bardi country underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri bilal [many species] bilal [many species] unique underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae biini biini inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lunggurda lunggurda inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii djardjor djardjor inheritance reduplicated partial 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus goolan goolan loan Jawi underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda goodarrowin kudarrowin inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus dinyjal dinyjal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula langgarr/langgurr langgarr/langgurr inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) marrga marrga semantic shift ‘shield’ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius indo indo inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis ngamari ngamari unknown also gilala in N&W underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis bagar bakar loan Nyulnyul WW %pakara underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata ?? irrilm unique missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera aambarn aambarn semantic shift stingray sp. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota paninypuru inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera gooboolgoobool gooboolgoobool unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) ngooloorl ngooloorl unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda mirrgool mirrgool inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes galbany [?] galbany [?] unknown identification uncertain underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species naalamb naalamb unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing -- missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo gurrid gurrid inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris e:la, iila e:la, iila inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae jiibily jiibily loan direction unknown WW WW %tyipily underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong odorr odorr inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta jalnggamarrin jalnggamarrin unique phrase 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae iniini iniini inheritance reduplicated 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna aarli aarli inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) maarru maarru loan Worrorra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ŋur ŋur ŋur ŋur unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) niimanburu nimanburu inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing -- missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing -- missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii mindangmindang mindangmindang unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii goolaman goolaman inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) garrjarl garrjarl unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla pilitypility inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) goorlil goorlil inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) marulal (maroolul) marulal (maroolul) unique underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp baarni baarni loan direction unknown WW WW %paarni underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) gooljoo gooljoo inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dinyidiny dinydiny inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis goolyi goolyi inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina aaga aaga unknown underived 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas goorlil goorlil inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata mirrgoogoolin mirrgoogoolin unique reduplicated partial 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus wīṇg wīṇg loan Nyulnyul underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yaawarda yaawarda loan Kriol? WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae alingindir alingindir unknown generic term for any small colorful bird underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae alingindir alingindir unknown generic term for any small colorful bird underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae miinimbi miinimbi doubtful loan into protolanguage Worrorra WW %miinimbi underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic buwa buwa inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet jamoongg jamoongg inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae burru burru inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing -- missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing ?? missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera angurr angurr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) morond morond unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) moonga jirra joorroo moonga jirra joorroo unique phrase 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus banggayi banggayi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius gorrgorr gorrgorr inheritance reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia dalwar dalwar inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mirrjany mirrjany inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis iidool iidool unique underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya garnbor (kanborr) garnbor (kanborr) inheritance reduplicated 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gurrurdurd(u) gurrurdurd(u) unique onomatopoeic 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp guwarn guwarn inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing? missing? missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis gurrwarl gurrwarl inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus monboon monboon unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea lirraway lirraway loan direction unknown underived? 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing -- missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species birralooloo birralooloo unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis gaardga gaardga inheritance underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi liirramar liirramar inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum urulbur urulbur unique looks like a compound, but parts don’t make sense compound? 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda goorrir goorrir unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta diindiin diindiin inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus linygoorr linygoorr inheritance underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae boonyman boonyman inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata jabiyang jabiyang unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones baarn baarn loan into protolanguage WW WW %paarni underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha joorroo joorroo inheritance phrase 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna gaanyji gaanyji inheritance semantic change < bone underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus gamaraŋinj gamaraŋinj loan WW %kamaranginy underived? 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna juurru juurru inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing --?? missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae anggarr anggarr inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species mayala gooljoo mayala gooljoo unique phrase 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia bidinbidin bidinbidin unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae barnamb barnamb unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing -- missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna muunga muunga unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ŋali ŋali inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale nikalbadan nikalbadan loan Nyulnyul underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea guunjaliny guunjaliny doubtful loan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides boorilbooril boorilbooril inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera jiidin jiidin inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) jaambany jaambany unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing -- missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina moodool moodool inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier gandarr gandarr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wanggid wanggid loan Nyulnyul WW %wangkurri onomatopoeic 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) bardag bardag inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma widamaŋaran widamaŋaran loan Nyulnyul underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis balalagoord balalagoord doubtful loan derived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax arriyana arriyana loan into protolanguage underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jiindibirr jiindibirr loan into protolanguage WW WW %tyintipirri underived reformation 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) galbajoon galbajoon loan Nyulnyul derived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing -- missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna badag badak inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna liingga liingka inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna garrabal karrabal inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ngurrungurru ngurrungurru inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna e:la, iila e:la, iila inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna garawal karawal inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna balinggi XXgl female kangaroo balingki inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna anggarr angkarr inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology luman unique Claire Bowern
armband dress kankol inheritance Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool araŋay inheritance WW %warankatyi Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool tamiyon inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material payki loan English Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool laŋar inheritance Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material not used not used Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology ilma semantic shift Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool irrkili semantic shift Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool irrkili semantic shift Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool karrkarrpin inheritance Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material pa:rl inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material rooroo unique Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport yantilypara loan Worrorran WW %yandilybara Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology pawurr inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology karnpak(a) loan into protolanguage WW %karnpak Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool nola inheritance Claire Bowern
cook food food -marra- inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food -ngoyimarrai- unique Claire Bowern
damper food tampa loan English WW damper Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology purrp inheritance Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milkin doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool not used not used Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology puwarra inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology milon semantic shift Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology bamboo loan English WW %pampu Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool i:ne inheritance Claire Bowern
fire-saw other tyaparr inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other lalp inheritance Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other nuurru semantic shift Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool panytyurtu inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food aarlon -kal- inheritance no specific word for fishing with fish poison Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wiliwilon -ni- unique Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food unŋurru unique Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wirliwirli loan Kriol not certain WW %wilwili not certain Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool mayurr(u) inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool not used not used Claire Bowern
flour (European) food boolawa loan English WW flour Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food not used not used Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food a:rli inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ŋa:rri inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool li:mirri unique Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tyarrkantiny unique Claire Bowern
grog food ka:ri loan Nyulnyul not certain of origin WW %kari not certain of origin Claire Bowern
hair belt dress arnal semantic shift? cf tiger snake Claire Bowern
headband dress warntaŋ loan Worrorran not certain of origin Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology tyalŋkaŋurru loan areal WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food mu:ŋa semantic shift Claire Bowern
house (European) other mayar loan areal WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food -kolpu- unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology oolooloong unique ceremony name Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology tyinparr unique Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tyoomparrarti loan Malay Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress tyaŋkuntyu loan Nyulnyul Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology koolawatiny loan Nyulnyul Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport ka:lwa inheritance Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology pampur unique Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool not used not used Claire Bowern
nosepeg other araŋay inheritance Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport pul -(i)nya- unique Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology kumpil inheritance WW %kumpil Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology -ngoorridi-inyji- unique Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool not used missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other paip loan English Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology ilma unique Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology pitimarr inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool goom loan English not sure if loan Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food ka:ra loan Walmajarri Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other ŋirray unique Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ilma unique Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology loodin unique Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tyinal loan WW WW %jinal not certain Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool jinal loan areal WW %jinal Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool tyarrar unique Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yarnkal XXŋl porrowiŋ in Barti, pty of initial y- loan Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool tyimpila inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material purrurr inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material mirrij unique Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation tyuka loan English WW sugar Claire Bowern
tea food ti: loan English WW tea Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics ŋamari semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics kilala inheritance could be loan into Proto-language; widepsread in different meanings Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology raya loan areal WW %raya Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other arraŋk unique Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology ma:ŋka semantic shift ‘clay’ Claire Bowern
windbreak other luŋkin unique Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material not used missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation kul loan English Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool tyakurru unique Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation parel loan English WW bottle Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation milimili loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food jiwarra inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation tyuktyuk loan English WW chicken Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology ŋanytyin unique Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology anmarr unique Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tyinityin unique Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress purtyu loan English Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics parnman loan direction unknown Worrorran WW %barnman Claire Bowern
earth oven food la:lpu inheritance Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation li:nytya semantic shift Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tyileman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress tyaŋkurr inheritance Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mirrij mirrij inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milgin XXngl given as 'walking stick' milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture -galalarrboo- unknown Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ngabaliny ngabaliny inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
house other mayar mayar inheritance Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes c, ɟ done-Claire 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes done-Claire 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Unproductive; discourse based chaining done-Claire 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no done-Claire 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no done-Claire 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes but irregular done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness yes -jarr; verbal done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 10 done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no done-Claire 0
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no done-Claire 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done-Claire 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done-Claire 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done-Claire 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes done-Claire 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no done-Claire 0
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Dem no done-Claire 0
Word Order Num-Noun yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Noun-Num no done-Claire 0
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no done-Claire 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no done-Claire 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes done-Claire 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) yes sort of done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? yes done-Claire 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no done-Claire 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes done-Claire 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no done-Claire 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? n/a done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no done-Claire 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? n/a done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes done-Claire 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no done-Claire 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no done-Claire 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? no done-Claire 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? yes done-Claire 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done-Claire 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no done-Claire 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes done-Claire 1


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no